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July 23, 2009 1

SERVER 101
Objective

 Server Definition

 Server Types

 What makes up a Server

 High Availability Features

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SERVER 101
What is Server?
A server can be defined as an individual computer on a
LAN (Local Area Network), acting as a service or resource
provider to client computers, by sharing the resources
within the network infrastructure.

 provides ‘service’
 shares resources
 shares devices
 opens gateway to other system
 provides processing power
 stores item

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SERVER 101
Server Types Examples

A Web Server may host websites or


provide access to content and it
responds to requests received from
Web
provides most typical use of
authentication and technology in client-
security services server. Accepts
including logged Web Servers
requests for data,
information retrieves the data
management from its database (or
Security & Database requests data from
Directory Servers Servers another node) and
passes the results
back

controls and DNS


manage a work
manages assign Servers File/Print group’s data files
names on the Servers and print jobs
network and
resolves host name
to an IP Address Application
Servers

shares its resources but may also be


used to run applications for users

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SERVER 101
Types and Features of Computer

Notebook / Mobile Computer


-- Ultraportable
-- Full Function
-- Desktop Alternative

Desktop Computer
- Non-Mobile
- Full Function

Server
-- High Security
-- Process and File Data
-- Tower
-- Rack
-- Blades

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SERVER 101
Differentiating Computer Features

Notebook Desktop Server

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SERVER 101
What makes up a Server?
CPU/Processor

Front Side Bus


Memory
System
Chipset
System Board PCI/Memory
Controller

PCI Bus I/O devices

Data Storage

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SERVER 101
Processor

 The part of the CPU


computer that
controls the
Memory
execution of
program System
instructions Chipset
PCI/Memory
Controller

I/O Bus I/O devices

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SERVER 101
Manufacturers

Brands

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SERVER 101
Processor Types
Intel Pentium 4 Processor
 Intel primary target for Desktop
 For entry level single CPU server
 512K L2 cache with 533MHz
Front Side Bus
 Hyper-Threading Technology
Intel XEON Processor DP
 Also called XEON Processor DP (Dual
Processor)
 1MB L2 cache with 800MHz Front Side Bus
 Hyper-Threading Technology
 Extended Memory 64 Technology (EM64T)
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SERVER 101
Intel XEON Processor MP

 For demanding enterprise


workload (4 or more CPU)
 Up to 512KB L2 cache and 2MB L3
cache with 800MHz Front Side Bus
 Hyper-Threading Technology
 Intel Dual Core Processor
 EM64T

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SERVER 101
Intel Xeon Processors

’03 ’04 ’05 ’06


Common Platform
CSI based

8+ Way

Gallatin Potomac Tulsa


Gallatin 4M 8M/90nm Dual core
2M/130nm 3.6GHz 8M/90nm
4M/130nm
2.0GHz 3.4GHz
3GHz XXXX
4 Way Tcase 71 ºC
Tcase 65 ºC
Tcase 69 ºC
TDP 115W 16M/90nm
TDP 85W TDP 175W
667 MHz TDP 100-130W

XXXX
Prestonia
DP Prestonia 2ML3 Nocona XXXX
XXXX Tcase ? ºC
512K/130nm 130nm 1M/90nm TDP
1M/90nm
2.8GHz 3.6GHz 150W
3.2 GHz 4.4GHz
XXXX
Tcase 71 Tcase 71 ºC Tcase 73 ºC Tcase 73 ºC
ºC TDP 103W TDP 120W TDP (mobile dual)
TDP 94W 130W
65nm
1067 MHz
TDP 70W

400 MHz 533 MHz 800 MHz


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SERVER 101
Memory

 Memory is the storage CPU


area of the computer
 Physical memory refers
to the chips capable of
Memory
holding data
System
 Memory does not retain Chipset
PCI/Memory
data when the computer Controller
is powered off
PCI Bus I/O devices

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SERVER 101
DDR1 and DDR2 Comparison

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SERVER 101
DDR3

Advantages compared to DDR2


•Higher bandwidth performance, effectively up to 1600 MHz
•Improved latencies as measured in nanoseconds.
•Higher performance at low power (longer battery life in laptops)
•Enhanced low power features
•Improved thermal design (cooler)
Disadvantages compared to DDR2
•Incompatible with DDR2 motherboards
•As of November 2008, costs somewhat more than equivalent
DDR2 memory
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SERVER 101
DDR RAM Road Map

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SERVER 101
Storage

 Unit that holds data CPU


for storage
Memory

System
Chipset
PCI/Memory
Controller

PCI Bus I/O devices

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SERVER 101
Common types of Disk Interface

5.4K – 15K 133mbps


PATA
RPM transfer rate
7.2K – 15K 150mbps
SATA
RPM transfer rate
10K – 15K 320mbps
SCSI
RPM transfer rate

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SERVER 101
History of Parallel ATA
Advanced Technology Attachment
Intelligent Drive Electronics

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SERVER 101
History of Serial ATA (SATA)

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SERVER 101
Serial ATA

What is Serial ATA?


 Serial ATA (SATA) is the next evolution and replacement of the Parallel ATA
interface
 SATA is a 1.5 Gb/s serial point to point architecture with a primary focus on
low cost
 SATA is driven by cost and ideal for desktop, notebook, entry level servers,
and new near-line bulk storage solutions

Advantages
 Lowest acquisition cost
 Ease of serviceability (hot plug)
 Higher bandwidth per port (~150MB/s)
 Capability for larger number of drives
 Thinner cables
 Smaller connectors allow for small form factor hard disk drives

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SERVER 101
STORAGE CONTROLLERS
Differences?

SATA / SAS Controller

SCSI Controller

RAID Controller

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SERVER 101
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
“SCUZZY”

Is an ultra-fast, high-power communications bus that


connects up to 15 devices to your computer

Commonly Used for:

Hard Disks
Tape Storage
Scanners
Optical Drives

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SERVER 101
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
There are several benefits of SCSI:

It's fast -- up to 320 megabytes per second (MBps)


It's reliable
It allows you to put multiple devices on one bus
It works on most computer systems
Ease of Serviceability

There are also some potential problems when


using SCSI:

It must be configured for a specific computer.


It has limited system BIOS support.
Its variations (speeds, connectors) can be bewildering.
There is no common software interface.

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SERVER 101
Types of SCSI

Parallel SCSI

Serial SCSI / Serial Attached SCSI

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SERVER 101
TRANSFER RATE (Megabytes/Sec MBps)

5
20
80
160

40
640

10
320

July 23, 2009


SCSI-1

1984
Fast SCSI-2

86
88
Wide SCSI-2

90
Ultra Fast SCSI-3
SCSI Drive Evolution

Fast Wide SCSI-2

92
94
Ultra2-Fast SCSI-3

SERVER 101
Wide Ultra SCSI-3

96
Wide Ultra2 SCSI 3

98
Ultra 3 SCSI
2000

Ultra 320
01

Serial
03

Ultra 640
Attach
ed SCSI (S
AS)
26
Moving from Parallel SCSI to Serial SCSI (SAS)

SAS

A new generation serial communication protocol


for direct attached devices designed to allow for
much higher speed data transfers and is
compatible with SATA.
SAS uses serial communication instead of the
parallel method found in traditional SCSI devices
but still uses SCSI commands for interacting with
SAS devices.

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SERVER 101
SAS and SATA Compatibility

Note: SATA backplane connectors


Will NOT accept SAS drives

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SERVER 101
SAS ROADMAP

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SERVER 101
FIBER CHANNEL HARD DISKS

Enterprise Class Hard drives

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

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SERVER 101
Common SCSI Connector Types

A - Industry Standard 68-Pin (HD68)


Internal HD 68 (female)

Internal HD 68 (male)

External HD 68 (male)

External HD 68 (male)

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SERVER 101
SCSI Connector Types

B – VHDCI LVD/SE SCSI

External 0.8mm (female)


VDHDCI LVD/SE

External 0.8mm (male)


VDHDCI LVD/SE

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SERVER 101
PCI Bus

• Is a functional way
to connect sound, CPU
video and network
cards to a Memory
motherboard.
System
Chipset
PCI/Memory
Controller

PCI Bus I/O devices

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SERVER 101
I / O Bus

No of bits 32 bits 64 bits

Clock speed 33MHz and 133MHz


66MHz

Transfer rate 133mbps 1Gb/s

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SERVER 101
PCI Cards

Example of a PCI Card PCI Devices


Graphics Card
Sound Card
LAN Card

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SERVER 101
Common Server PCI-X Devices

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SERVER 101
Compatibility

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SERVER 101
Evolution of Bus Technologies

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SERVER 101
PCI Express?
Also known as 3GIO (for third-generation Input/Output)

• An I/O Interconnect bus standard that expands on and


doubles the data transfer rates of the original PCI

• Initial bit rates for PCI Express reach 2.5Gb/s per lane
direction, which equate to data transfer rates of
approximately 200Mb/s

• PCI Express was developed so that high-speed


interconnects such as Firewire, USB 2.0, InfiniBand, and
Gigabit Ethernet would have an I/O architecture suitable
for their transfer high speeds.

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SERVER 101
PCIe Connector Types

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SERVER 101
Terms to Ponder
BUS
A communication highway between various components of
the Computer

Front Side Bus (FSB)


This bus carries all information that passes from the CPU to
other devices within the system such as RAM, PCI
expansion cards, hard disks, etc.

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SERVER 101
HIGH AVAILABILITY / FAULT-TOLERANT FEATURES

Redundant Features
RAID

Hot Swap / Hot-Pluggable

Hot-Spare / On-Line Spare

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SERVER 101
The RAID Technology

 Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks


• Provides real-time data recovery when a hard drive fails,
increasing system uptime and network availability, while
protecting against loss of data.

RAID Controller

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SERVER 101
RAID Levels
(RAID 0 and RAID 1)

1 2 3 4
Advantage : 100% Disk
RAID-0 5 6 7 Space Available
Stripping
Fastest
Disadvantage : No protection

1 1
RAID-1 2 Mirror 2 Advantage : Fault Tolerance
Disadvantage : 50% Disk
Mirroring 3 3 Space Available

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SERVER 101
RAID Levels
RAID 0+1 (or RAID 10)

1 2 3 4
RAID-0 5 7
6
Stripping

Advantages: Fastest
Tolerance multiple
Mirrored disks failure
(RAID 1) Disadvantage: 50% Disk
1 2 3 4 Available
RAID-0 5
Stripping
6 7

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SERVER 101
RAID Levels
(RAID 5)

1 2 3 Parity Advantage : Only 1 Disk Space


RAID-5
Stripping
4 Parity 5 6 Used for Parity
7 Protect 1 Disk
w/ Parity 8 Parity 9 failure
Good Performance

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SERVER 101
On Line Spare Disks

1 2 3 Parity
RAID-5 4 Parity 5 6
7 8 Parity 9

3
On Line 5
Spare Disks Parity

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SERVER 101
Memory Protection

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SERVER 101
ECC Memory Protection

1 DRAM Chip CORRECTED


4-bit Length
0001
1
0001

ECC

1 DRAM Chip CRASHED


4-bit Length
0001

BLUE
ECC SCREEN

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SERVER 101
Advanced ECC Memory

Reconstruct
1 DRAM Chip
1011101
1011101

CRASHED

BLUE
SCREEN

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SERVER 101
Online Spare Memory

Transfer data to
spare memory

Main Memory
4x1GB RAM nal
i o
erat
Op

Spare Memory
2x1GB RAM

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SERVER 101
Hot Plug Memory
Hot Plug Mirrored Memory
hot replace
• replace a failed
DIMM while the
server is running
• OS / application
transparent

hot add - upgrade


• add a new bank of
DIMMs while the
server is running
• OS / application
enabled

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SERVER 101
QUESTIONS ?

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SERVER 101
THANK YOU!

July 23, 2009 54


SERVER 101