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Essence of Containerization

Containerization Container Container System Operation Sites Methodology Equipment Import / Export Cycle Tracking and Security Container Management Info. System (CMIS) Future

Containerization
1.

Purpose / Philosophy

2. Evolution / History 3. Advantages

Containerization
1.
2. 3.

Purpose / Philosophy
Evolution / History Advantages

Categories of Sea Cargo


Liquid Bulk
Dry Bulk General: Coventional

Container

Categories of Sea Cargo


Liquid Bulk
Dry Bulk General: Conventional

Container

Categories of Sea Cargo


Liquid Bulk

Dry Bulk
General: Conventional

Container

Categories of Sea Cargo


Liquid Bulk
Dry Bulk

General:

Conventional/Breakbulk
Container

General Cargo: Break bulk


Labour Intensive

Time Consuming Cost ineffective

Unitization
Palletization Jumboization Ro-Ro Lash Containerization

General Cargo: Break bulk


Labour Intensive

Time Consuming Cost ineffective

Unitization
Palletization

Jumboization
Ro-Ro
Lash Containerization

Unitization
Palletization Jumboization

Ro-Ro
Lash Containerization

Unitization
Palletization Jumboization Ro-Ro

LASH
Containerization

Unitization
Palletization Jumboization Ro-Ro Lash

Containerization

Philosophy of Containerisation
To reduce to absolute minimum

the number of times a piece of cargo is handled

Containerization
1.
2.

Purpose / Philosophy
Evolution / History

3. Advantages

Evolution / History of Containerisation


Rail Container 1920
Sea/ Marine Container 2nd World War Malcom Maclean Sealand First Sea Container Transportation 1956 Piggy back system on RORO Dedicted Container Ship----1966

Containerization
1.
2. 3.

Purpose / Philosophy
Evolution / History Advantages

ADVANTAGES OF CONTAINERIZATION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Reduced ship time in Port Better berth utilization Reduced time between producer and consumer Minimum physical handling of cargo less damage Good security less pilferage Protection against weather and other harmful atmosphere Less labour & staff cost Saving in packaging cost

Container
Definition
Physical Characteristics Types

Container : Definition
Rectangular Box
Weatherproof Safe and Secure

Standardized features

CONTAINER
Physical Characteristics
1. 2. 3. 4.

Types Size Weight Markings Construction Material

Container Types
1.

2.
3. 4.

5.
6.

Dry General Open Top Open Sided Open Top-open Sided Reefer Special
Tank Pen Car

Container Size
LENGTH : 20 FT 40 FT 8 FT 8 FT 6 INCH 9 FT 9 FT 6 INCH

WIDTH HEIGHT

: :

Container Weight
1. 2. 3.

Tare Weight

: 1.5 to 2.5 tons

Max Gross Weight : 20 to 45 tons Pay Load : 18 to 42 tons

Container Markings
ALPHA NUMERICAL MARK
APLU 204151 2

Agent Code

Serial Number

Check Digit

On All Sides Except Bottom

Container Material
Steel
Aluminum FRP / Plywood

CONTAINER SYSTEM
1.
2. 3. 4.

Ship operation
Quay operation
Terminal

Yard operation R & D operation


Off Terminal

Container System
Container Cycle

Ship Operation

Quay Operation

Yard Operation

Ship Operation
Aim : To turnaround the vessel at the quickest possible time. Key Tasks Interpreting / making Bay Plan No. of cranes to be mobilized Discharging / Loading sequence Allocating jobs to Crane

20 feet Bays

40 feet Bays

20 40 feet bays

Row Numbering

Tier Numbering

Odd Bay Numbering

Even Bay Numbering

Quay Operation
Aim: To keep pace with Ship Operation Key Tasks

Determining no. of prime movers Assigning PM/Straddle Carriers to ind. Cranes.

Yard Operation
Aim: Receiving / Despatching containers sequentially and quickly Key Tasks Planning storage Yard Address Order of stacking Determining and allocating yard equipments

Receipt / Delivery Operation


Key Tasks
Receipt of Loaded Export Containers Receipt of loose export cargo and stuffing Delivery of import cargo alongwith container Delivery of import cargo in loose form after destuffing

CONTAINER SYSTEM FACILITIES


A : TERMINAL

Quay or Berth Quay Apron or Wharf Yard Control Centre Gate

Types of Container Terminal


Feeder
Mainline Hub

Feeder Terminal
Definition: Where vessels directly calling at POD/POO cannot be supported and so containers have to be handled through smaller vessels for connecting to mother vessels calling

at other Characteristics

ports/terminals
Shallow berth less then 10 m draft Low volume Poor/inadequate infrastructure/equipment Low productivity

Mainline Terminal
Definition: Where vessels calling directly at

POD/POO can be serviced Characteristics

Modestly high draft 12 m Quay length upto 300 m Good productivity 50-70 moves/vessel hour Sufficient exchange per call

HUB Terminal
Definition: Where mega ships (more than

6000 tues) with container for several ports can be


serviced Characteristics

Draft more than 14.5 m Quay length in excess of 330 m Equipped with many high capability quay cranes Large backup area (yard) more than 10000 tue cap. Good hinterland connectivity Productivity in excess of 120 moves/hour

Receipt / Delivery Operation Sites


Container Freight Station Inland Container Depot

Container Freight Station (CFS)


To provide place for storing import/export FCL containers To provide facilities for completing customs/documentation formalities before

delivery/shipment
To destuff LCL import containers and to provide space for their storage before delivery To receive and consolidate individual export consignments and stuff them as LCL cargo

Definition of FCL/LCL
FCL : Full Container Load LCL : Less than Container Load

Container Freight Station


Features
Yard Shed :

Ramp / Plinth Reefer points Documentation centre Gate

Loose gen cargo.jpg

Inland Container Depot (ICD)


Similar to CFS but at upcountry / hinterland

Also called Dry port


First in Bangalore in 1981 Today 55 ICDs

Another 25 expected
Share of ICD Containers is 30% Expected to increase to 40%

Development of Delhi Freight Corridor (DFC)

Delhi Fright Corridor


Delhi Howrah Delhi Mumbai (JNPT) Via Ahemadabad Pallanpur Via Kota Ratlam Estimated Cost : Rs. 12000 crore Double line Double stack with welled wagons

CONTAINER METHODOLOGY
Systems for terminal operation
1.
2. 3.

Chassis Stand Alone


Straddle Carrier Stand Alone Straddle Carrier Tractor / Trailer

4. Transtainer Tractor / Trailer


5.

Front Loader

Handling Systems Comparison


Parameter
Cost Manning Level Selectivity Quay crane efficiency

Chassis
High More men / low skill Very good Low

Straddle Carrier Transtainer


Medium Moderate Less men / High skill Medium Very good Small Medium More men / Medium skill Low Bad

Space Requirement Very Large

Container damage
Maintenance Computerisations

Very Low
Very low Limited

High
Very high Medium

Medium
Low High

Container Equipment
Rail mounted Quay Gantry Crane

Straddle Carrier
Transtainer : RTG / RMGC Front Loader: Reach Stacker / TLT Spreader

Container Equipment
Rail mounted Quay Gantry Crane

Straddle Carrier
Transtainer : RTG / RMGC Front Loader: Reach Stacker / TLT Spreader

Container Equipment
Rail mounted Quay Gantry Crane

Straddle Carrier
Transtainer : RTG / RMGC Front Loader: Reach Stacker / TLT Spreader

Container Equipment
Rail mounted Quay Gantry Crane

Straddle Carrier
Transtainer : RTG / RMGC Front Loader: Reach Stacker / TLT Spreader

CONTAINER EQUIPMENT
SPREADER
1. 2. 3.

Manual Semi automatic Automatic

CONTAINER OPERATION - EXPORT CYCLE


Application for Rotation No. Agencies involved - Shipping Agent, Customs Documents required - Application with vessel details Registration of Vessel at Port Agencies involved - Shipping Agent, Port Documents required - Application for registration, Ship Registry, P & I Cover, Safety Mngt. Certificate, Filling of Shipping Bill at Custom and Carting of Cargo/Container Agencies involved - Shipping Agent, Custom, Port Documents required - Check list, Invoice/Purhcase order, Request for berthing of vessel Agencies involved - Shipping Agent, Port Documents required - Berthing application, PDRs for berth hire and stevedoring, certified hazardous cargo list. Documents generated - Berthing slip.

Receipt of containers at CFS/RCD Agencies involved - Concor, Port, Shipping Agent, Custom Documents required - Train Summery, Shipping Bill Movement of container to Terminal Agencies involved - Port, Shipping Agent, Custom Documents required - Load list, Shipping Bill Movement from Terminal to Shipside Agencies involved - Port Transporters, Shipping Agent. Documents required - Load list. Documents generated - Gate pass. Shipment of containers on vessel Agencies involved - Port's transporter, Port, Shipping Agent, Customs. Documents required - Load list. Documents generated - Tally sheet, Bay plan, Stowage plan. Unberthing and sailing of vessel. Agencies involved - Port, Shipping Agent, Customs. Documents required - Application for port clearance to customs, application to Sr. Dock Master for unberthing.

CONTAINER OPERATION - IMPORT CYCLE Application for Rotation No. Agencies involved - Ship Agent, Customs Documents required - Application with vessel details Registration of Vessel at Port Agencies involved - Ship Agent, Port Documents required - Application for registration, Ship Registry, P & I Cover, Safety Mngt. Certificate, Filing of Import General Manifest (IGM) at Port. Agencies involved - Ship Agent, Custom, Port Documents required - Hard and soft copy of IGM. Submission of Advance List, IGM and advance payment of container charges Agencies involved - Shipping Agent, Port Documents required - Advance list, IGM, Port payment receipts for containers. Documents generated - Vessel working permission. Discharging of import container and storage at CY. Agencies involved - Shipping Agent, Port, Port's transporter, Customs. Documents required - Advance list, IGM, Stowage plan, Bay plan. Documents generated - Discharge Tally Sheet / Yard Tally Sheet.

Berthing of Vessel Agencies involved - Shipping Agent, Port. Documents required - ISPS declaration, copy of P & I cover, application to Sr. Dock Master. Discharging of import container and storage at Pre-stack / CY. Agencies involved - Shipping Agent, Port, Port's transporter, Customs. Documents required - Advance list, IGM, Stowage plan, Bay plan. Documents generated - Discharge Tally Sheet / Yard Tally Sheet. Movement to CFS/RCD Agencies involved : Port, Shipping Agents, Customs Documents required : Advance list, Customs permission, Documents generated - Yard Tally sheet, Gate Pass Movement from CFS/RCD

Despatch of ICD containers by Rail Agencies involved : Port, Shipping Agents,Customs, Concor Documents required : SMTP, Railway indent

Delivery of container/cargo from CFS Agencies involved : Port, Shipping Agents,Customs, Importer Documents required : Bill of Lading, Bill of Entry

Documents generated : Wagon loading Documents generated : Gate Pass sheet

Container Management Information System (CMIS)


Necessary for : Planning Operations Monitoring Tracking Billing Query

Container Management Information System (CMIS)


Kinds of information: Vessels related Container related Cargo related Equipment related

Tracking
T Card Batch Mode Real Time / Online Bar Code RFID GPS

Security & Surveillance


Seal : Strip Bottle E: RFID Access Control : Biometrics:fingerprint/ handgeometry/ CC TV Eye:retinal/iris Protocol : ISPS CSI

Scanner:X-ray/gamma

Containerisation : Future
Container Volume:
(in M tues)

Year 1980 2000


2005 2010

Global 20 230
330 420

Indian 0.1 2.0


5.5 10.0

2020
CAGR

700
6%

20.0
15%

Containerisation : Future
Container ship size
Year 1980 Generation Type of ship Cap. In tues 1st Semi contr, roro, Cellular upto 750

1985
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

2nd
3rd 4th 5th 6th Above 6th

Dedicated cellular
Sub panamax Panamax Post panamax Super post panamax ULCS / Mega

750 - 1500
1500-3000 3000-5000 5000-6000 6000-7500
Above 7500

Container: Future
Container productivity
(No.of moves)

Year 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2010

Crane/hour 18 20 22 28 32 40

Vessel/hour 30 40 60 80 100 150

Container: Future
Container crane outreach

Year 1980

Across 9

1990
1995 2000 2005 2010

13
15 19 22 25

Potential Indian Container Ports


West Coast JNPT Mundra East Coast Vizag South Coast Chennai Vallarpadam