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Typical composition

Oxide Composition
CaO: 60 67%
SiO2: 17 25% Al2O3: 3 8% Fe2O3: 0.5 6% MgO: 0.5 4% SO3: 2.0 3.5% Loss of ignition - 2 %

Compound Composition
C3S: 45 60% C2S: 15 30% C3A: 6 12% C4AF: 6 8%

Alkalis (as Na2O): 0.3 1.2% Gypsum ~ 4%

Insoluble residue 0.5 %

Additives up to 5%

Types of cements
Cements are classified based on: Chemical Composition Physical properties Additives to the cement powder Special purpose ASTM Classification (ASTM C150) Type I: General purpose (Type IA for air entrained cement) Type II: Moderately sulphate resistant, and moderate heat of hydration (Type IIA for air entrained cement) Type III: High early strength Type IV: Low heat of hydration 2 Type V: Sulphate resistant

Compound composition
ASTM Type I II III C3S (%) 45-55 40-50 50-65 C2S (%) 20-30 25-35 15-25 C3A (%) 8-12 5-7 8-14 C4AF (%) 6-10 10-15 6-10


25-35 40-50

40-50 25-35

5-7 0-4

10-15 10-20

In general, in relation to Type I cement, Type II has marginally lower C3S and C3A Type III has marginally higher C3S, and a higher fineness Type IV has lower C3S (lower than Type II) and C3A Type V has lower C3A (lower than Type IV) ASTM C 595 also classifies two blended cements Portland Slag Cement (Type IS) consists of 25 70% slag by mass Portland Pozzolana Cement (Type IP) consists of 15 40% fly ash

BIS Classification
BIS classifies cements into the following major categories: Ordinary Portland Cement 33 grade IS:269 (1989) 43 grade IS:8112 (1989) 53 grade IS:12269 (2004) Portland Cement, Low Heat IS:12600-1989 Rapid Hardening Portland Cement IS:8041-1978 Portland-Pozzolana Cement (PPC) IS:1489-1976 Portland-Slag Cement (PSC) IS 455-1976 Sulphate Resisting Cement IS 12330 OPC vs. PPC 1. Availability 2. Strength and durability of concrete

Cements for special purpose

Expansive cements (Shrinkage compensating) ASTM 845-90 Expansion upon hydration Alumino-sulphate additives that cause extensive ettringite formation in the early stages of cement hydration.
Rapid setting cement Mixture of Plaster of Paris or Calcium Aluminate Cement with OPC Setting within 10 15 minutes is desired. White cement (IS 8042) low in Fe2O3 (Max. 1%), is used for architectural purposes, and to make coloured concrete (by use of pigments). 5

Cements for special purpose

Oil Well Cements
Used for cementing steel castings to rock formations during oil drilling. The cement is pumped as slurry, which needs to be fluid under service conditions, and then harden quickly.

Reduced C3A and fineness, and sometimes retarders are used for setting and accelerators for strength gain

Masonry cements (IS 3466) Mixture of OPC clinker, gypsum, and limestone powder, along with an air-entraining plasticizer. Provide better applicability to masonry mortar. 6

Supersulphated cements (IS 6909, BS 4248:1974) Based on blast furnace slag (80%), with a high amount of gypsum (15%), along with a little PC clinker or lime as activators. Fineness 400 500 m2/kg highly resistant to sulphate and marine environments Slow hydration leads to very little heat (200 J/g). Calcium aluminate cements (High Alumina Cement) Prepared using limestone and bauxite as raw materials Resultant cement has CA as its main ingredient highly resistant to acidic and sulphate environment Major problem - loss of strength with age CA cement is used in refractory linings for furnaces 7

Cements for special purpose

Cements for special purpose

Hydrophobic Cement (IS 8043-1991) Water repellent chemicals to OPC clinker at the grinding stage Can be stored under humid and damp conditions for prolonged periods Film around cement grain breaks down when vigorously mixed with aggregates.

Slightly longer mixing time for making concrete with Hydrophobic Cement

Phase systems
A molten mixture of the calcined feedstock can crystallize into various different compositions upon reaching equilibrium in the cooling process. Based upon the starting composition of the raw materials, the final phase assemblage that forms will depend on the numerous phase diagrams that exist within the CaO SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 system. These include binary, ternary, and quaternary phase diagrams, depending on whether the system has two, three, or four components.

Ternary phase systems

Two primary systems exist for cement: CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 and CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3 The first system is composed of binary phases that make up nearly 90% of Portland cement C3S, C2S, C3A, C12A7 Lime-rich portion of phase diagram significant for PC The second system is composed of various solid solutions; C4AF is also one

C-S-A system




Some basics of Phase Diagrams

Lets consider a simple system of sugar and water


Oil Well Cement- Composition

Oxide CaO SiO2 % 64 22 Compound C3S C2S % 62 15


5 1 2.2 0.60

C4AF + 2C3A