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Operation and

safety .

OVERHEAD
CRANE
SAFETY

Pua@alh2
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Safe Rigging Practices

Know How to Do It Right!


Then Do It Right!
Job Site Considerations
The handling, setting and erection of
materials and equipment is a hazardous
occupation. Each operation presents its
own peculiar problems and no two jobs are
alike. With proper consideration taken,
each job can be performed free of bodily
harm to the employee and without damage
to the equipment.

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Job Site Considerations
The person authorized and qualified to do
rigging must always pay close attention to
details. One careless moment or act can
result in serious injury or death and
tremendous property damage. Proper
rigging is an art and should never be left to
the inexperienced. If you don’t know how to
do it properly, then don’t attempt it.
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Job Site Considerations
Persons performing rigging
tasks usually already
have two strikes against
them when they start!
2. Unfavorable Job
conditions.
3. Job Schedule to meet.
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Rigging Selection
Very rarely does the average worker on a
construction site get the opportunity to
actually pick the rigging. It is normally
purchased by a supervisor, the
Company Purchasing Department or it is
sent out from another project. This in
itself can create serious problems.

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Rigging Selection
The rigging capacity and the material to be
lifted must match. Using too small
capacity rigging or components is just
asking for an accident to happen.
2. Who is responsible
(competent/qualified) for the rigging?
a. Communications Established?
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Rigging Selection
2. Is the Equipment in Acceptable
Condition?
a. Appropriate Type?
b. Proper Identification?
C. Properly Inspected?

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Rigging Selection
1. Are the Working Load Limits
Adequate?
a. What is the weight of the load?
b. Where is the center of gravity?
c. What is the sling angle?
d. Will there be side loading?
e. Capacity of the gear?
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Rigging Selection
4. Will the Load be Under Control?
a. Tag Line available?
b. Is there any possibility of fouling?
c. Clear of Personnel?

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Rigging Selection
1. Are there any Unusual Loading or
Environmental Conditions?
a. Wind?
b. Temperature?
c. Surfaces? (Ice, Suction, Water)
d. Unstable Object(s)?
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The Users Responsibilities

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The Users Responsibilities

Crane
Operator
Rigger

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The Users Responsibilities
Utilize Appropriate Rigging Gear Suitable
For Overhead Lifting.
Utilize The Rigging Gear Within Industry
Standards And The Manufacturers
Recommendations.
Conduct Regular Inspection And
Maintenance Of The Rigging Gear.
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Basic Sling Operating Practices
(ANSI B30.9)
Whenever any sling is used, the
following practices shall be
observed!
2. Slings that are damaged or defective
shall not be used.
3. Slings shall not be shortened with knots
or bolts or other makeshift devices.
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Basic Sling Operating Practices
(ANSI B30.9)
• Sling legs shall not be kinked.
• Slings shall not be loaded in excess of
their rated capacity.
• Slings used in a Basket Hitch shall have
the load balanced to prevent slippage.
• Slings shall be securely attached to the
load.
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Basic Sling Operating Practices
(ANSI B30.9)
1. Slings shall be padded or protected from
the sharp edges of their loads.
2. Suspended loads shall be kept free of
obstructions.
3. All employees shall be kept clear of
loads about to be lifted and of
suspended loads.

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Basic Sling Operating Practices
(ANSI B30.9)
10. Hands or fingers shall not be
placed between the sling and it’s
load while the sling is being
tightened around the load.
11. Shock loading is prohibited.
12. A sling shall not be pulled from
under a load when the load is
resting on the sling.
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Basic Sling Operating Practices
(ANSI B30.9)
INSPECTION
Each day before being used, the sling and all
fastenings and attachments shall be
inspected for damage and defects by a
competent person designated by the
employer. Additional inspections shall be
performed during sling use as often as
necessary to assure the safety of the
operation.
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Basic Sling Operating Practices
(ANSI B30.9)
REPLACEMENT
Severe localized Abrasion or Scraping.
Ten Randomly Distributed Broken Wires in
one Rope Lay, or Five Broken Wires in One
Rope Strand in One Rope Lay.
Evidence of Heat Damage. (Cut with a
Torch)
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Basic Sling Operating Practices
(ANSI B30.9)
REPLACEMENT
Kinking, Crushing, Birdcaging, or Any
Damage Resulting in Distortion of the Rope
Structure.
Damaged, Distorted or Field Welded Hooks.
Damaged or Worn End Attachments.
If In Doubt, Don’t Use It!
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Definitions
Balanced – load equally distributed on each side of the
point of support.
Breaking strength – the approximate point, when under
maximum load, the load handling device fails.

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Definitions
Balanced – load equally distributed on each side of the
point of support.
Bridle sling – A sling composed of multiple legs gathered
in a fitting that goes over the lifting hook.
Competent person – selected or assigned by the employer
as being qualified to perform a specific job.
Factor of safety – ratio of breaking strength to the force to
be applied.

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Definitions
Hitch “Basket” - loading with the sling passed under the
load and both ends on the hook or a single master link.

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Definitions
Hitch “Choker” – loading with the sling passed through
one eye and suspended by the other.

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Definitions
Hitch “Vertical” – loading with the the load suspended
vertically on a single part or leg of the sling.

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Definitions
Master link – a steel link or ring used to support all legs
of a chain or wire rope sling.

Mousing – lashing between the neck and the tip of a hook


to prevent the load coming off.

Rated capacity – the maximum allowable working load.

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Definitions
Rigging – the connecting of a load to a source of power so
that it can be lifted and moved safely and predictably.
Safe working load – the maximum allowable working load
established by the manufacturer.
Sheave – a wheel with a grooved circumference over which
a rope is bent.

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Definitions
Wire rope – consists of many individual wires laid into a
number of strands which are in turn, laid around a
center core.

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Safety Factors
To guard against failure of a wire rope in service, the
actual load on the rope should only be a fraction of the
breaking strength.
The safety factor includes reduced capacity of the rope
below it’s stated breaking strength due to wear,
fatigue, corrosion, abuse, and variations in size and
quality.

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Wire Rope Construction

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Wire Rope Construction

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Wire Rope Capacities

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Wire Rope Capacities

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Wire Rope Sling Capacities

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Wire Rope Sling Choker
Adjustments

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Types of Wire Wire Rope Slings

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Type of Wire Wire Rope Sling
Damage

Birdcage damage
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Type of Wire Wire Rope Sling
Damage

Damage as a result of a kink in


the wire rope
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Synthetic Slings

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Synthetic Slings
Sling capacity varies from manufacturer to manufacturer, no
set standard like wire rope has.
User must look at Individual Sling Capacity Tag to determine
Safe Lifting Capacity of that sling.
If the Tag is not readable or is missing, Do not use it!
Inspect sling before each days use, and as often as
necessary during the day to assure safety of sling!
Sharp edges can slice a sling in two without warning as the
load is tensioned. Use softeners or padding on corners.
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Chain Slings
Only Grade 8 or better ALLOY Chain can be used for
overhead lifting purposes! All chain is not rated the same!
Chain must have a capacity tag attached to it.
Chains will withstand more rough handling and abuse, but a
chain with the same rated lifting capacity of wire rope will be
much larger in diameter and heavier in weight.
Chains must be inspected daily before use and as often as
necessary during use to assure safety.
It is the riggers responsibility to do the inspections!
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Chain Slings

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Rigging Protection From
Cutting or Slipping
Softeners, padding or use of blocking..

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Protecting Rigging From
Damage or Environment
Rigging components are expensive to buy and to replace!
Use them properly and store them properly!
Keep wire rope slings lubricated and all rigging stored out of
the weather.
Treat the rigging as though your life depended on it!
Because it does if it fails!
Don’t use makeshift rigging or attempt to repair any rigging
components.
Knots tied in rigging reduces the strength by 50% or more!
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How Would You Rig This?

What would you need in the


way of rigging materials?

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How Would You Rig This?

What would you need in


the way of rigging
materials?

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How Would You Rig This?

Would it matter if
the tank were full
or empty?

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Removing Jewelry and Wearing
Gloves!

Cause?
Not wearing gloves
and not taking off
the ring.

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Any Questions?

If the student hasn’t


learned, the
instructor hasn’t
taught!
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Operational safety
And

Daily check
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OVERHEAD AND GANTRY CRANE
OPERATION
• Hoist operators must inspect equipment daily
before use.
• Do not operate a crane or hoist if limit switches,
steel ropes, chains or other components are worn
or in disrepair.
• Replace nylon or web slings immediately if
excessively worn.

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OVERHEAD AND GANTRY CRANE
OPERATION
• Associates in the direction of travel should
be warned to move and remain clear of a
lifted load at all times.
• Loads should not be suspended over personnel
below.
• Under no circumstances may anyone ride the hook
or load.
• Directional movement should be made smoothly
and deliberately. Avoid rapid movements in any
direction. 53
OVERHEAD AND GANTRY CRANE
OPERATION
• Do not exceed the rated load
capacity of the crane, hoist,
chain, cable, slings, or other
component.
• Slings, load chains and other lifting devices must
be fully and securely seated in the hook before
moving a load. Remove slack from the sling,
chain, or cable before lifting a load.

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OVERHEAD AND GANTRY CRANE
OPERATION
• Use the following practices to avoid swinging
loads:
> Locate the hoist directly above the
lifting point of the load before lifting.
> Lower loads directly below the hoist.
> Keep hoisting ropes vertical. Do not
pull or push the load.
> Maintain two full wraps of cable on the
hoisting drum.
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OVERHEAD AND GANTRY CRANE
OPERATION
• When lifting loads at or near capacity, test the
hoist brakes by returning the master switch or
push button to the “OFF” position after raising
the load a few inches off the floor. If the brakes
do not hold, lower the load to the floor slowly and
do not operate the crane. Report the situation
immediately and DO NOT USE until repaired.

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OVERHEAD AND GANTRY CRANE
OPERATION
• Ensure that all loads are lifted high enough to
clear obstructions before moving the bridge or
trolley. Whenever possible, maintain a minimum
clearance of one foot above loads and to the sides.
Raise the load only to the height necessary to
clear lower objects.
• Never pull a hoist by the pendant
cable.

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OVERHEAD AND GANTRY CRANE
OPERATION
• Never leave the controls unattended while a load
is suspended. If it becomes necessary to leave the
controls, lower the load to the floor.
• Familiarize yourself with the location of the
disconnect switch.
• If loss of electrical power occurs, place controls in
the “OFF” position to prevent unexpected
startup upon restoration of power.

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OVERHEAD AND GANTRY CRANE
OPERATION
• Disconnect power to a hoist that is unsafe or in
need of repair. Arrange to have the
disconnect switch locked and the control
panel tagged with and “Out of Order”
or “Do Not Operate” tag. Never operate
a hoist that has been tagged with an “Out
of Order” or “Do Not Operate” tag, or is
your opinion, UNSAFE TO OPERATE…

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HOISTS / CRANES
Daily Inspection Checklist
• Check for any loose or missing parts.
• Check end stops. End stops prevent the
trolley from running off the beam.
• Know the location of disconnect
switch that will cut the power off
only to the hoist or crane. Be sure
it is readily accessible and not blocked.

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HOISTS / CRANES
Daily Inspection Checklist N
• Make sure all control buttons are
labeled to indicate their function.
W E
Operate each button to make sure
it functions properly, releases
immediately, and does not stick. S
• Check upper hoist limit switch by slowly raising
the block to trip the switch.
• Lower the hoist block to activate the lower limit
switch if the hoist is so equipped, leaving at least
one turn of rope on the take-up drum.
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HOISTS / CRANES
Daily Inspection Checklist
• Make sure wire rope is properly seated in its
drum and sheave grooves without any slack or
overlapping.
• Operate the crane or hoist several feet in each
direction that it travels. Listen for any unusual
noises. Look for any jerky movements.
• When moving an A frame hoist, take care to
ensure that the wheels on each side stay on the
track.
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HOISTS / CRANES
Daily Inspection Checklist

• Check all hooks. Hooks should not be cracked,


stretched, bent, or twisted. Each hook must have
a safety latch that automatically closes the
throat of the hook. If the latch is bent, spring
is broken, or is otherwise damaged the latch must
be repaired before use. Hooks should rotate
freely in block assembly without any “grinding”
felt or heard.

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HOISTS / CRANES
Daily Inspection Checklist
• Check the block assembly for structural damage
or cracks in any components. Sheaves should
rotate freely without any grinding felt or heard
coming from the bearings. The sheave guard
must be unbroken and intact. No part of the
sheave guard should be in contact with the wire
rope or sheave.

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HOISTS / CRANES
Daily Inspection Checklist
• Check the wire rope by lowering the block to the
lowest level and looking for the following conditions.
If any of these conditions are observed, they should be
reported immediately.
> Reduced diameter of the rope. This may indicate
the rope has been stretched, has lost its inner core
support, or has worn outside wires.
> Any number of broken strands of wires.
> Kinked, crushed, cut, or
“bird caged” wiring, or wiring
with heat damage.
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HOISTS / CRANES
Daily Inspection Checklist

• Check load chain for damage, wear at contact


points, cracks, or distorted (bent, twisted, or
stretched) links. Inspect all mechanical coupling
links to insure linking pins are secure and in good
condition. Report unsafe conditions immediately.

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HOISTS / CRANES
Daily Inspection Checklist
• Check the condition and capacity
of nylon or synthetic web slings.
Capacity ratings must be legible
on the manufacturer’s label. The
capacity of the sling being used
must be adequate for the load and
attachment method. Replace
slings immediately if excessive
wear occurs.

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Any Questions?

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