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FOREIGN POLICY

DEFINITIONS
Various definitions have been coined and offered by different scholars. For instance Prof. Joseph Frankel says that foreign policy consists of decisions and actions which involve to some appreciable extent relations between one state and others. While according to the point of view of George Modelski it is the system of activities evolved by communities for changing the behavior of other states and for adjusting their own activities to the international environment Huge Gibson says foreign policy is a well rounded comprehensive plan based on knowledge and experience for conducting business of government with rest of the world Literally speaking, protection and promotion of the vital interest of the state is the primary objective of foreign policy. It can be said conveniently that foreign policy of a country is an expression of its fundamental self identity as a civilization at given point of its history Padel Ford defines, foreign policy is the key element in the process by which a state translates its broadly conceived goals and takes interests into concrete courses of action to attain these objectives and preserve interests It can be said that foreign policy is the pursuit of NATIONAL INTEREST, which may largely depend upon the perception of the ruling party in tune with its ideological orientation

OBJECTIVES OF FOREIGN POLICY


The vital objectives which the foreign policy of a state seeks to achieve are as under. First objective, foreign policy seeks to safeguard the territorial integrity of a country and protect the interests of its citizen, both with in and outside the country. The second priority of foreign policy is maintenance of links with other members of international community and adoption of policy of conflict or cooperation towards them with a view to promote its own interests. The third objective is that the foreign policy of a country seeks to promote and further its national interest. The primary interest of any country is self preservation, security and well being of its citizens. The fourth purpose is the foreign policy aims at promotion of economic interest of a country. The fifth objective of foreign policy focuses at enhancements and aggrandizements of the influence of the states either by expending its area of influence or reducing the other states to the position of dependably. For instance, the posts World War II policy of former USSR and USA have been largely motivated by these considerations.

Determinants of Foreign Policy


Foreign policy of a country is influenced by several factors; these factors are classified into two broad categories, viz, internal and external. Internal factors: 1. Size (the size of state territory as well as its population) a. Geography (includes its fertility, climate, location in relation to other land masses and water ways). b. Culture and history. c. Economic development. 2. Social structure (A society which is divided on the basis of wealth religion, regional imbalances etc. can not pursue effective foreign policy.) 3. Public mood 4. Technology 5. National capacity (depends on it s military power, its technological advancement and economic development.) 6. Political organization (quick foreign policy decisions in autocratic system as compared to democratic systems. 7. Political accountability 8. Leadership 9. Role of press/media

Continued . External Factors and their influence on foreign policy Case Point Pakistan

NATIONAL INTEREST
England has neither permanent friends nor permanent enemies; she has permanent interests. Lord Palmerston At first the concept of "national interest." It seems crisp, clear, objective: what's good for the nation as a whole in international affairs. (What's good for the nation as a whole in domestic affairs is the Public interest.) National interest lies at the very heart of the military and diplomatic professions and leads to the formulation of a national strategy and of the calculation of the power necessary to support that strategy. Upon reflection, however, one realizes how hard it is to turn concepts of national interest into working strategy. It requires one to perceive the world with undistorted clarity and even to anticipate the second- and third-order effects of policies. Few are so gifted. Instead of bringing clarity and cohesion, many quarrel over what the national interest is in any given situation. The concept of national interest still has utility, not as an objective fact but as a philosophical argument in favor of limiting the number of crusades a country may be inclined to undertake

CONCEPT OF NATIONAL INTEREST The word interest is derived from Latin and means "it concerns, or it makes a difference to". In the 1930s, Charles Bear wrote the first book concerning national interest. In following years the notion of national interest in IR has been used to describe the underlying rationale for the behavior of states in a threatening global environment, which preserves and protects one's values against another. National interest is understood to mean a state of affairs valued solely for its benefit to the nation. National interest often becomes synonymous with national egoism, with its disposition of transferring self love onto the national group

Continued .
Scholars define national interest variously. Some put self-preservation (territorial integrity, political independence and fundamental government institutions) at the head of the list. Other categories of national interest focus on selfsufficiency, prestige, aggrandizement. Charles Bear focused on the notion of territory and commerce as being the defining features of national interest. Morgenthau says that a country's national interests should be proportionate to its capacities Britain and France after WWII had superpower ambitions, not commiserate to their capacities).

CRITERIA FOR DEFINING NATIONAL INTEREST


Ideological criteria: if one country's ideology is liberal-democratic, it will make policies supporting democratic governments and movements and oppose totalitarian ones. Moral and legal criteria: the imperative to act honestly and make decisions in accordance with international laws. Pragmatic criteria: unemotional, calculated decisions to deal with on ground realities. Bureaucratic criteria: each organization tends to exaggerate its specific funding request and to argue in the name of the national interest rather than its own interest. Partisan criteria: to equate the success of one's own political party with an entire nation's success. Racial criteria: national interest defined in terms of interest of an ethnic or racial minority or majority Class-status criteria: a particular class will defend its interests while defining national interest. Foreign-dependency criteria: protector states define policy obligations of their dependencies

Pakistans National Interest


Defining Pakistan foreign Policy, do we have a National Interest. National Interest Matrix
Defense of homeland

No one starts a waror rather, no one in his senses ought to do sowithout first being clear in his mind what he intends to achieve by that war and how he intends to conduct it. Carl von Clausewit To know in war how to recognize an opportunity and seize it is better than anything else. Niccolo Machiavelli,The Art of War