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Strengths Provide door-to-door transport and convenience to user. Speed is higher rather than other modes Carrying capacity for luggage and shopping is very high door-to-door element Comfort is very high, and to a large extent can be tailored to the users personal requirements

Weaknesses The reliance on oil-based products for energy makes the cost of running a car susceptible to oil price fluctuations and conditions. Mass use of cars is incompatible with satisfactory of public transport provision. Environmental impact of cars is severe, especially in densely populated urban areas. Noisy, air pollution, accident toll is heavy and roads are visually intrusive High usage of cars requires heavy expenditure on highway construction and maintenance.

Relatively reliable and cheap to maintain

Only satisfactory form of transport for many people living in sparsely populated rural areas.

Low capacity means need to acquire large amounts of land space for parking.

Taxis Strengths Weaknesses 1

Offer many advantages of both mass public transport and private car ownership No need to own a car for short journey, taxi can cater for the need of disable and elderly User no requirement for driving skill, in sharp contrast to the private car Door-to-door transport, fully personalized service Mass use of taxis, could reduce of parking space User is able to travel by taxis at any time and place Responsive to much lower level of demand, because it takes only one person to initiate journey User does not require an extensive of knowledge of physical layout of an area. Have extensive space for luggage and other packages Less stress associated with using taxis cause the customer feels that service is reliable

Occupancy factor is very low, similar to private car and adds to congestion. Take patronage away from other forms of public transport and extensive use could result in deterioration of other public transport Relatively high cost system of transport and the exact fare for and journey is rarely known before the journey commences With private cars, add to pollution in city centres

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Bus and Coach

Bus and Coach
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Strengths Modest capital cost Low in overall operating cost High capacity vehicles seat passenger ratio compared with car. Flexible form of passenger transport. Long distance coach travel using the most advanced equipment benefits from motorway network and improvement in other trunk routes

Weaknesses Contend congestion especially peak hours Demand responsive and unconventional services - Schedule fixed to route and times. Services are very susceptible to usage, inflation, and labour related problem because of relatively labour intensive. The general public have a perception which very difficult to alter, that bus is more expensive to use than car. Because the driver only considers the marginal cost of his petrol when making comparison between bus fares and motoring costs. Bus operations in urban areas suffer from peak cost problems, because of nature of the high demand for bus services. When spread throughout the working day result in high average costs of operation. Comfort for the passenger is often poor in urban areas, and the service is seen as second class by many non-users Not disable friendly for handicapped, mothers with infant and passengers with baggage.

Give comprehensive coverage of an area.

Environmentally acceptable than car Capacity potential is major element to highway traffic control programme to ease congestion or relieve city centre parking problem Any transfer of users from cars to buses benefits society in terms of energy saving, noise reduction, better safety and reductions in air pollution,

Railway Strengths Weaknesses

High average speed for journey range of 50 to 300 miles

City centre to city centre con cut the overall journey time to a minimum Effectively utilizes land space. From any land of given width, it can carry more passengers and freight than any other land based system. Less environmentally adverse, both visual and physical pollution. Bulk handling capacity means very cost effective compared to lorries. Energy flexible and energy saving-electric traction relieves from depends on oil Safety record, excellent both passengers and freight. Especially on hazardous good Great scope on automation system driverless Able to provide an extensive range of services for passengers like catering, on board telephone, secretarial assistance etc. Least affected by bad weather

Vulnerable to industrial activity for primary products like coal, iron ore, manufacturing and petroleum products during recession. Capital intensive for infrastructure, track signally etc, difficult to shed cost in short term.
Inherent inflexibility of operation. The network usually laid down for long time and difficult to change the infrastructure, changing pattern of economic and social activities. Intermodalism for freight quite difficult for the transshipment of good.

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Political interference like British, Malaysia case. The inherent image inefficient and unreliability delay in transportation of passengers and freight. Labour intensive and heavily unionized industry and vulnerable to industrial action. The general public perceive is railway is more expensive than other modes, especially apply to car. During peak, train unable to provide comfortability aspect to passengers because of overcrowded.


Trucks Strengths Weaknesses 1 Comprehensive road network means truck most flexible form if freight transport. Being control by the driver, the security of the load and vehicle easily be monitored, making delivery on time and performance easier to measure Payment for the infrastructure is spread over many users limiting the amount each user has to pay. Road haulage companies are able to concentrate their whole management on organizing their main business effort, leaving the design, building and maintenance of the highway to other organizations Costs of each operation are far easier to calculate in road haulage than railways, giving the haulier a far better insight into which contracts are likely to be profitable. Very visible and can be used as mobile advertising hoardings Problem for environmental as they produce noise, air pollution, structural damage and visual intrusion. Heavy trucks pose a bigger safety hazard on the roads and the truck can be intimidating. Capacity of the truck is low compared to the train and barge/coastal ship.

Rely in oil for fuel and their operation is reliant on the oil price and availability of supplies

For truck carry hazardous cargoes results in the danger inherent on carrying these commodities being spread to other road users, and potential for horrendous accidents

Airways 1 Strengths The speed of travel, longer the distance, the greater time saving of the customer Weaknesses Inflexible in that in aeroplane has to land and take off at an airport. Means passengers and freight are needed to change mode before reaching final destination.

Good safety record and employs highly trained professionals at all level of the industry Good public image and is perceived to be very glamorous

Aeroplanes are noisy, subjecting houses under the approaches to airports to almost unacceptable noise levels Freight very expensive for shipper and the cargo carrying capacity is small




Capability of moving vast Speed, relatively slow between quantities of cargo in one ship on 300 and 360 nautical miles per day. Furthermore, ship operates one voyage 24 hours without break. For user, it is the cheapest method of moving goods If accident occurs severe pollution and heavy loss of life.

Inland Waterway
Inland Waterways Strengths Weaknesses

Suitable for passengers and freight

Relatively slow mode of transportation

Canals are use extensively to feed into the great river system transhipment between barge and vessel
Can be shared by all users, canal authority responsible for the upkeep, by toll collection Cheaper per unit carried than other modes of inland transport and fives good access to the sea.

Need transhipment if the good are not required at silt on the inland waterway
Being inflexible like ship canals Suez, Panama, Kiel, and Manchester to cater for specific reasons.

Pipelines 1 2 Strengths Also carrying unit, does not face congestion Environmental friendly because easily be buried, can traverse difficult topography and be laid under water Operate at optimum capacity and continuous process Pollution risk by spillage Weaknesses

Inflexible geographically and designed to serve fixed locations and there is a finite capacity which cannot be altered to accommodate sudden surge in demand

Largely automated and minimum personnel needed