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Dewi Kartikawati N.
50-60% of the human body is water (decreases with age) Body fluids are classified according to their location with most of the body’s fluids found within the cell
Intracellular Extracellular (mainly responsible for transport of nutrients and wastes)
Fluid compartments are separated by selectively permeable membranes that control movement of water and solutes The process of homeostasis involves delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the cells and removal of waste
Body Fluid Compartments:
X 50~70% lean body weight
Male (60%) > female (50%) Most concentrated in skeletal muscle TBW=0.6xBW ICF=0.4xBW ECF=0.2xBW
Extravascular Interstitial fluid Intravascular plasma
Body Fluid Compartments Cont’d……..
2/3 (65%) of TBW is intracellular (ICF) 1/3 extracellular water
25 % interstitial fluid (ISF) 5- 8 % in plasma (IVF intravascular fluid) 1- 2 % in transcellular fluids – CSF, intraocular fluids, serous membranes, and in GI, respiratory and urinary tracts (third space)
Active Transport is the movement of substance across permeable membrane and gradient. Ex. Diffusion is the movement of a substance from area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration.Regulation of Body Fluid Compartments Osmosis is the diffusion of water caused by fluid gradient. requires energy and pump. Sodium/potassium pump .
Regulation of Body Fluid Compartments Cont’d………… Filtration is the movement of water and solutes from an area of high hydrostatic pressure to an area of low hydrostatic pressure Osmolality reflects the concentration of fluid that affects the movement of water between fluid compartments by osmosis Osmotic pressure is the amount of hydrostatic pressure needed to stop the flow of water by osmosis .
no movement across membrance Hypertonic/hyper-osmotic – greater osmotic pressure (concentration). water pulled out of fluid to equalize. . Hypotonic/hypo-osmotic – lesser osmotic pressure (concentration). water pulled into fluid to equalize. equal.Osmolarity Isotonic – same solute concentration.
Cell in a hypertonic solution 10 .
Cell in a hypotonic solution 11 .
Regulation of Fluids: Renal sympathetic nerves Renin-angiotensinaldosterone system Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) .
Regulation of Fluid Volume Kidneys – – – Capillary pressure forces fluid through the walls and into the tubule At this point H2O or electrolytes are then either retained or excreted The urine becomes more dilute or more concentrated based on the needs of the body .
surgery. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) – – – – – – Produced by the hypothalamus Stored in the pituitary gland Restores blood volume by increasing or decreasing excretion of water Increased osmolality or decreased blood volume stimulates the release of ADH Then the kidneys reabsorb water Also may be released by stress. cont.Regulation of Fluid Volume. and some meds . pain.
Regulation of Fluid Volume. cont. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system – Renin secreted in kidney Amount of renin produced depends on blood flow and amount of Na in the blood – – – Produces angiotensin II (vasoconstrictor) Angiotensin causes peripheral vasoconstriction Angiotensin II stimulates the production of aldosterone .
Regulation of Fluid Volume. cont. Aldosterone – – – – – – Secreted by the adrenal gland response to angiotensin II The adrenal gland may also be stimulated by the amount of Na and K + in the blood Causes the kidneys to retain Na and H2O Leads to increases in fluid volume and Na levels Decreases the reabsorption of K+ Maintains B/P and fluid balance .
cont Atrial natriuretic peptide or factor (ANP) (ANF) – – – – – – – – Cardiac hormone Released in response to increased pressure in the atria (increased blood volume) Opposes the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system Stimulates excretion of Na and H2O Suppresses renin level Decreases the release of aldosterone Decreases ADH release Reduces vascular resistance by causing vasodilation .Regulation of Fluid Volume.
Regulation of Fluid Volume. cont Atrial natriuretic peptide or factor (ANP) (ANF) – – – – – – – – Cardiac hormone Released in response to increased pressure in the atria (increased blood volume) Opposes the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system Stimulates excretion of Na and H2O Suppresses renin level Decreases the release of aldosterone Decreases ADH release Reduces vascular resistance by causing vasodilation .
normal distribution of fluid in both the ECF compartment and ICF compartment.fluid accumulation in areas that are normally have no or little amounts of fluids (ascites) . 2nd space shifting.excess accumulation of interstitial fluid (edema) 3rd space shifting.Fluid shifting 1st space shifting.
Balance Fluid and electrolyte homeostasis is maintained in the body Neutral balance: input = output Positive balance: input > output Negative balance: input < output 21 .
phosphorus.Electrolytes Major cations for extracellular fluid – Sodium Major cations for intracellular Potassium Cations Calcium. magnesium .
Function of sodium: Controlling and regulating water balance. .Sodium (Na): Is the most abundant cation in the extracelluar fluid and major contributor to serum osmolality. Maintaining blood volume Transmitted nerve impulses.
such as processed cheese. Normal level is 135 – 145 mg/dl. table salt . Hyponatremia: sodium deficit in the blood. Hypernatremia: sodium excess in the blood. Sodium is found in many foods.
Skeletal and smooth muscle function.Potassium: Is the major cation in intracellular fluid. Function of potassium: Maintain ICF osmolality. Regulate cardiac impulses. Transmitting nerve impulses. Regulate acid base balance .
Hypokalemia: potassium deficit in the blood. meat. Hyperkalemia: potassium excess in the blood. fish. Potassium is found in many fruits and vegetables.3meq/l.5 – 5. milk. Normal level of potassium is 3. .
urea. H+ Anions – negatively charged ions Cl-. K+ . CO2 Non-electrolytes .Uncharged 29 . glucose.. HCO3. PO43 Proteins.Solutes – dissolved particles Electrolytes – charged particles Cations – positively charged ions Na+. Ca++. O2.
.Factor effecting fluid and electrolyte balance: Age: infant have greater water need and greater loss due to greater metabolic rate. Environment: excess heat stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and cause person to sweat.
the body preserved the protein by breaking down the fat and glycogen. Illness: burn. renal disorder .Diet: in nutritional deficiency. Stress: water retention and increase the production antiduritic hormone.
Client with sever trauma or burn.Client at risk for fluid and electrolyte imbalance: Post operative client. Client with special drainage. Client who receiving diuretic . Client with intravenous infusion. Client with chronic disease as congestive heart failure.
Hypovolemia Hypervolemia .FLUIDS IMBALANCES…….
normal: 0.Signs of Hypovolemia: Diminished skin turgor Dry oral mucus membrane Oliguria .5~1ml/kg/h Tachycardia Hypotension Hypoperfusioncyanosis Altered mental status .<500ml/day .
GI bleeding…etc BUN : Creatinine > 20 : 1 . UGI bleeding Increased specific gravity Increased hematocrit Electrolytes imbalance Acid-base disorder .BUN↑: hyperalimentation. glucocorticoid therapy.Clinical Diagnosis of Hypovolemia: Thorough history taking: poor intake.
Parenteral Fluid Therapy: Crystalloids: .useful for volume expansion (mainly interstitial space) .correction of electrolyte abnormality .contain Na as the main osmotically active particle .for maintenance infusion .
0. inadequate for fluid resuscitation .D5W.45% NaCl .Lactated Ringer’s.only 25% remain intravascularly Hypertonic saline solutions .Crystalloids: Isotonic crystalloids . 0.9% NaCl .3% NaCl Hypotonic solutions .less than 10% remain intravascularly.
Colloid Solutions: Contain high molecular weight substancesdo not readily migrate across capillary walls Preparations .Dextran .Haes-steril 10% .Albumin: 5%.Gelifundol . 25% .
100 77 513 154 130160 130160 <2.45% NaCl D5W D5/0.45% NaCl 3% NaCl 6% Hetastarch 5% Albumin 25% Albumin 500 250.5 <2.50.5 77 513 154 130160 130160 50 406 1026 310 330 330 Volumes Na+ 142 130 154 77 K+ 4 4 Ca2+ 5 3 Mg2+ Cl103 109 154 77 HCO327 28 Dextrose mOsm/L 280-310 273 308 154 .9% NaCl 0.500 20.Common parenteral fluid therapy Solutions ECF Lactated Ringer’s 0.
The Influence of Colloid & Crystalloid on Blood Volume: Blood volume Infusion volume 1000cc 200 600 1000 Lactated Ringers 500cc 5% Albumin 500cc 6% Hetastarch 500cc Whole blood .
Signs of Hypervolemia: Hypertension Polyuria Peripheral edema Especially when hypo-albuminemia Wet lung Jugular vein engorgement .
Pitted edema Fluid overload .
Pitting odema .
Management of Hypervolemia: Prevention is the best way Guide fluid therapy with CVP level or pulmonary wedge pressure Diuretics Increase oncotic pressure: FFP or albumin infusion (may followed by diuretics) Dialysis .
5~1.5~1.K+: 0.to maintain urine output of 0.Na+: 1-2mmol/kg/day .0mmol/kg/day Avoid fluid overload. heart failure and renal insufficiency patient .Fluid Management: Goal: .0mg/kg/h Electrolytes require: . especially in malnutrition.
Early use of colloid .Fluid Management: For acute blood loss .Large borne IV line .Blood transfusion .Crystalloid + 5% albumin in a ratio of 4:1 .Begin with 2-3L isotonic crystalloid to restore blood pressure and peripheral perfusion .
Electrolyte Imbalances Hypo and Hypernatremia (Na+) Hypo and Hyperkalemia (K+) Hypo and Hypercalcemia (Ca+) Hypo and Hypermagnesemia (Mg+) Hypo and Hyperphosphatemia (Phos+) Hypo and Hyperchloremia (Cl-) .
CAIRAN ELEKTROLIT 3. Darah . HES. KAEN. CAIRAN KOLOID GLUKOSA 5% / DEKTROSE 5% NaCl (NS).MACAM CAIRAN : 1. RL. Dextran. Asering dll. Gelatin. PZ. Albumin dll 48 . CAIRAN NON ELEKTROLIT 2.
100cc / KgBB / 24 jam 10Kg II ------. .Na+ ---------. KEBUTUHAN 49 .TETESAN / MENIT . > 20cc/ KgBB / 24 jam.3 – 5 mg / KgBB / 24 jam.JUMLAH CAIRAN : DEWASA ANAK 50Kg / KgBB/ 24 jam 10Kg I -----.PEMBERIAN CAIRAN MAINTENANCE .MACAM CAIRAN --------------------.50cc / KgBB / 24 jam.
Na+ 195 meq .kebutuhan Na+ = 150 -250 mg/ 24 jam.CONTOH : Laki-laki.Macam Cairan RL 3 fles --.D5% = 2 fles. kekurangan cairan 1000 cc -----. .Jumlah Cairan -------.Susunan Cairan RL 3 fles + D5% 2 fles. RL – Na+ 131 meq/L-----. . 50 .Macam Cairan ----. . BB 50 Kg.Terumo : 2500 x 20 24 x 60 = 2500 24 x 3 = 33-35 tts / mnt.1cc = 15 tts terumo – 1cc = 20 tts.Tetesan / menit – otsuka --.1 fles = 77 meq.Otsuka : 2500 x 15 24 x 60 = 2500 24 x 4 = 25 -30 tts / mnt . jumlah 1500 cc. .1 fles = 65 meq PZ – Na+ 154 meq/L -----. . 25 th. .50 x50 / 24Jam = 2500 cc / 24 jam.
18 % in D5% C5 Na+ 10 meq/fles -Macam cairan -C2 3 fles Na+ 114 meq jumlah Total 1640 = 16 .640 cc 140 cc -Terumo : 1640 X 20 = 1640 = 22 – 24 tts/m .Anak. 11 th .500 cc -D 5% 140 cc -Tetesan : Otsuka : 1640 X 15 = 24 X 60 24 X 60 Jumlah 1. -NS / PZ NaCl 0.45% in D5% -- C2 Na+38 meq/fles -NaCl 0.Jumlah Cairan 10 Kg I ----.18 tts/m 96 96 51 1.9% - C I - Na+ 77 meq/fles -NaCl 0. .225% in D5% C4 Na+19 meq/fles -NaCl 0.10 x 50 cc = 500 cc > 7Kg -----. BB 27 kg.10 x 100cc = 1000 cc 10Kg II ------.7 x 20 cc = 140 cc jumlah = 1640 cc -Macam Cairan Kebutuhan Na+ = 81 – 135 meq/ 24 jam.
25 % EBV/F hilang syok. 15 % EBV/F hilang hypoxia (+) nadi meningkat 3. VOLUME DARAH EFEKTIF (Effective blood volume/flow) ♂ 70 – 75 cc/kgBB ♀ 60 – 65 cc/kgBB Anak2 90 – 100 cc/kgBB 2.Perdarahan …………. 52 .. 1.
100 cc 53 . Pasien laki2 BB 50 kg di IRD karena KLL dan perdarahan Waktu masuk: N 100 x/m T 120/80 RR 24 x/m Perhitungan : N 100 x/m pasien perdarahan Hypoxia (+) kira2 15 % dari EBV/F BB 50 kg EBV 70 X 50 cc = 3.500 cc Darah yang hilang 15 % = 15/100 X 3. RL = 4 X 525 cc ± 2.Case…….500 = 525 cc Cairan yang dimasukkan..