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VLSI

BiCMOS Inverter

Two bipolar transistors (T3 and T4
One nMOS and one pMOS
transistor (both enhancement-type
devices, OFF at Vin=0V)
Inverter has high input
impedance, i.e., MOS gate input
Inverter has low output impedance
Inverter has high drive capability
but occupies a relatively small
area
However, this is not a good
arrangement to implement since
no discharge path exists for
current from the base of either
bipolar transistor when it is being
turned off which results into slow
down of the circuit transistion.

Conventional BiCMOS
Inverter

Two additional enhancement-type
nMOS devices have been added
(T5 and T6).
These transistors provide
discharge paths for transistor
base currents during turn-off.
Without T5, the output low voltage
cannot fall below the base to
emitter voltage VBE of T3.
When Vin = 0 :
T1 is off. Therefore T3 is non-
conducting
T2 ON - supplies current to base of
T4
T4 base voltage set to Vdd.
T5 is turned on & clamps base of T3
to GND. T3 is turned off.
T4 conducts & acts as current
source to charge load CL towards
Vdd.
Vout rises to Vdd - Vbe (of T4)


When Vin = Vd :

T2 is off
T1 is on and supplies current to
the base of T3
T6 is turned on and clamps the
base of T4 to GND. T4 is turned
off.
T3 conducts & acts as a current
sink to discharge load
CL towards 0V
Vout falls to 0V+ VCEsat (of T3)

Again, this BiCMOS gate does
not swing rail to rail. Hence some
finite power is dissipated when
driving another CMOS or
BiCMOS gate. The leakage
component of power dissipation
can be reduced by varying the
BiCMOS device parameters

LATCHUP

Latchup is defined as the
generation of a low
impedance path in CMOS
chips between power
supply rail and
the ground rail due to the
interaction of parasitic
pnp and npn bipolar
transistors.

These BJTs form a (SCR)
with positive feedback
and virtually short circuit
the power rail to ground,
thus causing excessive
current flows and
even permanent device
damage



CMOS Latchup
n+
p-type substrate
n+
p+
p+
V (5 V)
DD
n+ p+
V (0 V)
SS
B S D D S B
n-well
R
sub
R
well
v
O
pnp transistor
npn transistor
If V
Rwell
is
0.7V
If V
Rsub
is
0.7V
Formation of SCR from BJT
Latch up triggering
For latch up to occur the parasitic npn-pnp circuit
has to be triggered and the holding state has to
be maintained.
Latchup can be triggered by transient current or
voltages that may occur internally to a chip
during power-up or externally due to voltages or
currents beyond normal operating ranges.
Two possible triggering mechanisms are
1)lateral triggering
2)vertical triggering




Lateral and vertical triggering
Current has to be injected into either the
npn- or pnp- emitter to initiate latch up.
Lateral triggering occurs when a current
flows in the emitter of the lateral npn-
transistor .
Vertical triggering occurs when a sufficient
current is injected into the emitter of the
vertical- pnp transistor.


Necessary conditions for latch up
Both PNP and NPN bi polars must be
biased into the active state.
The product of the parasitic bipolar
transistor current gains (npn*pnp) is
greater than or equal to one
The terminal network must be capable of
supplying a current greater than the
holding current required by the PNPN path
12
Latchup prevention techniques
Reducing the value of resistors and
reducing the gain of the parasitic
transistors are the basis for eliminating
latch up Reduce the BJT gains by lowering
the minority carrier lifetime through Gold
doping of the substrate (solution might
cause excessive leakage currents).
Substrate resistance : It can be reduced
by the use of silicon starting- material with
a thin epitaxial layer on top of highly doped
substrate .

Well resistance:
It can be reduced by
having retrograde well structure is also
used. This well has a highly doped area at
the bottom of the well, whereas the top of
the well is more lightly doped.

I/O latch up prevention
Reducing the gain of parasitic transistors
is achieved through the use of guard rings.
Guard rings are that p+ diffusions in the p
substrate and n+ diffusions in the n-well to
collect injected minority carriers

p+ guard ring

Use p
+
guardband rings connected to ground around nMOS transistors and
n
+
guard rings connected to V
DD
around pMOS transistors to reduce R
w
and
R
sub
and to capture injected minority carriers before they reach the base of
the parasitic BJT.


N+ Guard ring

Latchup Prevention summary
Use p+ guard rings to ground around nMOS transistors and n+ guard rings connected to
VDD around pMOS transistors to reduce Rwell and Rsub and to capture injected minority
carriers before they reach the base of the parasitic BJTs
Place substrate and well contacts as close as possible to the source connections
Use minimum area p-wells (in case of twin-tub technology or n-type substrate) so that the
p-well photocurrent can be minimized during transient pulses
Source diffusion regions of pMOS transistors should be placed so that they lie along
equipotential lines when currents flow between VDD and p-wells. In some n-well I/O
circuits, wells are eliminated by using only nMOS transistors.
Avoid the forward biasing of source/drain junctions so as not to inject high currents; the
use of a lightly doped epitaxial layer on top of a heavily doped substrate has the effect of
shunting lateral currents from the vertical transistor through the low-resistance substrate.
Layout n- and p-channel transistors such that all nMOS transistors are placed close to
GND and pMOS transistors are placed close to VDD rails. Also maintain sufficient
spacings between pMOS and nMOS transistors.
Stick Diagrams
Cartoon of a layout.
Shows all components.
Does not show exact placement, transistor sizes,
wire lengths, wire widths, boundaries, or any
other form of compliance with layout or design rules.
Useful for interconnect visualization, preliminary layout
layout compaction, power/ground routing, etc.
Stick Diagrams
Metal
poly
ndiff
pdiff
Can also draw
in shades of
gray/line style.
Buried Contact
Contact Cut

Stick Diagrams Some rules
Rule 1.
When two or more sticks of the same
type cross or touch each other that
represents electrical contact.


Stick Diagrams Some rules
Rule 2.
When two or more sticks of different type
cross or touch each other there is no
electrical contact.
(If electrical contact is needed we have to show the connection
explicitly).

Stick Diagrams Some rules
Rule 3.
When a poly crosses diffusion it
represents a transistor.
Note: If a contact is shown then it is not a transistor.

Stick Diagrams Some rules
Rule 4.
In CMOS a demarcation line is drawn to
avoid touching of p-diff with n-diff. All pMOS
must lie on one side of the line and all
nMOS will have to be on the other side.
5 V

Dep

V
out


Enh


0V

V
in

5 v
0 V
V
in

5 v
Alternate Layout Strategy

Mask Layout Encoding
A B
x
y
X X
X X
x
A B
y
Parallel Connected MOS
Patterning
x
y
A B
X
X X
A B
x
y
General Layout Geometry
Individual
Transistors
Shared Gates
Shared drain/
source
Vp
Gnd
Designing MOS Arrays
A
B C
y
x
y
x
A
B C
CMOS STICK DIAGRAMS
Layer Types
p-substrate
n-well
n+
p+
Gate oxide (thin oxide)
Gate (polycilicon)
Field Oxide
Insulated glass
Provide electrical isolation
Demarcation line
Only metal and polysilicon can cross the demarcation line
Top view of the FET pattern
n+ n+ n+ n+ p+ p+ p+ p+
NMOS NMOS
PMOS
PMOS
n-well
The CMOS NOT Gate
X
X
X
X
Vp
Gnd
x
Gnd
n-well
Vp
x
x
x
Contact
Cut
Alternate Layout of NOT Gate
Gnd
Vp
x
x
X
x
Vp
Gnd
X
x
X
X
Example - Stick Diagrams (1/2)
Circuit Diagram. Pull-Down Network
(The easy part!)
Alternatives - Pull-up Network
Complete Stick Diagram
Stick Diagram - Example
NOR Gate
OUT
B
A
Stick Diagram - Example
Power
Ground
B
C
Out
A
NAND Layout
Gnd
Vp
b a.
a
b
X
Vp
Gnd
X
X
X
X
a
b
b a.
NOR Layout
Gnd
Vp
b a +
a
b
X
Vp
Gnd
X
X
X
X
a
b
b a +
Stick Diagram XOR Gate
Examples
Why Design Rules???????
Acts as an interface or
communication link between the
circuit designer and the process
engineer during the
manufacturing phase



Manufacturing problems

Photo resist shrinkage tearing.
Variations in material deposition.
Temperature and oxide thickness.
Impurities.
Variations across a wafer.

Difference between Via and metal
Contact is connection to source, drain or
poly. While Vias is used to make
connection between two metal layers.
Both vias and contact are formed using
metals.
Vias are generally made of tungsten while
contact is made using aluminium.
Transistor problems:

Variations in threshold voltage: This may
occur due to variations in oxide thickness,
ion-implantation and poly layer.
Changes in source/drain diffusion overlap.
Variations in substrate.
Wiring problems:

Diffusion: There is variation in doping which
results in variations in
resistance, capacitance.
Poly, metal: Variations in height, width
resulting in variations in resistance,capacitance.
Shorts and opens.
Oxide problems
Variations in height.
Lack of planarity.

Via problems:

Via may not be cut all the way through.
Undersize via has too much resistance.
Via may be too large and create short.
Types of Design Rules
The design rules primary address two
issues:
1. The geometrical reproduction of features
that can be reproduced by the mask-
making and lithographical process ,and
2. The interaction between different layers.
Two approaches in describing
the design rules
Scalable Design Rules (e.g.
SCMOS, -based design rules)
In this approach, all rules are
defined in terms of a single
parameter . The rules are so
chosen that a design can be
easily ported over a cross
section of industrial process
,making the layout portable
.Scaling can be easily done by
simply changing the value of .
Absolute Design Rules (e.g. -
based design rules ) :
In this approach, the design rules
are expressed in absolute
dimensions (e.g. 0.75m) and
therefore can exploit the features
of a given process to a maximum
degree. Here, scaling and porting
is more demanding, and has to be
performed either manually or using
CAD tools .Also, these rules tend
to be more complex especially for
deep submicron.
-based design rules

The fundamental unity in the definition of a
set of design rules is the minimum line
width .It stands for the minimum mask
dimension that can be safely transferred to
the semiconductor material .Even for the
same minimum dimension, design rules
tend to differ from company to company,
and from process to process. Now, CAD
tools allow designs to migrate between
compatible processes.

Lambda rules
Feature Size: minimum distance between source and
drain of transistor
Feature size = 2 (@ 90nm feature size =45)
According to Moores Law, how much does the feature
size scale by every ~2 years?

Design rules specify line widths,
separations and extensions in
terms of .


Lambda-based
Rules

One lambda
()= one half of the
minimummask
dimension, typically
the length of a
transistor channel.
This can be used to
derive design rules
and to estimate
minimum
dimensions of a
junction area and
perimeter before a
transistor has to be
laid out.

Lambda-based Rules(Cont)
Design rules based on single parameter,
Most foundry allows submission of designs using simpler
set of design rules that can be easily scaled to different
processes.
These are called lambda design rules that has units
of m.
All distance and widths and spacing are written as value
= m where m is scaling multiplier.for ex.: w =3 , s = 4
If the factory will use technology =0.15 m
w =0.45 m, s = 0.6 m
Guidelines for using -based
Design Rules:
Minimum line width of
poly is 2 & Minimum line
width of diffusion is 2
Minimum distance between
two diffusion layers 3

Design Rules Classified into
four main types

Min. width to avoid breaks
Min. spacing to avoid shorts
Min. surround
Min. extension

Minimum extension to ensure
complete overlaps
dpo= min.
extension of
poly beyond
Active

Design Rule
for Active
Areas

Silicon devices are
built on active areas of
the substrate

Wa= min width of active
feature

Sa-a= min. edge-to-edge
spacing of active mask
polygon

Design Rule for
Doped silicon
(n+)

Wa = min width of
an active area

Sa-n = min.
active-to-nSelect
spacing

Design Rule
for Doped
silicon (p+)

Wa = min width of
an active area

sa-p = min.
active-to-nSelect
spacing

Sp-nw= min.
p+ to nWell
spacing

Design
Rule

MOSFET structure exists
every time a poly gate
line completely crosses
an n+ or p+ region
Design Rule for poly
features are
Wp= min. poly width of
a poly line
dpo= min. extension of
poly beyond Active

Design rule for
Active contact

Active contact is a
cut in the oxide that
allows the first layer
of metal to contact
as active n+ or p+
region.
Sa-ac= min.
spacing between
active and active
contact
dac,v = vertical
size of the contact
dac,h = horizontal
size of the contact


C
o
n
t
a
c
t

c
u
t
s

Poly to Metal
Metal to Diffusion
(buried contact)
Poly to Diffusion
(butting contact)
Design rule for Metal1
Metal1 is applied to the wafer after oxide. It is used as interconnect
for signals and also for power supply distribution.
Wm1= min. width of Metal1 line
Sm1-ac= min. spacing from Metal1 to Active Contact


Metal Contact
Two metal wires have 3 distance
between them to overcome capacitance
coupling and high frequency coupling.
Metal wires width can be as large as
possible to decrease resistance.
Butting Contact
Buttering contact is
used to make poly
and silicon contact.
Window's original
width is 4, but on
overlapping width
is 2.
So actual contact
area is 6 by 4.
Vias is a cut in the oxide layers to contact
between two metals.




Distance between two wells depends on the
well potentials as shown above. The reason
for 8 is that if both wells are at same high
potential then the depletion region between
them may touch each other causing punch-
through. The reason for 6 is that if both wells
are at different potentials then depletion region
of one well will be smaller, so both depletion
region will not touch each other so 6 will be
good enough.

Active region has length 10 which is
distributed over the followings
2 for source diffusion
2 for drain diffusion
2 for channel length
2 for source side encroachment
2 for drain side encroachment

Layout Design Rules summary

SCMOS Design Rule Summary
Line size and spacing:
metal1: Minimum width=3, Minimum Spacing=3
metal2: Minimum width=3, Minimum Spacing=4
poly: Minimum width= 2, Minimum Spacing=2
ndiff/pdiff: Minimum width= 3, Minimum
Spacing=3, minimum ndiff/pdiff seperation=10
wells: minimum width=10,
min distance form well edge to source/drain=5
Transistors:
Min width=3
Min length=2
Min poly overhang=2
SCMOS Design Rule Summary
Contacts (Vias)
Cut size: exactly 2 X 2
Cut separation: minimum 2
Overlap: min 1 in all directions
Magic approach: Symbolic contact layer min. size 4 X
4
Contacts cannot stack (i.e., metal2/metal1/poly)
Other rules
cut to poly must be 3 from other poly
cut to diff must be 3 from other diff
metal2/metal1 contact cannot be directly over poly
negative features must be at least 2 in size
CMP Density rules (AMI/HP subm): 15% Poly, 30% Metal
Spacings
Diffusion/diffusion: 3
Poly/poly: 2
Poly/diffusion: 1
Via/via: 2
Metal1/metal1: 3
Metal2/metal2: 4
Metal3/metal3: 4
Disadvantages of Lambda rules
1. Linear scaling is possible only over a
limited range of dimensions.
2. Scalable design rules are conservative
This results in over dimensioned and less
dense design.
3. This rule is not used in real life.
CMOS R and C
Gate
Capacitance
Interconnect
Capacitance
and Resistance
Channel
On-Resistance
Source/Drain
Capacitance
Sources of Resistance
Wiring resistance
MOS structure resistance - R
on

Source and drain resistance
Contact (via) resistance
Top view
Drain n+ Source n+
W
L

Poly Gate
Wire Resistance
L
W
H
R =
L
H W
Sheet Resistance R

R
1
R
2
=

=

L
A
=
Material (O-m)
Silver (Ag) 1.6 x 10
-8
Copper (Cu) 1.7 x 10
-8
Gold (Au) 2.2 x 10
-8
Aluminum (Al) 2.7 x 10
-8
Tungsten (W) 5.5 x 10
-8
Material Sheet Res. (O/ )
n, p well diffusion 1000 to 1500
n+, p+ diffusion 50 to 150
n+, p+ diffusion
with silicide
3 to 5
polysilicon 150 to 200
polysilicon with
silicide
4 to 5
Aluminum 0.05 to 0.1
Sheet Resistance
Sheet resistance is a measure
of resistance of thin films that are
nominally uniform in thickness. It is
commonly used to characterize materials
made by semiconductor doping, metal
deposition, resistive paste printing,
and glass coating
MOS Structure Resistance
The simplest model assumes the transistor
is a switch with an infinite off resistance
and a finite on resistance R
on







S
D
R
on
V
GS
> V
T
Source and Drain Resistance
More pronounced with scaling since
junctions are shallower
With silicidation R is reduced to the
range 1 to 4 O/
R
S
R
D

S
G
D
R
S,D
= (L
S,D
/W)R


where L
S,D
is the length of the source or drain diffusion
R

is the sheet resistance of the source or drain
diffusion (20 to 100 O/ )

Contact Resistance
Transitions between routing layers (contacts through
vias) add extra resistance to a wire
keep signals wires on a single layer whenever
possible
avoid excess contacts
reduce contact resistance by making vias larger
(beware of current crowding that puts a practical
limit on the size of vias) or by using multiple
minimum-size vias to make the contact
Typical contact resistances, R
C
,(minimum-size)
5 to 20 O for metal or poly to n+, p+ diffusion and
metal to poly
1 to 5 O for metal to metal contacts
More pronounced with scaling since contact openings
are smaller
Capacitance Estimation
Gate Capacitance
Diffusion capacitance
Routing capacitance(O/p--------- I/p)
MOS Capacitor characteristics


MOS Capacitor characteristics


Sources of Capacitance
C
w

C
DB2

C
DB1

C
GD12

C
G4

C
G3

wiring (interconnect) capacitance
intrinsic MOS transistor capacitances
V
out2

V
in

extrinsic MOS transistor (fanout) capacitances
V
out

V
out

V
in

M
2

M
1

M
4

M
3

V
out2

C
L

MOS Intrinsic Capacitances
Structure capacitances
Channel capacitances
Depletion regions of the reverse-
biased pn-junctions of the drain and
source
Intrinsic MOS Capacitances
Structure capacitances
Channel capacitances
Diffusion capacitances from the depletion
regions of the reverse-biased pn-junctions
C
GS

C
SB

C
DB

C
GD

C
GB

S
G
B
D
C
GS
= C
GCS
+ C
GSO C
GD
= C
GCD
+ C
GDO
C
GB
= C
GCB
C
SB
= C
Sdiff
C
DB
= C
Ddiff

MOS Structure Capacitances
x
d

Source
n+
Drain
n+
W
L
drawn
x
d

Poly Gate
n+ n+
t
ox

L
eff

Top view
lateral diffusion
C
GSO
= C
GDO
= C
ox
x
d
W = C
o
W

Where Cox (gate capacitance per unit area)
Overlap capacitance (linear)
MOS Channel Capacitances
S
D
p substrate
B
G
V
GS

+


-


n+ n+
depletion
region
n channel
C
GS
= C
GCS
+ C
GSO
C
GD
= C
GCD
+ C
GDO
C
GB
= C
GCB
The gate-to-channel capacitance depends upon
the operating region and the terminal voltages
MOS Diffusion Capacitances
S
D
p substrate
B
G
V
GS

+


-


n+ n+
depletion
region
n channel
C
SB
= C
Sdiff
C
DB
= C
Ddiff
The junction (or diffusion) capacitance is from the
reverse-biased source-body and drain-body pn-junctions.
Review: Reverse Bias Diode
All diodes in MOS digital circuits are reverse biased; the
dynamic response of the diode is determined by
depletion-region charge or junction capacitance
C
j
= C
j0
/((1 V
D
)/|
0
)
m

where C
j0
is the capacitance under zero-bias conditions
(a function of physical parameters), |
0
is the built-in
potential (a function of physical parameters and
temperature)and m is the grading coefficient
m = for an abrupt junction (transition from n to p-
material is instantaneous)
m = 1/3 for a linear (or graded) junction (transition is
gradual)
Nonlinear dependence (that decreases with increasing
reverse bias)
+
-
V
D
Junction Capacitance
Extrinsic (Fan-Out) Capacitance
The extrinsic, or fan-out, capacitance is the
total gate capacitance of the loading gates M3
and M4.
C
fan-out
= C
gate
(NMOS) + C
gate
(PMOS)
= (C
GSOn
+ C
GDOn
+ W
n
L
n
C
ox
) +
(C
GSOp
+ C
GDOp
+ W
p
L
p
C
ox
)
Simplification of the actual situation
Assumes all the components of C
gate
are between
V
out
and GND (or V
DD
)
Assumes the channel capacitances of the loading
gates are constant

Wiring Capacitance
The wiring capacitance depends upon
the length and width of the connecting
wires and is a function of the fan-out from
the driving gate and the number of fan-
out gates.
Wiring capacitance is growing in
importance with the scaling of
technology.
Parallel Plate Wiring
Capacitance
C
pp
= (c
di
/t
di
) WL
permittivity
constant
(SiO
2
= 3.9)
Dielectric
Substrat e
L
W
H
t
di
Electrical-field lines
Current flow
Sources of Interwire Capacitance
interwire
fringe
pp
C
wire
= C
pp
+C
fringe
+C
interwire

= (c
di
/t
di
)WL + (2tc
di
)/log(t
di
/H) + (c
di
/t
di
)HL
W - H/2 H
+
(a)
(b)
Fringing Capacitance
Interconnect
Insights
For W/H < 1.5, the fringe component dominates the
parallel-plate component. Fringing capacitance can
increase the overall capacitance by a factor of 10 or
more.
When W < 1.75H interwire capacitance starts to
dominate
Interwire capacitance is more pronounced for wires in the
higher interconnect layers (further from the substrate)
Rules of thumb
Never run wires in diffusion
Use poly only for short runs
Shorter wires lower R and C
Thinner wires lower C but higher R
Gate-level Delay Estimation
Three common measurements of gate
performance:
Delay time (td or tpd) -- Delay between
when the input signal to a gate reaches
the 50% point and when the output signal
reaches the 50% point.
Rise time (tr) -- time it takes for a signal to
go from 10% to 90% of its output range
Fall time (tf) -- time it takes for a signal to
go from 90% to 10% of its output range
Rise/fall times matter for a number
of reasons

They are a component of total gate delay
While the inputs to a gate are rising or falling, a
conductive path exists between power and ground
1) Power dissipation
2)Can potentially harm the chip if too much
current flows
For signals that have high inductance, overly short
rise/fall times can lead to di/dt-induced swings
Mostly relevant on chip I/O pins
Estimating Delay
Gate delays are determined by how quickly the driving gate can
charge/discharge its load capacitance
Gate delay may vary depending on which inputs
are changing -- generally use the worst case

Fall Time Analysis
During the fall time one or more nMOS
transistors discharge the energy stored in
the output capacitance
During the fall time, the nMOS transistor starts in
the saturated region and passes into the linear
region
Divide fall time into two components: tf,sat and tf,linear.
In saturation, current through the transistor is constant
This becomes
Define t1, t2 such that Vo(t1) = 0.9Vdd and
Vo(t2) = Vdd - Vt. Then



And tf,sat is:
Integrating, we get tf,linear





For many processes, Vt ~= 0.2Vdd,
allowing us to approximate


Rise Time
Redoing the same analysis for the pMOS
transistor in pullup gives



Note that beta for pMOS tends to be about
1/2 beta for nMOS given equivalent size
devices, so typically want pMOS about
twice as wide as nMOS to get equivalent
rise and fall times
For equally sized N and P transistors
where n= 2p
Hence,
Gate Delay Estimation
Depends on rise and fall times of the input
signals.
Assuming (unrealistically) that the input
rises or falls in zero time, then the gate
delay can be approximated as half of the
rise or fall time for the gate, and averaged
to
Circuit Delay Estimation
1. Divide circuit into DC-connected blocks
2. Compute a simple delay model for each block
3. Add the delays for each block to get overall
delay.
In CMOS, a DC-connected block (stage) will be
either:
1. A single logic gate
2. A transmission-gate network and the
gates driving it
General Approach- Divide circuit into DC-connected
components, solve for each component

Scaling of MOS Circuits
VLSI technology is
constantly evolving
towards smaller line
widths
Reduced feature size
generally leads to
better / faster
performance
More gate / chip
MOSFET performance
improves as size is
decreased: shorter switching
time, lower power
consumption.
Scaling Factors
In our discussions we will consider 2 scaling
factors, and
1/ is the scaling factor for VDD and oxide
thickness D
1/ is scaling factor for all other linear
dimensions
We will assume electric field is kept constant
Simple derivations showing the effects of scaling
are derived in Pucknell and Eshraghian pages
125 - 129


To accommodate this change, the size of the
silicon wafers on which the integrated circuits
are fabricated have also increased by a very
significant factor from the 2 and 3 in diameter
wafers to the 8 in (200 mm) and 12 in (300 mm)
diameter wafers
The latest catch phrase in semiconductor
technology (as well as in other material science)
is nanotechnology usually referring to GaAs
devices based on quantum mechanical
phenomena
These devices have feature size (such as film
thickness, line width etc) measured in
nanometres or 10
-9
metres


Recurring Costs

cost of die + cost of die test + cost of packaging
variable cost = ----------------------------------------------------------------
final test yield

cost of wafer
cost of die = -----------------------------------
dies per wafer die yield

t (wafer diameter/2)
2
t wafer diameter
dies per wafer = ---------------------------------- ---------------------------
die area \ 2 die area



die yield = (1 + (defects per unit area die area)/o)
-o

Yield Example
Example
l wafer size of 12 inches, die size of 2.5 cm
2
, 1 defects/cm
2
,
o = 3 (measure of manufacturing process complexity)
l 252 dies/wafer (remember, wafers round & dies square)
l die yield of 16%
l 252 x 16% = only 40 dies/wafer die yield !


Die cost is strong function of die area
proportional to the third or fourth power of the die area
Transistor Scaling Issues
High gate leakage :static power dissipation
Poly depletion in gate electrode increased effective Tox,
reduced Ion
Need for enhanced channel mobility
Will Moores Law run out of steam?
Cant build transistors smaller than an atom
Many reasons have been predicted for end of scaling
Dynamic power
Subthreshold leakage, tunneling
Short channel effects
Fabrication costs
Interconnect delay
Limitations of Scaling
Substrate Doping scaling factors
Depletion width
Interconnect and contact resistances
Subthreshold currents
Logic levels and supply voltage due to
noise
Current density
Short Channel Effects
Hot Electron Effects
Time Dependent Dielectric Breakdown
CMOS and NMOS nand Gates

CMOS and NMOS NOR Gates