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Principles of curriculum design

Principles of curriculum design

What a curriculum is not What a curriculum is

What a curriculum is not

A list of subjects to be transmitted and learned that is a syllabus details of methods and times that is a timetable

Principles of curriculum design

A curriculum is : an attempt to communicate the

essential features and principles of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice. Stenhouse 1975

Principles of curriculum design

A curriculum is :

the public face of a professions best educational thinking Fish 2003

Principles of curriculum design

A curriculum includes: formal and informal overt and covert recognised and overlooked intentional and unintentional it is determined as much by what it omits as what it contains

Principles of curriculum design

Values underpin our curriculum

They drive our actions,attitudes thoughts and beliefs. They shape what we prioritise in our professional life and how we conduct ourselves in clinical and educational settings. And that conduct reveals our values to colleagues ,patients and learners Fish 2003

Principles of curriculum design

Values which influence curriculum design are those of: the curriculum designers the teachers the learners the society in which it is delivered

Principles of curriculum design

Values may be : values in use espoused values

Principles of curriculum design

Every curriculum has three levels: Planned : what is intended by designers Delivered : what is organised by institution what is taught by teachers Experienced: what is learned by students

Four important questions for curricular designers

What educational purposes do we seek to attain? What educational experiences are likely to attain these purposes? How can these be organised effectively? How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? Tyler,R. 1949

Ralph Tyler Model shows that curriculum should consider the following: Purpose of he school Educational experiences related to the purposes Organization of the experiences Evaluation of the experiences Hilda Taba on the other hand improved Tylers rationale by making a linear model. She believed that teachers who teach or implement the curriculim should participate in developing it. Her advocacy is

commonly called the grassroot approach. Seven major steps the teacher could have major input * Diagnosis of learners needs and expectations of the larger society

*Formulation of learning objectives * selection of learning content * selection of learning experiences * organization of learning activities * determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it

Types of Curriculum operating in school

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Recommended curriculum Written curriculum Taught curriculum Supported curriculum Assessed curriculum Learned curriculum Hidden curriculum

Recommended curriculum-proposed by scholars or professional organization Written curriculum- appears in school, district, division or country documents (courses of study handed down in schools, district, department for implementation

Taught curriculum- different planned which are put into action in the classroom. Supported curriculum-materials which support or help in the implementation of the written curriculum

Assessed curriculum- refers to tested or evaluated curriculum. At the duration and end of the teaching episodes, series of evaluations are being done by the teachers to determine the extent of teaching or to tel if the students are progressing

Learned curriculum- refers to the learning outcomes achieved by students. Hidden curriculum- unintended curriculum which is not deliberately planned but may modify behavior or influence leaning outcomes. (peer influence, mood of teaching, etc.)

Defining a curriculum backwards

What outcomes do we want? What content is therefor needed? How can that best be taught/learned? How do we best assess that? How do we evaluate our process?

Philosophy of Curriculum Design

Five Educational Philosophies
Perennialism An educational philosophy suggesting that nature, including human nature, is constant. Roots in both Idealism and Realism Rigorous intellectual curriculum for all students, classic works

Philosophy of Curriculum Design

Idealism Meaning is in the ideals of life itself Reality is made up of absolute truths However, a truth sometimes is only in the eye of the beholder Educationally this means the use of inductive reasoning, lecturing Plato was an early key proponent of this model

Philosophy of Curriculum Design

Realism Meaning comes through empirically proven facts Reality is made up of natural laws, facts However, empirical facts are always subject to change Educationally this involves scientific reasoning Chisholm and Whitehead proponents

Philosophy of Curriculum Design

Experimentalism Experience anything to learn it Education should be a study of social problems Solutions to social problems People shouldnt be taught what to think, but HOW to think. Process Critical evaluation Problem solving

Philosophy of Curriculum Design

A educational philosophy built on a viewpoint in which school curriculum and instruction should encourage deep personal reflection on ones identity, commitments, and choices.

Focuses on the existence of the individual and individual responsibility

People are responsible for defining themselves through their choices

Educations most important goal is to awaken human consciousness

Education should focus on both cognitive and affective dimensions



the arrangement of the elements of a curriculum into a substantive entity

Elements of Curriculum Design

Aims, Goals, and Objectives Subject Matter Learning Experiences Evaluation Approaches

When translated into questions, each component can be addressed by the following:

Aim: What is to be done? Subject matter: What subject matter is to be included? Learning experience: What instructional strategies , resources and activities will be employed? Evaluation approaches: What methods and instruments will be used to assess the results of the curriculum

AIM: Phil. School system is divided into three educational levels: Primary, secondary and tertiary and school shall aim: Inculcate patriotism and nationalism Foster love for humanity Promote respect for human rights Appreciate the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country Teach the rights and duties of citizenship Strengthen ethical and spiritual values

Develop moral character and personal discipline Encourage critical and creative thinking Broaden scientific and technological knowledge and promote vocational efficiency AIMS of elementary education: Schools through their curricula should aim: Providing knowledge and develop skills, attitudes, values essential to personal development and necessary for living in and contributing to a developing and changing society

Promote learning experiences which increase the childs awareness and of responsive to the changes in the society Promote and intensify knowledge, identification with and love for nation and the people to which he belongs Promote work experiences which develop orientation to the world of work and prepare the learner to engage in honest and gainful work

Aim of secondary education: Continue to promote the objectives of elementary education Discover and enhance the different aptitudes and interests of students in order to equip them with skills for productive endeavor and or to prepare them for tertiary schooling Aims of tertiary education: Provide general education programs which will promote national identity, cultural consciousness moral integrity and spiritual vigor

Train the nations manpower in the skills required for national development develop the professions that will provide leadership for the nation Advance knowledge through research and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of human life and respond effectively to changing society Goals- made simple and specific for the attainment of the learner. These are called educational objectives;

explicit formulation of the ways in which students are expected to be changed by the educative process and Intent communicated by statement describing a proposed change in learners. In other words- objective direct the change in behavior which is the ultimate aim of learning

Benjamin bloom classified this into 3 big domains of objectives: 1. cognitive 2. affective valuing, attitude and appreciation: (receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characterization by value or value complex) 3. psychomotor-use psychomotor attributes ( perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt (obvious) responsest adaptation, organization)

Sources for Curriculum Design

Science Society Eternal and Divine Sources Knowledge Learner

Science as a Source

Scientific method provides meaning for the curriculum design Designs that stress learning how to learn or thinking curricula emphasize scientific procedures Coincides with the scientific and rational world of Western culture

Society as a Source

School is an agent of society, thus the school should draw its ideas for the curriculum from the analysis of the social situation Curriculum design can only be completely understood if it is contextualized socially, economically, and politically

Eternal and Divine Sources

Draw on the past for guidance as to what is appropriate content Related to eternal truth revealed through such sources as the Bible or other religious documents

Knowledge as a Source

Disciplined Knowledge
has a particular method or methods by which scholars extend its boundaries

Undisciplined Knowledge
does not have unique content, but has content that is clustered according to the focus of the investigation

The Learner as a Source

Curriculum should be derived from what we know about the learner---how he learns. Forms attitudes, generates interests, and develops values

Conceptual Framework

Horizontal organization
scope and integration
side by side arrangement of curriculum elements

sequence and continuity

longitudinal placement of curriculum elements

Design Dimension Considerations

Scope Sequence Continuity Integration Articulation Balance


breath and depth of curriculum content


vertical relationship among curricular areas the occurrence and reoccurrence of content and experiences so that students will have opportunities to connect and enrich their understanding of the curriculum presented or experienced


vertical manipulation or repetition of curriculum components


linking of all types of knowledge and experiences contained within the curriculum plan enables the individual to comprehend knowledge as unified


Vertical Articulation
depicts the relationships of certain aspects in the curriculum sequence to lessons, topics, or courses appearing later in the programs sequence

Horizontal Articulation
refers to the association between or among elements occurring simultaneously


giving appropriate weight to each aspect of the design so that distortions do not occur

Representative Curriculum Designs

Subject-Centered Designs Learner-Centered Designs Problem-Centered Designs

Subject-Centered Designs

Subject Design Discipline Design Broad Fields Design Correlation Design Process Design

Subject Design

Based on the belief that what makes humans unique and distinctive is their intellect and the searching for and attainment of knowledge are the natural fulfillment of that intellect Curriculum is organized according to how essential knowledge has been developed in the various subject areas

Subject Design-Strengths & Weaknesses

Emphasis on verbal activities Introduces students to the essential knowledge of society Easy to deliver Traditional

Prevents individualization Disempowers students Fails to foster social, psychological, and physical development Compartmentalizes learning Neglects students needs, interests, experiences Fosters passivity

Discipline Design

Based on the inherent organization of content The manner in which content is learned is suggested by the methods scholars employ to study the content of their fields.

Discipline DesignStrengths & Weaknesses

Students attain mastery of content and independent learning Subjects to be taught to any child at any stage of development

Ignores information that cannot be classified as disciplined knowledge Addresses only the interests of the college bound Students must adapt to the curriculum

Broad Fields Design (Interdisciplinary)

Attempts to integrate content that appears to fit together logically Allows students to discern relationships among the various aspects of the curriculum content, as well as wholeness of meaning Students are invited to participate through the construction of meaning in grasping the meaning or meanings of the whole

Broad Fields- Strengths & Weaknesses

Allows students to discern relationships among various aspects of curriculum content Students participate in the construction

Issue of breadth vs depth

Correlation Design

Allows for some linkage of separate subjects in order to reduce fragmentation of the curricular content

Correlation- Strengths & Weaknesses

Allows linkage of some subjects to reduce fragmentation

Requires alternative forms of scheduling Requires teachers to plan differently (cooperatively)

Process Design

Gives attention to the procedures and processes by which individuals advance knowledge, either in specific disciplines or in general Emphasizes those procedures and dispositions to act that enable students to analyze their realities and create frameworks by which the knowledge derived can be arranged

Process- Strengths & Weaknesses

Teaches how to learn and think critically

Lacks emphasis on content

Learner-Centered Designs

Child Centered Designs Experience-Centered Designs Romantic (Radical) Designs Humanistic Designs

Child Centered Designs

Students must be active in their environments if we are to optimize learning Curriculum should be based on students lives, needs, and interests

Child-Centered Strengths & Weaknesses

Empowers students through ownership of knowledge Allows for constructivist learning

Content not specific

Experience Centered Designs

Everything has to be done on the spot---we cannot anticipate the interests and needs of children

Experience Centered Strengths & Weaknesses

Based on natural experiences of children

Not specific

Romantic (Radical) Designs

Emancipation is the goal of education Individuals should gain those awarenesses, competencies, and attitudes to enable them to take control of their lives Learning results from the interaction among people; by challenging content and permitting different views about the content, as well as from critiquing the purposes of the information presented

Romantic Strengths & Weaknesses

Emancipates the learner

Threatens status quo

Humanistic Designs

The focus of attention should be on the subject nature of human existence; there is a relationship between learning and feeling Empowering individuals Stress the development of positive self-concept and interpersonal skills

Humanistic Strengths &Weaknesses

Promotes self esteem Empowers individuals

Inadequate consideration of methods in light of consequences for learners Inconsistent emphasis on uniqueness of individuals and activities that all students experience Too much emphasis on the needs of the individual over the overall society Does not integrate what is known about human learning and development

Problem-Centered Designs

Life-Situations Design Core Design Social problems and Reconstructionist Designs

Life Situation Design

Persistent life situations are crucial to a societys successful functioning; it makes sense to organize a curriculum around them Students will see direct relevance to what they are studying if the content is organized around aspects of community life By having students study social or life situations, they not only study ways to improve society but become directly involved in that improvement

Life Situations Strengths & Weaknesses

Presents subject matter in an integrated manner Encourages students to learn and apply problem solving procedures Relevant

How to determine scope and sequence of essential areas of learning Does not expose student adequately to their cultural heritage

Core Design

Centers on general education and is based on problems arising out of common human activities

Core Strengths & Weaknesses

Unifies content Provides relevant subject matter Encourages active processing of information Fosters democratic processes in the classroom

Nontraditional Ignores the fundamentals Materials are hard to find Requires an exceptional teacher

Social Problems and Reconstructionist Design

Curriculum should address contemporary social problems and social action projects aimed at reconstructing society Educators will effect social change and create a more just society

What are instructional materials?

These are materials that are used to aid in the transference of information from one to another. For example, a teacher may use instructional materials to aid in the learning of subject matter for a class. These instructional materials could include: Power Point presentations (visual aids) Books Articles Materials for project development

Instructional materials are sufficiently comprehensive to achieve announced objectives and learning outcomes and are prepared by qualified persons competent in their fields. (Materials, other than standard textbooks produced by recognized publishers, are prepared by the instructor or distance educators skilled in preparing materials for distance learning.)

1. The instructional materials support the stated learning objectives and have sufficient breadth and depth for the student to learn the subject. 2. Instructional materials are presented in a format appropriate to the environment, and are easily accessible to and usable by the student. 3. The purpose of the course elements (content, instructional methods, technologies, and course materials) is evident

4. The instructional materials, including supporting materials such as manuals, videos, CD ROMs, and computer software are consistent in organization.

List four categories of criteria for judging the appropriateness of existing instructional materials. Given an instructional strategy, describe the procedures for developing instructional materials. Develop instructional materials based on a given instructional strategy.

Components of an Instructional Package

Instructional Materials Assessments Course Management Information Four of the categories of criteria to aid planning the existing materials evaluation

Goal-Centered Criteria Learner-Centered Criteria Context-Centered Criteria Learning-Centered Criteria

Goal-Centered Criteria
1. 2. Congruence among the content and the objectives Adequacy of content coverage and completeness





Learner-Centered Criteria
The appropriateness of vocabulary and language level

developmental, motivation, and interest level

backgrounds and experiences special language or other needs

Context-Centered Criteria
The authenticity of the materials for the contexts and learners

The feasibility of the materials for the setting and budget.

Learning-Centered Criteria
Materials can be evaluated to determine whether: the content sequencing is correct motivational concerns are addressed student participation and practice exercises exist adequate feedback is included appropriate assessments are available adequate follow-through directions are included delivery system and media formats are appropriate adequate learner guidance is provided

If no appropriate materials are found that can be adopted or adapted for your instructional strategy, then you are in the instructional materials development business! You must specify how you or a media production specialist will move from an instructional strategy to an instructional product.

The Instructors Role

When instructors design and develop individualized materials : Main role --- Facilitator

When instructors select and adapt materials : Main role --- Delivering instruction Materials management When instructors delivers all instruction : Main role --- Lecturing and delivering information

Developing Instructional Materials for Formative Evaluation

Rough Draft Materials : The product is developed in alternate, simpler, less expensive media formats The purpose : - To create quick low cost version of the design - To guide final production and something to take into formative evaluation and try out with a subject matter expert and several learners

Developing Instructional Materials for Formative Evaluation

Rapid Prototyping : Developing prototype instructional materials rapidly, and use quick iterative cycles of formative evaluation and revision. The purpose : - to gather information for ensuring the success of the final product.

Steps in the Development of Instruction

1. 2. Review the instructional strategy . Survey the literature and ask subject-matter experts to determine what instructional materials are already available. Consider how you might adopt or adapt available materials. Determine whether new materials need to be designed. If so, proceed to step 5. If not, begin organizing and adapting available materials.



5. Review your analysis of learners and consider the instructors role. 6. Reconsider the delivery system and the media chosen to present materials 7. Plan and write the instructional materials. 8. Review each completed lesson for clarity and flow of ideas.

9.Using one completed instructional unit, write the accompanying instructions to guide the students. 10. Using the materials developed in the first inexpensive rough draft, begin the evaluation activities. 11. Make notes as you develop and revise the instructional presentations and activities.