Wind Energy

Ally Keefe, Dave Mccabe, Geoff Frazier, Ryan Whalen, Meghan Moroni, Jeb Stuart, Brianna Parke, Peter Virchick

General Info
• Wind constitutes less than 3% of US energy sources. • Many say wind has the power to add more to US generating capacity than coal in the next 20 years. • North Dakota, Kansas, and Texas alone have enough harnessable wind to meet national electricity needs.

History of Wind Power
• Wind power evolved from the use of simple, light devices driven by aerodynamic forces to heavier drag devices and finally to light, more efficient lifts. • The sailboat is the earliest known use of wind power. • The first windmills were made to automate the tasks of grain grinding and water pumping in Persia 500-900AD

the la Cour system replaced all previous sail and fan systems.Wind as Electricity • The first use of a windmill to generate electricity was in Cleveland. • In 1891. Brush. Dane Poul la Cour made the first aerodynamically (low solidity. . • By 1920. four bladed) designed system. Ohio in 1888 by Charles F.

-Bulk Power Wind Energy was first made in Russia in 1931 (100kw Balaclava Wind Generator). -The largest bulk wind energy producer was the Smith-Putnam Machine (Installed in Vermont. 1941) .Development of Wind Technology -During the 1920’s modified propellers were used to drive direct current generators.

. • US wind involvement began after the 1973 oil embargo. Beginning of the US Federal Wind Energy Program.European and American Involvement • After WWII European Countries developed wind systems further when fossil fuel shortages led to high energy costs.

The Mechanics of a Wind Turbine .

Where Does the Wind Come From? • The wind is a by-product of solar energy. .to lowpressure areas. Approximately 2% of the sun's energy reaching the earth is converted into wind energy. The surface of the earth heats and cools unevenly. creating atmospheric pressure zones that make air flow from high.

. If the wind speed is doubled. This relationship means that small differences in wind speed lead to large differences in power. power in the wind increases by a factor of eight (23).• Wind power is a measure of the energy available in the wind. It is a function of the cube (third power) of the wind speed.

times the cube of the wind speed. Air density varies according to elevation. times the rotor area. r is air density. This equation states that the power is equal to one-half. and v is the wind speed. A is the rotor area.Equation Of Wind Power • The amount of power available in the wind is determined by the equation: • w = 1/2 r A v3 • w is power. . temperature and weather fronts. times the air density.

. they are not as common as their horizontal counterparts.Vertical Axis Turbines • Although vertical axis wind turbines have existed for centuries. The main reason for this is that they do not take advantage of the higher wind speeds at higher elevations above the ground as well as horizontal axis turbines.

. with the blades upwind of the tower. a tail vane is usually used to keep the blades facing into the wind. In addition to being parallel to the ground.Horizontal Axis Turbine • This is the most common wind turbine design. In this case. the axis of blade rotation is parallel to the wind flow. Other designs operate in a downwind mode so that the wind passes the tower before striking the blades. Some machines are designed to operate in an upwind mode.

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One is used for low speeds while another is used in high speeds. • Shaft.• Rotor. Wind turns the blades which turn the drive shaft. .Two different shafts turn the generator. • Gear Box.Gears connect the high and low speed shafts and increase the rotational speeds from about 10-60 rotations per minute to about 1200-1800 rpm.The hub and the blades together are referred to as the rotor. the rotational speed required by most generators to produce power.

Turns the blades on at 8-16 mph and shuts them down around 65 to prevent any high wind damage. is dependent on the length of the wind turbine's blades because more energy is captured by longer blades. the more power produced.The generator is what converts the turning motion of a wind turbine's blades into electricity. or size.• Generator. . • Tower.Tall tubular metal shaft. • Controller. Inside this component. coils of wire are rotated in a magnetic field to produce electricity. Different generator designs produce either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC). and they are available in a large range of output power ratings. The taller the tower. The generator's rating.

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Pros of Wind Power .

• Small size allows wind power to be very versatile.• Wind power Units are quickly constructed. • Wind generators are much smaller in size compared other types electrical generators. .

.• Wind power is a great compliment to a house with a preexisting photovoltaic system. • Serves as a great backup system. • Wind power gives off no harmful emissions into the environment.

• Mass production of wind turbines drives down costs.• It is a renewable resource. • The more time spent researching makes each new wind turbine more efficient. .

Downfalls To Wind Energy • Aesthetics – “Not in my back yard.” • Inefficient and unreliable • Hazard to bird migration .

Aesthetics • Turbines are around 50ft high and can be seen for miles • Wind Farms use up more space than any other form of power plant • Access roads will follow the construction of a wind farm • Houses too close to turbines will be disturbed by their noise .

“Not In My Back Yard” .

and also provoke forest fires. • Propellers often fall off and are not repaired – example -> Altamont area of California • Inefficient: 9.369 turbines only produce 1. This can cause damage to the turbine.Inefficient & Unreliable • It is not uncommon for turbines to be hit by lightning strikes.7 % of Germany’s power • No Wind = No Power .

16 .73 Japan 121 76 817 0.1 Germany 6095 8400 486 1.23 USA 2554 6000 3688 0.009 Failure Stats for Germany (2000) FAULT % TURBINES AFFECTED Loosening of parts-------3 Cause unknown----------8 Other causes------------10 High wind----------------4 Grid failure--------------6 Control system---------20 Icing---------------------1 Component failure---44 Lightning---------------4 UK 408 895 388 0.Some Stats on Contribution and Failure Country MW windpowe r Wind output (GWh/y) Total output (TWh/y) Wind contributi on (%) Denmark 2338 4240 35 12.

200-300 Red Tail Hawks. and changes in migratory patterns are a result of wind farms . 40-60 Golden Eagles are killed each year by turbines .Wind Power Monthly stated that large numbers of several bird species protected by European Law have been killed by turbines (1994) .Hazard To Bird Migration • Turbines and power lines and a danger to migrating birds • Proof: .English nature stated that habitat loss. significant death to birds.

3rd ed.com 3.” http://www. Kleinbach. Energy: Its Use and the Environment. Nigel Barnes.com/nigbarnes/#oth 3.28.windpowercons.04 www. Thomson Learning. Australia 2002.geocities.28.04 .Sources Hinrichs. “An Ill Wind – An Objection Against Windfarms in Ireland.

What is the Cape Wind Project? •Proposal for the first off shore wind farm in the United States •130 turbines (24 square miles) •maximum output=420 megawatts .

Massachusetts •At least five miles off shore •Strong. Nantucket Sound.Where will it be? •Horseshoe Shoal. consistent winds and shallow water •Close to electrical interconnections and away from shipping lanes and boating traffic .

Pros of the Project •Replaces 113 million tons of oil per year • “Zero-emissions” •Boost to Cape Cod’s economy -600-1.000 new jobs for Cape Codders •Does not require land •May help with navigation and rescue .

Cons of the Project •Private take over of public land •May alter public use and access •Decrease in property values •No regulatory process to govern project •Potential hazard to wildlife •Aesthetics of Cape Cod’s natural landscape may be interrupted .

Who are the major stakeholders? •17 different government agencies •United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) •Massachusetts Environmental Protection Agency (MEPA) •Clean Power Now •The Alliance to Protect Nantucket Sound .

EIS. and MEPA •Public Interest Doctrine •Scientific Monitoring Station .United States Army Corps of Engineers •Regulate water resources •Seven Principles (2002) •No regulatory framework or experience •NEPA.

The Alliance vs. Coast Guard •Walter Cronkite? Argument: •navigation hazard •blades will kill birds •interrupts whale migration •help navigation •turbines are too slow •Horseshoe Shoal is shallow •there are other nearby options •best location . Mitt Romney Argument: Supporters: •U.S. Clean Power Now Supporters: •The Kennedys •Gov.

MA Over 300 supporters gathered in front of the State House! .Clean Power Now Charley Cummings (representative of the Brown College Environmental Action Network) Protest outside of USACE meeting in Falmouth.

Robert O’Leary Cliff Caroll of Wind Stop Susan Nickerson. Demetrius J. Atsalis and Sen.The Alliance to Protect Nantucket Sound State Rep. Director of the Alliance .

Cape Wind’s Visual Simulations from Cotuit 6.0 miles off the coast .

The Alliance’s Simulation from Cotuit .

Websites to check out www.windstop.org www.cleanpowernow.saveoursound.capewind.org www.org .org (The Alliance) www.