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Dewi Kartikawati N.
50-60% of the human body is water (decreases with age) Body fluids are classified according to their location with most of the body’s fluids found within the cell
Intracellular Extracellular (mainly responsible for transport of nutrients and wastes)
Fluid compartments are separated by selectively permeable membranes that control movement of water and solutes The process of homeostasis involves delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the cells and removal of waste
Body Fluid Compartments:
X 50~70% lean body weight
Male (60%) > female (50%) Most concentrated in skeletal muscle TBW=0.6xBW ICF=0.4xBW ECF=0.2xBW
Extravascular Interstitial fluid Intravascular plasma
Body Fluid Compartments Cont’d……..
2/3 (65%) of TBW is intracellular (ICF) 1/3 extracellular water
25 % interstitial fluid (ISF) 5- 8 % in plasma (IVF intravascular fluid) 1- 2 % in transcellular fluids – CSF, intraocular fluids, serous membranes, and in GI, respiratory and urinary tracts (third space)
requires energy and pump. Diffusion is the movement of a substance from area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration.Regulation of Body Fluid Compartments Osmosis is the diffusion of water caused by fluid gradient. Ex. Sodium/potassium pump . Active Transport is the movement of substance across permeable membrane and gradient.
Regulation of Body Fluid Compartments Cont’d………… Filtration is the movement of water and solutes from an area of high hydrostatic pressure to an area of low hydrostatic pressure Osmolality reflects the concentration of fluid that affects the movement of water between fluid compartments by osmosis Osmotic pressure is the amount of hydrostatic pressure needed to stop the flow of water by osmosis .
no movement across membrance Hypertonic/hyper-osmotic – greater osmotic pressure (concentration). water pulled into fluid to equalize.Osmolarity Isotonic – same solute concentration. equal. . Hypotonic/hypo-osmotic – lesser osmotic pressure (concentration). water pulled out of fluid to equalize.
Cell in a hypertonic solution 10 .
Cell in a hypotonic solution 11 .
Regulation of Fluids: Renal sympathetic nerves Renin-angiotensinaldosterone system Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) .
Regulation of Fluid Volume Kidneys – – – Capillary pressure forces fluid through the walls and into the tubule At this point H2O or electrolytes are then either retained or excreted The urine becomes more dilute or more concentrated based on the needs of the body .
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) – – – – – – Produced by the hypothalamus Stored in the pituitary gland Restores blood volume by increasing or decreasing excretion of water Increased osmolality or decreased blood volume stimulates the release of ADH Then the kidneys reabsorb water Also may be released by stress. surgery.Regulation of Fluid Volume. and some meds . cont. pain.
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system – Renin secreted in kidney Amount of renin produced depends on blood flow and amount of Na in the blood – – – Produces angiotensin II (vasoconstrictor) Angiotensin causes peripheral vasoconstriction Angiotensin II stimulates the production of aldosterone .Regulation of Fluid Volume. cont.
Regulation of Fluid Volume. cont. Aldosterone – – – – – – Secreted by the adrenal gland response to angiotensin II The adrenal gland may also be stimulated by the amount of Na and K + in the blood Causes the kidneys to retain Na and H2O Leads to increases in fluid volume and Na levels Decreases the reabsorption of K+ Maintains B/P and fluid balance .
cont Atrial natriuretic peptide or factor (ANP) (ANF) – – – – – – – – Cardiac hormone Released in response to increased pressure in the atria (increased blood volume) Opposes the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system Stimulates excretion of Na and H2O Suppresses renin level Decreases the release of aldosterone Decreases ADH release Reduces vascular resistance by causing vasodilation .Regulation of Fluid Volume.
Regulation of Fluid Volume. cont Atrial natriuretic peptide or factor (ANP) (ANF) – – – – – – – – Cardiac hormone Released in response to increased pressure in the atria (increased blood volume) Opposes the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system Stimulates excretion of Na and H2O Suppresses renin level Decreases the release of aldosterone Decreases ADH release Reduces vascular resistance by causing vasodilation .
2nd space shifting.normal distribution of fluid in both the ECF compartment and ICF compartment.Fluid shifting 1st space shifting.fluid accumulation in areas that are normally have no or little amounts of fluids (ascites) .excess accumulation of interstitial fluid (edema) 3rd space shifting.
Balance Fluid and electrolyte homeostasis is maintained in the body Neutral balance: input = output Positive balance: input > output Negative balance: input < output 21 .
phosphorus.Electrolytes Major cations for extracellular fluid – Sodium Major cations for intracellular Potassium Cations Calcium. magnesium .
Maintaining blood volume Transmitted nerve impulses. .Sodium (Na): Is the most abundant cation in the extracelluar fluid and major contributor to serum osmolality. Function of sodium: Controlling and regulating water balance.
Sodium is found in many foods. Hyponatremia: sodium deficit in the blood. Normal level is 135 – 145 mg/dl. Hypernatremia: sodium excess in the blood. table salt . such as processed cheese.
Potassium: Is the major cation in intracellular fluid. Regulate cardiac impulses. Regulate acid base balance . Transmitting nerve impulses. Function of potassium: Maintain ICF osmolality. Skeletal and smooth muscle function.
meat. Normal level of potassium is 3. Hypokalemia: potassium deficit in the blood. Hyperkalemia: potassium excess in the blood.3meq/l. fish. Potassium is found in many fruits and vegetables.5 – 5. . milk.
O2. glucose. H+ Anions – negatively charged ions Cl-.Uncharged 29 . urea. Ca++.Solutes – dissolved particles Electrolytes – charged particles Cations – positively charged ions Na+. HCO3. CO2 Non-electrolytes . K+ .. PO43 Proteins.
Factor effecting fluid and electrolyte balance: Age: infant have greater water need and greater loss due to greater metabolic rate. . Environment: excess heat stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and cause person to sweat.
renal disorder . Illness: burn.Diet: in nutritional deficiency. the body preserved the protein by breaking down the fat and glycogen. Stress: water retention and increase the production antiduritic hormone.
Client with special drainage. Client with intravenous infusion. Client who receiving diuretic . Client with sever trauma or burn. Client with chronic disease as congestive heart failure.Client at risk for fluid and electrolyte imbalance: Post operative client.
FLUIDS IMBALANCES……. Hypovolemia Hypervolemia .
Signs of Hypovolemia: Diminished skin turgor Dry oral mucus membrane Oliguria .normal: 0.<500ml/day .5~1ml/kg/h Tachycardia Hypotension Hypoperfusioncyanosis Altered mental status .
glucocorticoid therapy. UGI bleeding Increased specific gravity Increased hematocrit Electrolytes imbalance Acid-base disorder .Clinical Diagnosis of Hypovolemia: Thorough history taking: poor intake.BUN↑: hyperalimentation. GI bleeding…etc BUN : Creatinine > 20 : 1 .
Parenteral Fluid Therapy: Crystalloids: .for maintenance infusion .useful for volume expansion (mainly interstitial space) .contain Na as the main osmotically active particle .correction of electrolyte abnormality .
9% NaCl .45% NaCl .only 25% remain intravascularly Hypertonic saline solutions .3% NaCl Hypotonic solutions .D5W.Crystalloids: Isotonic crystalloids . 0. inadequate for fluid resuscitation .less than 10% remain intravascularly. 0.Lactated Ringer’s.
Albumin: 5%. 25% .Dextran .Colloid Solutions: Contain high molecular weight substancesdo not readily migrate across capillary walls Preparations .Gelifundol .Haes-steril 10% .
50.500 20.Common parenteral fluid therapy Solutions ECF Lactated Ringer’s 0.5 77 513 154 130160 130160 50 406 1026 310 330 330 Volumes Na+ 142 130 154 77 K+ 4 4 Ca2+ 5 3 Mg2+ Cl103 109 154 77 HCO327 28 Dextrose mOsm/L 280-310 273 308 154 .100 77 513 154 130160 130160 <2.45% NaCl 3% NaCl 6% Hetastarch 5% Albumin 25% Albumin 500 250.45% NaCl D5W D5/0.5 <2.9% NaCl 0.
The Influence of Colloid & Crystalloid on Blood Volume: Blood volume Infusion volume 1000cc 200 600 1000 Lactated Ringers 500cc 5% Albumin 500cc 6% Hetastarch 500cc Whole blood .
Signs of Hypervolemia: Hypertension Polyuria Peripheral edema Especially when hypo-albuminemia Wet lung Jugular vein engorgement .
Pitted edema Fluid overload .
Pitting odema .
Management of Hypervolemia: Prevention is the best way Guide fluid therapy with CVP level or pulmonary wedge pressure Diuretics Increase oncotic pressure: FFP or albumin infusion (may followed by diuretics) Dialysis .
to maintain urine output of 0.0mg/kg/h Electrolytes require: .K+: 0. especially in malnutrition. heart failure and renal insufficiency patient .5~1.Na+: 1-2mmol/kg/day .Fluid Management: Goal: .0mmol/kg/day Avoid fluid overload.5~1.
Begin with 2-3L isotonic crystalloid to restore blood pressure and peripheral perfusion .Crystalloid + 5% albumin in a ratio of 4:1 .Large borne IV line .Blood transfusion .Early use of colloid .Fluid Management: For acute blood loss .
Electrolyte Imbalances Hypo and Hypernatremia (Na+) Hypo and Hyperkalemia (K+) Hypo and Hypercalcemia (Ca+) Hypo and Hypermagnesemia (Mg+) Hypo and Hyperphosphatemia (Phos+) Hypo and Hyperchloremia (Cl-) .
CAIRAN NON ELEKTROLIT 2. Dextran. Asering dll. RL. CAIRAN ELEKTROLIT 3. CAIRAN KOLOID GLUKOSA 5% / DEKTROSE 5% NaCl (NS). Gelatin. Albumin dll 48 . HES. Darah .MACAM CAIRAN : 1. PZ. KAEN.
MACAM CAIRAN --------------------.JUMLAH CAIRAN : DEWASA ANAK 50Kg / KgBB/ 24 jam 10Kg I -----.TETESAN / MENIT . KEBUTUHAN 49 .50cc / KgBB / 24 jam.3 – 5 mg / KgBB / 24 jam.Na+ ---------. > 20cc/ KgBB / 24 jam.PEMBERIAN CAIRAN MAINTENANCE . .100cc / KgBB / 24 jam 10Kg II ------.
D5% = 2 fles. .1 fles = 65 meq PZ – Na+ 154 meq/L -----.CONTOH : Laki-laki.1cc = 15 tts terumo – 1cc = 20 tts.Macam Cairan RL 3 fles --.Otsuka : 2500 x 15 24 x 60 = 2500 24 x 4 = 25 -30 tts / mnt .Macam Cairan ----. . RL – Na+ 131 meq/L-----.Susunan Cairan RL 3 fles + D5% 2 fles. 25 th.Na+ 195 meq .Jumlah Cairan -------. jumlah 1500 cc. BB 50 Kg. .Tetesan / menit – otsuka --.kebutuhan Na+ = 150 -250 mg/ 24 jam. . kekurangan cairan 1000 cc -----. 50 . .Terumo : 2500 x 20 24 x 60 = 2500 24 x 3 = 33-35 tts / mnt.1 fles = 77 meq. .50 x50 / 24Jam = 2500 cc / 24 jam.
7 x 20 cc = 140 cc jumlah = 1640 cc -Macam Cairan Kebutuhan Na+ = 81 – 135 meq/ 24 jam.Anak.225% in D5% C4 Na+19 meq/fles -NaCl 0. -NS / PZ NaCl 0.Jumlah Cairan 10 Kg I ----.9% - C I - Na+ 77 meq/fles -NaCl 0.500 cc -D 5% 140 cc -Tetesan : Otsuka : 1640 X 15 = 24 X 60 24 X 60 Jumlah 1. 11 th .45% in D5% -- C2 Na+38 meq/fles -NaCl 0. BB 27 kg.18 % in D5% C5 Na+ 10 meq/fles -Macam cairan -C2 3 fles Na+ 114 meq jumlah Total 1640 = 16 .10 x 100cc = 1000 cc 10Kg II ------.18 tts/m 96 96 51 1.640 cc 140 cc -Terumo : 1640 X 20 = 1640 = 22 – 24 tts/m . .10 x 50 cc = 500 cc > 7Kg -----.
Perdarahan …………. 1. VOLUME DARAH EFEKTIF (Effective blood volume/flow) ♂ 70 – 75 cc/kgBB ♀ 60 – 65 cc/kgBB Anak2 90 – 100 cc/kgBB 2. 15 % EBV/F hilang hypoxia (+) nadi meningkat 3. 52 . 25 % EBV/F hilang syok..
500 = 525 cc Cairan yang dimasukkan. RL = 4 X 525 cc ± 2.500 cc Darah yang hilang 15 % = 15/100 X 3. Pasien laki2 BB 50 kg di IRD karena KLL dan perdarahan Waktu masuk: N 100 x/m T 120/80 RR 24 x/m Perhitungan : N 100 x/m pasien perdarahan Hypoxia (+) kira2 15 % dari EBV/F BB 50 kg EBV 70 X 50 cc = 3..100 cc 53 .Case…….
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