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Engleski jezik (specijalni kurs kontrastivna lingvistika)

CONTRASTING
WHO? WHAT?

WHEN?
WHY?

Definition and scope


Speakers intuitively compare the languages which they use; they find differences and similarities ; They establish relative difficulty and the problems caused by the similarities and differences between the languages ; They even tend to explain the differences . BASICALLY , ALL SPEAKERS OF AT LEAST TWO LANGUAGES CONTRAST NON-STOP

Although sometimes conscious, such contrastive efforts are intuitive and nonsystematic. Contrastive linguistics is the systematic comparison of two or more languages , with the aim of describing their similarities and differences (Johansson: 2000) Contrastive linguistics is not a unified field of study Contrastive linguistics comprises three approaches, or rather three subdisciplines :

Contrastive analysis: systematic, synchronic comparison of two languages aiming at establishing explicit similarities and differences expressed in terms of correspondence and equivalence between the elements of those languages . Theory of translation: systematic establishing of equivalence between two texts Error analysis: identifies errors in FL students linguistic output and aims at providing explanation for their occurrence.

All three disciplines are complementary:

TT CL

CA

EA

Contrastive analysis is probably the most comprehensive of all three, owing to its applied, pedagocical aims; By identifiying similarities and differences, CA PREDICTS possible points of difficulty for the FL learner; Relative to the process of learning, the order of disciplines differs - CA takes place BEFORE (a priori) and the EA AFTER (a posteriori) the learning process

CA and other linguistic disciplines


Depending on the approach to language research and the interest for language as phenomenon we may distinguish betwee: Micro disciplines

Language is viewed in isolation, per se;

Macro disciplines
Language is viewed relative to its surrounding

realities (social, psychological, cultural, neural, cognitive, etc): sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, ethnolinguistics, neurolinguistics, cognitive linguistics.

CA and other linguistic disciplines


Number of languages under research 1 2+ Many all Synchrony Diachrony Descriptive linguistics Contrastive linguistics Historical linguistics Comparative linguistics

General linguistics

Feedback relation between disciplines: General linguistics provides linguistic theories and models which are applied in descriptive linguistics Descriptive linguistics provides language descriptions, necessary for contrastive analyses Contrastive analysis provides data otherwise hardly available; contributes back to the theory of language universals and linguistic typology, i.e. general linguistics