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Prepared By:- ALTAF UR REHMAN

Prepared By:- ALTAF UR

REHMAN

Key Points  Of the total amount of waste generated by health-care activities, about 80% is
Key Points
Of the total amount of waste generated by health-care
activities, about 80% is general waste.
The remaining 20% is considered hazardous material
that may be infectious, toxic or radioactive.
Every year an estimated 16 000 million injections are
administered worldwide, but not all of the needles and
syringes are properly disposed of afterwards.
Health-care waste contains potentially harmful
microorganisms which can infect hospital patients,
health-care workers and the general public.
1) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, 2) CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS, 3) QC AND MICROBIOLOGY LAB 4) FORMULATION & PROCESS.
1) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT,
2) CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS,
3) QC AND MICROBIOLOGY LAB
4) FORMULATION & PROCESS.
5) CONTAMINATED GLOVES, FILTERS, CLOTHINGS, ETC
6) EXPIRED & RETURNED PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS
Dosage Forms Properties Uses aromatic waters volatile solids or oils, water flavoring agents, carminative action liquors
Dosage Forms
Properties
Uses
aromatic waters
volatile solids or oils, water
flavoring agents, carminative action
liquors or solutions
water, chemicals
internally or externally formulating aids
spirits, essences
alcohol, water, volatile substances
flavor or medicinal
syrups
sweetener, solvent, medicinal agent
powder suspended in water, alcohol, glycol,
or an oil; viscosity builders, wetting agents,
preservatives
hydrocarbon (oily), absorptive
waterwashable, or water-soluble bases;
emulsifying agents; glycols; medicating
agent
flavoring agent, medicinal
suspensions
oral dosing, skin application
ointments
external
cornminuted or blended, dissolved in or
bulk powder
mixed with water
small-dose bulk powder enclosed in gelatin
shell; active ingredient plus diluent
external, internal
capsules
internal
small molded tablets intended for quick
tablet
complete dissolution
oral
emulsions, lotions
oil-in-water (o/w), or water-in-oil (w/o)
Oral or external
Waste type Origin Composition Process liquors Spent fermentation broth Spent natural product raw materials Organic syntheses
Waste type
Origin
Composition
Process liquors
Spent fermentation broth
Spent natural product
raw materials
Organic syntheses
Fermentation processes
Natural product
extraction processes
Contaminated solvents
Contaminated water
Leaves, tissues
Spent aqueous solutions
Solvent extraction processes
Contaminated water
Leftover raw material containers
Unloading of materials into process equipment
Sags, drums (fiber, plastic, metal), plastic
bottles
Scrubber water from
Dust or hazardous vapor
pollution control equipment
Volatile organic compounds
Off-spec or out-dated products
generating processes
Chemical storage tanks, drums
Manufacturing operations
Contaminated water
Solvents
Miscellaneous products
Spills
Manufacturing and lab operations
Miscellaneous chemicals
Waste water
Spent solvents
Used production materials
Equipment cleaning, extraction residues
Solvent extraction or wash practices
Manufacturing operations
Contaminated water
Contaminated solvents
Filters, tubing, diatomaceous earth
Used chemical reagents
R & D operations
Packaging materials
Packaging operations
Miscellaneous chemicals
Rejected materials (plastics, glass, aluminium
etc.)
Waste Stream Minimization Method Containers Return empties to supplier Thoroughly empty and triple rinse with minimal
Waste Stream
Minimization Method
Containers
Return empties to supplier
Thoroughly empty and triple rinse with minimal water
Use containers with recyclable liners
Segregate solid waste
Collect and reuse plastic from in-house molding
Air Emissions
Control bulk storage air emissions (e.g. internal floating roofs).
Use dedicated dust collectors and rework dust back into product
Optimize fossil fuel combustion
Use dedicated vent condensers and return condensate to source, where
possible
Maintain N2 purge rates at minimum through vapor space of agitated
reactors
Equipment Cleaning Wastes Maximize number of campaigns to reduce cleaning frequency Use final rinse as prerinse
Equipment Cleaning Wastes
Maximize number of campaigns to reduce cleaning frequency
Use final rinse as prerinse on next cleaning cycle
Use wiper blades and squeegees and rework remainders into products
Use low volume, high efficiency cleaning (e.g. spray heads)
Spills and Area Washdown
Use dedicated vacuum systems
Use dry cleaning methods
Use recycled water
Off-spec Products
Rework off-spec material
Use automated processing systems
Solvents
Substitute aqueous systems where possible
Reduce quantity of solvent used
Regenerate/recover spent solven
Production Materials
Validate cleaning and reuse
Material Substitution Process Modification Good operating Practices
Material Substitution
Process Modification
Good operating Practices
E.g: Aqueous-based cleaning solutions instead of solvent-based solutions Replacement of chlorinated solvents with non-chlorinated solvents.
E.g: Aqueous-based cleaning solutions
instead of solvent-based solutions
Replacement of chlorinated solvents with
non-chlorinated solvents.
Control Fouling deposits through Proper agitator design optimization of operating temperatures
Control Fouling deposits through
Proper agitator design
optimization of operating temperatures
Plant Management Management Employee Closer Production Additional incentives training supervision scheduling documentation
Plant
Management
Management
Employee
Closer
Production
Additional
incentives
training
supervision
scheduling
documentation
Waste Management: Waste/environmental audits Waste stream segregation Waste handling and storage procedures
Waste
Management:
Waste/environmental
audits
Waste stream
segregation
Waste handling and
storage procedures
Materials Handling: Materials tracking and inventory control Spill prevention Material handling and storage procedures Preventive maintenance
Materials
Handling:
Materials
tracking and
inventory control
Spill prevention
Material handling
and storage
procedures
Preventive
maintenance
Incineration Landfill Disposed off Recycle Reprocess
Incineration
Landfill
Disposed off
Recycle
Reprocess
Contents of Current Pharmaceutical Waste Streams CHEMO WASTE MUNICIPAL WASTE SEWER SYSTEM - SHARPS CHEMO WASTE
Contents of Current Pharmaceutical Waste Streams
CHEMO WASTE
MUNICIPAL WASTE
SEWER SYSTEM
- SHARPS
CHEMO WASTE
- SOFT
RED SHARPS
• Packaging
• Empty glass bottles
• Empty plastic bottles
• Paper
• Plastic
• Food waste, etc.
• IV’s
• Vials
• Gowns
• Vials
-
D5W
-
Empty (trace)
• Gloves
-
Empty
-
Partial (residue)
-
NaCl
-
Partial
• Syringes/Needles
• Goggles
• Tubing
• Syringes/Needles
-
Other?
-
Empty
• Wipes
-
Empty
• Controlled
-
Unused, partial
• Spill clean up?
-
Unused, partial
substances?
• IV’s
• IV’s
• Antibiotics?
-
Empty
-
Empty
-
Unused, partial
-
Unused, partial
• Spill clean up?
LANDFILL OR
MUNICIPAL INCINERATOR
WATER
TREATMENT PLANT
AUTOCLAVE/
MEDICAL WASTE INCINERATOR
MICROWAVE
Ash
Shredded (?)
Leachate into
ground water or
air emissions
Discharge to
surface waters
NON-HAZARDOUS LANDFILL
Leachate
Conclusions of Presentation (continued)  Landfills are most popular final disposal technique  Proper design of
Conclusions of Presentation
(continued)
Landfills are most popular final disposal
technique
Proper design of incinerators and landfills is
important to fulfil the regulatory requirements
Proper planning, design, and operation are
the key points involved in the disposal of such
waste
Conclusions of Presentation  Treatment of pharmaceutical solid/gaseous waste is important from health and safety related
Conclusions of Presentation
Treatment of pharmaceutical solid/gaseous
waste is important from health and safety
related properties
There is not much treatment of solid
pharmaceutical waste. Most of the time solid
waste is disposed of
Disposal of solid pharmaceutical waste and
elimination of the emissions from incinerator
operations are very important to protect the
land, water bodies and atmospheric
environment