Wind Energy

Ally Keefe, Dave Mccabe, Geoff Frazier, Ryan Whalen, Meghan Moroni, Jeb Stuart, Brianna Parke, Peter Virchick

General Info
• Wind constitutes less than 3% of US energy sources. • Many say wind has the power to add more to US generating capacity than coal in the next 20 years. • North Dakota, Kansas, and Texas alone have enough harnessable wind to meet national electricity needs.

History of Wind Power
• Wind power evolved from the use of simple, light devices driven by aerodynamic forces to heavier drag devices and finally to light, more efficient lifts. • The sailboat is the earliest known use of wind power. • The first windmills were made to automate the tasks of grain grinding and water pumping in Persia 500-900AD

four bladed) designed system. Dane Poul la Cour made the first aerodynamically (low solidity.Wind as Electricity • The first use of a windmill to generate electricity was in Cleveland. . • In 1891. Ohio in 1888 by Charles F. • By 1920. Brush. the la Cour system replaced all previous sail and fan systems.

1941) . -Bulk Power Wind Energy was first made in Russia in 1931 (100kw Balaclava Wind Generator). -The largest bulk wind energy producer was the Smith-Putnam Machine (Installed in Vermont.Development of Wind Technology -During the 1920’s modified propellers were used to drive direct current generators.

. Beginning of the US Federal Wind Energy Program.European and American Involvement • After WWII European Countries developed wind systems further when fossil fuel shortages led to high energy costs. • US wind involvement began after the 1973 oil embargo.

The Mechanics of a Wind Turbine .

The surface of the earth heats and cools unevenly. Approximately 2% of the sun's energy reaching the earth is converted into wind energy. .to lowpressure areas.Where Does the Wind Come From? • The wind is a by-product of solar energy. creating atmospheric pressure zones that make air flow from high.

• Wind power is a measure of the energy available in the wind. It is a function of the cube (third power) of the wind speed. . If the wind speed is doubled. This relationship means that small differences in wind speed lead to large differences in power. power in the wind increases by a factor of eight (23).

A is the rotor area. and v is the wind speed. This equation states that the power is equal to one-half. times the air density. r is air density. times the rotor area. . times the cube of the wind speed. temperature and weather fronts. Air density varies according to elevation.Equation Of Wind Power • The amount of power available in the wind is determined by the equation: • w = 1/2 r A v3 • w is power.

they are not as common as their horizontal counterparts. .Vertical Axis Turbines • Although vertical axis wind turbines have existed for centuries. The main reason for this is that they do not take advantage of the higher wind speeds at higher elevations above the ground as well as horizontal axis turbines.

Horizontal Axis Turbine • This is the most common wind turbine design. . In this case. Some machines are designed to operate in an upwind mode. a tail vane is usually used to keep the blades facing into the wind. In addition to being parallel to the ground. the axis of blade rotation is parallel to the wind flow. Other designs operate in a downwind mode so that the wind passes the tower before striking the blades. with the blades upwind of the tower.

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The hub and the blades together are referred to as the rotor. the rotational speed required by most generators to produce power. .• Rotor. Wind turns the blades which turn the drive shaft. One is used for low speeds while another is used in high speeds. • Shaft.Gears connect the high and low speed shafts and increase the rotational speeds from about 10-60 rotations per minute to about 1200-1800 rpm. • Gear Box.Two different shafts turn the generator.

The generator's rating. • Tower. Different generator designs produce either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).Turns the blades on at 8-16 mph and shuts them down around 65 to prevent any high wind damage.Tall tubular metal shaft. Inside this component. • Controller. coils of wire are rotated in a magnetic field to produce electricity. The taller the tower.The generator is what converts the turning motion of a wind turbine's blades into electricity. or size. is dependent on the length of the wind turbine's blades because more energy is captured by longer blades. .• Generator. the more power produced. and they are available in a large range of output power ratings.

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Pros of Wind Power .

• Wind power Units are quickly constructed. . • Wind generators are much smaller in size compared other types electrical generators. • Small size allows wind power to be very versatile.

.• Wind power is a great compliment to a house with a preexisting photovoltaic system. • Wind power gives off no harmful emissions into the environment. • Serves as a great backup system.

• It is a renewable resource. . • Mass production of wind turbines drives down costs. • The more time spent researching makes each new wind turbine more efficient.

” • Inefficient and unreliable • Hazard to bird migration .Downfalls To Wind Energy • Aesthetics – “Not in my back yard.

Aesthetics • Turbines are around 50ft high and can be seen for miles • Wind Farms use up more space than any other form of power plant • Access roads will follow the construction of a wind farm • Houses too close to turbines will be disturbed by their noise .

“Not In My Back Yard” .

369 turbines only produce 1. • Propellers often fall off and are not repaired – example -> Altamont area of California • Inefficient: 9.7 % of Germany’s power • No Wind = No Power . This can cause damage to the turbine. and also provoke forest fires.Inefficient & Unreliable • It is not uncommon for turbines to be hit by lightning strikes.

73 Japan 121 76 817 0.16 .23 USA 2554 6000 3688 0.009 Failure Stats for Germany (2000) FAULT % TURBINES AFFECTED Loosening of parts-------3 Cause unknown----------8 Other causes------------10 High wind----------------4 Grid failure--------------6 Control system---------20 Icing---------------------1 Component failure---44 Lightning---------------4 UK 408 895 388 0.Some Stats on Contribution and Failure Country MW windpowe r Wind output (GWh/y) Total output (TWh/y) Wind contributi on (%) Denmark 2338 4240 35 12.1 Germany 6095 8400 486 1.

200-300 Red Tail Hawks. 40-60 Golden Eagles are killed each year by turbines .Hazard To Bird Migration • Turbines and power lines and a danger to migrating birds • Proof: . and changes in migratory patterns are a result of wind farms .Wind Power Monthly stated that large numbers of several bird species protected by European Law have been killed by turbines (1994) . significant death to birds.English nature stated that habitat loss.

28. Nigel Barnes. 3rd ed.windpowercons.Sources Hinrichs.geocities. Thomson Learning.04 www.” http://www.com/nigbarnes/#oth 3.com 3. Energy: Its Use and the Environment.04 . Australia 2002. “An Ill Wind – An Objection Against Windfarms in Ireland.28. Kleinbach.

What is the Cape Wind Project? •Proposal for the first off shore wind farm in the United States •130 turbines (24 square miles) •maximum output=420 megawatts .

Where will it be? •Horseshoe Shoal. consistent winds and shallow water •Close to electrical interconnections and away from shipping lanes and boating traffic . Nantucket Sound. Massachusetts •At least five miles off shore •Strong.

Pros of the Project •Replaces 113 million tons of oil per year • “Zero-emissions” •Boost to Cape Cod’s economy -600-1.000 new jobs for Cape Codders •Does not require land •May help with navigation and rescue .

Cons of the Project •Private take over of public land •May alter public use and access •Decrease in property values •No regulatory process to govern project •Potential hazard to wildlife •Aesthetics of Cape Cod’s natural landscape may be interrupted .

Who are the major stakeholders? •17 different government agencies •United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) •Massachusetts Environmental Protection Agency (MEPA) •Clean Power Now •The Alliance to Protect Nantucket Sound .

EIS.United States Army Corps of Engineers •Regulate water resources •Seven Principles (2002) •No regulatory framework or experience •NEPA. and MEPA •Public Interest Doctrine •Scientific Monitoring Station .

S. Coast Guard •Walter Cronkite? Argument: •navigation hazard •blades will kill birds •interrupts whale migration •help navigation •turbines are too slow •Horseshoe Shoal is shallow •there are other nearby options •best location . Mitt Romney Argument: Supporters: •U.The Alliance vs. Clean Power Now Supporters: •The Kennedys •Gov.

MA Over 300 supporters gathered in front of the State House! .Clean Power Now Charley Cummings (representative of the Brown College Environmental Action Network) Protest outside of USACE meeting in Falmouth.

Robert O’Leary Cliff Caroll of Wind Stop Susan Nickerson. Atsalis and Sen. Director of the Alliance .The Alliance to Protect Nantucket Sound State Rep. Demetrius J.

0 miles off the coast .Cape Wind’s Visual Simulations from Cotuit 6.

The Alliance’s Simulation from Cotuit .

org www.org www.cleanpowernow.Websites to check out www.org (The Alliance) www.saveoursound.windstop.org .capewind.

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