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OBJECTIVES

At the end of this presentation, you will be


coming to know about,
• What are Bio-materials?
• What for they have been used?
• Their vast application in Bio-medicine
• Evolution of Bio-materials since 19th
century
• Implement of advance technologies in
medicine
HISTORY
•Romans, Chinese, and Aztecs used gold in
dentistry over 2000 years ago, Cu not good.
•Ivory & wood teeth
•Aseptic surgery 1860 (Lister)
•Bone plates 1900, joints 1930
•Turn of the century, synthetic plastics came into
use
•WWII, shards of PMMA unintentionally got
lodged into eyes of aviators
•Parachute cloth used for vascular prosthesis
•1960- Polyethylene and stainless steel being used
for hip implants
BIO-MATERIAL - Definition

A bi omate rial is "a ny


subs tance (oth er th an dr ugs)
or c ombin ation of s ubsta nces
synt hetic or n atura l in
orig in, w hich can b e use d
for any p eriod of t ime, as a
whol e or as a part of a
syst em wh ich t reats ,
augm ents, or r eplac es an y
tiss ue, o rgan, or f uncti on
Drug Delivery Skin/cartilage
Devices
Ocular implants
Polymers

Orthopedic Bone
screws/fixation replacements

Heart
valves
Metals Synthetic Ceramics
BIOMATERIALS

Dental Implants Dental Implants

Semiconductor
Implantable
Materials Biosensors

Microelectrodes
APPL ICAT IONS
•Bio-sugery(Implantation)
•Tissue Engineering
•Bio-aesthetics
•Drug delivery
•Bio-mechanics
•Immunology
•Skin grafting
Why Bio-materials?
• Bio-compatible
• Bio-resorbable
• Bio-degradable
• Bio-inert (donot provoke harmful immune
response)
• Bio-active (in replacing tissues and cells)
• Similar chemical structures
• Less Fatigue Fever
Bioco mp ati bili ty i s primar ily a s ur face
phe no meno n …

• The material does not


provoke rejection by
the surrounding tissues
and body as a
Bulk
whole.
Material
• Defined as the ability of
a material to
perform with an
appropriate host
response
Adsorbed layer of Cells in in a specific application.
Surface Layer water, ions & biological
of Material proteins fluid
BI O-ACT IVE

The mechanism of new bone


formation an bone bonding to a
bioactive ceramic implant is
illustrated at left. Immediately
following implantation, an
ionexchange reaction takes place
between the implant and the
surrounding body fluid during which
chemical species from the ceramic
diffuse into the fluid and vice versa.
Over time, this results in the
formation of chemically graded layers
that become hydrocarbonate apatite,
or new bone.
HOW D OES FA TIGUE OCC URS

• Fatigue failure occurs


through:
– 1. Crack initiation
– 2. Crack growth or
propagation
– 3. Final failure
• Most components
show no signs of
change or damage
prior to failure.
An Interdisciplinary Field

Bioengineers
Material Scientists
Immunologists
Chemists
Biologists
Surgeons
...
So me C ommo nl y Used B iomat er ials

Material Applications
Silicone rubber Catheters, tubing
Dacron Vascular grafts
Cellulose Dialysis membranes
Poly(methyl methacrylate) Intraocular lenses, bone cement
Polyurethanes Catheters, pacemaker leads
Hydogels Opthalmological devices, Drug Delivery
Stainless steel Orthopedic devices, stents
Titanium Orthopedic and dental devices
Alumina Orthopedic and dental devices
Hydroxyapatite Orthopedic and dental devices
Collagen (reprocessed) Opthalmologic applications, wound
dressings
FIRST GENERATION
• “ad hoc” implants
• specified by physicians using common and borrowed
materials
• most successes were accidental rather than by design

EXAMPLES:

• gold fillings, wooden teeth, PMMA dental


prosthesis
• steel, gold, ivory, etc., bone plates
• glass eyes and other body parts
• dacron and parachute cloth vascular
implants
INTRA-OCULAR LENS

3 basic materials used are – PMMA, acrylic, silicon


Vascular Grafts
SECOND GENERATION

•engineered implants using common and borrowed materials


•developed through collaborations of physicians and engineers
•built on first generation experiences
•used advances in materials science (from other fields)

EX AM PLE :
• titanium alloy dental and orthopaedic implants
• cobalt-chromium-molybdinum orthopaedic implants
• UHMW polyethylene bearing surfaces for total joint
replacements
• heart valves and pacemakers
Artificial Hip Joints
THIR D GEN ERATI ON

•bioengineered implants using bioengineered


materials
•few examples on the market
•some modified and new polymeric devices
•many under development

EXA MPLE:
•tissue engineered implants designed to regrow rather than
replace tissues
•Integra LifeSciences artificial skin
•Genzyme cartilage cell procedure
•some resorbable bone repair cements
•genetically engineered “biological” components (Genetics
Institute and Creative Biomolecules BMPs)
Substitute Heart Valves
Evolution of Biomaterials

STRUCTURE

SOFT TISSUE
REPLACEMENT

FUNCTIONAL TISSUE
ENGINEERING
CONSTRUCTS
Growth with Nerve Cells

Out of scientific curiosity, Zhang asked Holmes to


test one of his se lf- as se mbl ing p ep tid es for
toxicity to nerve cells. Not only they were not toxic,
they seemed to thrive in culture in t he pr ese nc e o f
a sa lt . With the salt, the peptides self-assembled
into thin, wavy films that look a little like Saran
Wrap. Under a microscope, the film contained a
ne tw ork o f f ib res .
Further tests showed that ne rv e cel ls ha pp ily gr ew
on these fibres. While no i mm une re sp on se or
in fl amm at ion was seen when the peptides were
injected into rat muscle tissue, th ey ha ve no t yet
te st ed in th e bra in , s pi nal c ord a nd
pe ri phe ra l n er ves .
1 - Body Wide

2 - Body Nerve
3 - Nerve Damage
4 - Severed Nerve
5 - Mesh in
Place
6 - Mesh in Place
Cut
7 - Nerve Growth 1
8 - Nerve Growth
2
9 - Nerve Growth
3
10 - Nerve Growth 4
Biomaterials - An Emerging
Industry
• Next generation of medical implants and
therapeutic modalities
• Interface of biotechnology and traditional
engineering
• Significant industrial growth in the next 15
years -- potential of a multi-billion dollar
industry
What are some of the
Challenges?
• To more closely replicate complex tissue
architecture and arrangement in vitro
• To better understand extracellular and
intracellular modulators of cell function
• To develop novel materials and processing
techniques that are compatible with biological
interfaces
• To find better strategies for immune
acceptance