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Motion & Friction

Motion & Friction


Websters dictionary defines Motion
As

Act or State of moving , Movement

Motion & Friction


Websters dictionary defines Friction
As

Resistance to motion of things that touch other things.

Friction

This brings us to

Newtons Laws of Motion

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Newtons Laws of Motion

How many laws ?

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Newtons Laws of Motion

What are those laws ?

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Newtons Laws of Motion
1st Law : The Law of Inertia :

2nd Law

: The law of Force

3rd Law

: The Law of Reaction

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Newtons Laws of Motion

Do you remember the Statements ?

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Newtons Laws of Motion
1st Law : The Law of Inertia :

In the absence of a net force, a body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion remains in motion along the same straight line

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Newtons Laws of Motion
2nd Law : The Law of Force :

Application of a force on a body produces acceleration which is proportionate to the force but inversely proportional to the Mass of the body

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Newtons Laws of Motion
3rd Law : The Law of Reaction :

For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction

Friction
Reaction to translatory force acting on a body in contact with another body.

There are two types of Friction:


A) Sliding Friction

B) Rolling Friction

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Examples:

A) Sliding Friction:
A shaft rotates inside a bush bearing

An object is dragged over a flat surface

B) Rolling Friction:
A sphere is rolling on a flat surface

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Friction is resistance to movement

it opposes sliding it assists rotation

What is friction?
Plain bearings sliding friction

Rolling bearings rolling friction

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Rolling bearings were developed as devices to reduce loss of mechanical power during

transmission from a prime


mover to the driven equipment

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However, even rolling bearings,

although called Anti-friction ,


have friction .

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Friction causes loss of Mechanical Power.

Just as resistance in the electric transmission line causes loss of Electric Power.

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This brings us to the Laws of

Thermodynamics

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The First Law of Thermodynamics :

Sum total of energy in a system is Constant.

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The Second Law of Thermodynamics :

Available energy of a system isolated from its surroundings can only decrease.
This introduces the concept of irreversible resistance losses.

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Although total energy of a system is
conserved, a part of it is converted to kinetic energy of random atomic

motion, i.e., Heat, and thus becomes


unavailable for useful work.

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Friction connected with rolling bearings involves:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Bearing material Elastic deformation Surface finish Speed Lubrication Dimensions of the parts Type of friction : 1. Sliding 2. Rolling

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Rolling bearings normally generate less friction as compared to plain bearings. Still, it contributes to the total power loss and results in heat generation.

Friction General Catalogue : Page 88

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Under certain conditions the frictional moment can be calculated with sufficient accuracy M = 0,5 . . F . d
M = frictional moment (Nmm) = coefficient of friction F = bearing load (N) d = bearing bore diameter (mm)

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Estimation of Frictional Moment :


Frictional moment M = 0.5 Pd Assuming bearing load P { 0.1 C good lubrication normal operating conditions Where M = Frictional moment, Nmm = Co-efficient of friction for the bearing P = Equivalent dynamic load, N d = Bearing bore diameter, mm

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For more accurate calculation, we have to remember that all rolling element bearings will have :
1. Rolling friction
2. Sliding friction 3. Friction due to drag losses, churning, splashing etc.

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When bearings are fitted with contact seals, the frictional losses arising from the seal will have to be added also.

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Total Friction torque in a bearing M = Mrr + Msl + Mseal + Mdrag


Where
M Mrr Msl Mseal Msl = Total Frictional moment , Nmm = Rolling frictional moment , Nmm = Sliding frictional moment , Nmm = Frictional moment of the seals , Nmm = Frictional moment of drag losses , churning, splashing etc, Nmm

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Rolling Frictional Moment Mrr


Mrr = Grr (n n)0.6
Where

Mrr = Rolling frictional moment , Nmm Grr = A variable that depends on - bearing type - bearing mean diameter,mm [dm=0.5(d+D)] - radial load Fr, N - axial load, Fa, N N = Operational speed, rpm n = Kinematic viscosity at optg temp, mm2/s

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Rolling Frictional Moment Mrr


Grr can be calculated using equations given in Table 2 and the geometry constants R given in Table 3. Forces Fr & Fa are to be considered to be always positive . The initial rolling frictional moment for new, sealed bearings may be higher. Therefore, a factor 2 for light series and 4 for heavy series should be used.

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Sliding Frictional Moment Msl


Msl = Gsl sl
Where

Msl = Sliding frictional moment , Nmm Gsl = A variable that depends on - bearing type - bearing mean diameter,mm [dm=0.5(d+D)] - radial load Fr, N - axial load, Fa, N sl = Sliding friction co-efficient

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Sliding Frictional Moment Msl


Gsl can be calculated using equations given in Table 2 and the geometry constants S given in Table 3. sl can be set to the value for full film conditions i.e., k >/=2, 0.05 for lubrication with mineral oils 0.04 for lubrication with synthetic oils 0.01 for lubrication with hydraulic oils For cylindrical or taper roller bearings, use : 0.02 for cylindrical roller bearings 0.002 for taper roller bearings

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Seal Friction

Where bearings are fitted with rubbing seals, the frictional losses arising from the seal may exceed that arising from bearing itself.

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Frictional Moment of Seals Mseal


Mseal = Ks1 dsb + Ks2 Where

Mseal = Frictional moment of seals, Nmm Ks1 = Constant depending on bearing type Ks2 = Constant depending on bearing and seal type ds = shoulder diameter listed in product tables b= exponent depending on bearing and seal type
Values of Ks1, Ks2,and b can be found in table 4.

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Frictional Moment of Drag Losses Mdrag


Mdrag = VM Kball dm5 n2 for Ball Bearings Mdrag = 10 VM Kroll B dm4 n2 for Roller Bearings Where

Mdrag = Frictional moment of drag losses, Nmm VM = Variable as a function of the oil level Kball = Ball bearing related constant Kroll = Roller bearing related constant dm = Mean diameter of bearing, mm B = Bearing inner ring width, mm n = Operational speed, rpm

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Frictional Moment of Drag Losses Mdrag


The values for the variable VM can be obtained from the VM vs H/ dm curve, where H is the height of the oil level above the edge of the outer ring raceway. The bearing related constants Kball is given by the equation : Kball = {irw Kz (D+d)} x 10 12 /(D-d) Where Kball = Ball bearing related constant irw = Number of ball rows D = Bearing outside diameter, mm d = Bearing bore diameter, mm

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Frictional Moment of Drag Losses Mdrag


The bearing related constants Kroll is given by the equation : Kroll = {KL Kz (D+d)} x 10 12 /(D-d) Where Kroll = Roller bearing related constant KL = Roller bearing type related constant KZ = Bearing type related geometry constant D = Bearing outside diameter, mm d = Bearing bore diameter, mm

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Frictional Moment of Drag Losses Mdrag


To calculate drag losses for Oil Jet lubrication, use the Oil Bath model, with the oil level to half the roller dia and multiply the obtained value for Mdrag with a factor 2. To calculate drag losses for vertical shaft arrangements ( Except for Cylindrical Roller Thrust Bearings), an approximate value can be obtained by using the model for fully submerged bearings and multiply the obtained value for Mdrag with a factor equal to that width / height that is submerged relative to the total bearing width.

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Additional effects on frictional moments


Additional external sources which may affect the frictional moment equation are : Inlet shear heating reduction Replenishment starvation speed effects for oil spot, oil jet, grease and small oil level bath lubrication Drag loss effects in oil bath lubrication Mixed lubrication for low speeds and low viscosities

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Additional effects on frictional moments


Including these additional effects, the final Equation for the total frictional moment of a bearing is :
Where M Mrr Msl Mseal Msl Fish Frs

M = Fish Frs Mrr + Msl + Mseal + Mdrag


= Total Frictional moment , Nmm = Rolling frictional moment , Nmm = Sliding frictional moment , Nmm = Frictional moment of the seals , Nmm = Frictional moment of drag losses,splashing etc, Nmm = inlet shear heating reduction factor = kinematic replenishment/starvation reduction factor

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Inlet shear heating reduction factor Fish

Excess lubricant produces reverse flow Reverse flow shears lubricant, generating heat Heat lowers oil viscosity Lower viscosity reduces film thickness Less film thickness inhibits rolling friction

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Inlet shear heating reduction factor Fish


The Inlet shear heating reduction factor Fish = { 1+ 1.84 X 10 9 (n dm )1.28 n 0.64 } 1

Where Fish = inlet shear heating reduction factor n = operational speed, rpm dm = Mean diameter of bearing, mm n = Kinematic viscosity at optg temp, mm2/s

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Kinematic replenishment / starvation reduction factor Frs


In case of Oil Spot, Oil Air, Low oil level in an oil bath and grease lubrication, repeated overrolling of the raceway may push away excess lubricant. Due to bearing speed or high viscosity , the lubricant at the edges of the contact may not be able to replenish raceway film. This effect is called Kinematic starvation This causes a drop in film thickness and inhibits rolling friction

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Kinematic replenishment / starvation reduction factor Frs


The kinematic replenishment / starvation reduction factor

Frs = 1 / [ e

Krs n n( d+D){ Kz / 2 (D-d)} -2

Where Frs = kinematic replenishment / starvation reduction factor Krs = the replenishment / starvation constant 3x10-8 for oil bath / jet lubrication 6x10-8 for grease, oil spot /air lubrication

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Kinematic replenishment / starvation reduction factor Frs


The kinematic replenishment / starvation reduction factor

Frs = 1 / [ e

Krs n n( d+D){ Kz / 2 (D-d)} -2

Where Kz = bearing type related geometry constant n = operational speed, rpm n = kinematic viscosity at optg temp, mm2/s d = bearing bore diameter, mm D = bearing outside diameter,mm

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Power Loss

NR = 1.05 X 10-4 M n
SKF General Catalogue Page 102

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Calculation Example
Spherical Roller Bearing 22208E is running at a Speed n = 3500 rpm. Loads are Radial Fr = 2990 N Axial Fa = 100 N. Oil Level H = 2.5 mm above the edge of O/R Kinematic Viscosity of Oil n = 68mm2/sec at 400C Condition : Inner Ring rotation Oil Bath Lubrication Mineral Oil Operating Temp = 400C

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Calculation Example
To Calculate Rolling Frictional Moment Mrr We need to know Grre and Grri from table 2a page 91 General Catalogue 5000E If Grre < Grri , then Grr = Grre If Grre > Grri , then Grr = Grri So we need to know 1. dm from S R B table page 712 2. R1,R2,R3 & R4 from table 3d page 94 General Catalogue 5000E

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Calculation Example
To Calculate Sliding Frictional Moment Mrr We need to know Gsle and Gsli from table 2a page 91 General Catalogue 5000E If Gsle < Gsli , then Gsl = Gsle If Gsle > Gsli , then Gsl = Gsli So we need to know 1. dm from S R B table page 712 2. S1,S2,S3 & S4 from table 3d page 94 General Catalogue 5000E sl for Mineral Oil is 0.05

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Calculation Example
Since the bearing is of open architechture, there is no Seal Friction. To calculate Inlet Shear Heating Reduction Factor, Use n = 3500 rpm And dm already calculated.

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Calculation Example
To calculate Kinetic Replenishment / Starvation Reduction Factor, Use Krs = 3 x 10-8 given in page 98 of Gen.Catalogue Kz is given in the Table 5 page 98 n = 3500 rpm n = 68 mm2/s d & D are given in table on page 712

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Calculation Example
To calculate Drag Loss Moment Use equation for roller bearings. Get VM from diagram 2, page 99 of Gen.Catalogue By using H = 1.5 mm. dm is already calculated. Use KL & Kz given in the Table 5 page 98 n = 3500 rpm B,d & D are given in table on page 712

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Calculation Example
Total Friction Torque M = Fish Frs Mrr + Msl + Mseal + Mdrag

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Calculation Example

Total Power Loss NR = 1.05 X 10-4 M n