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CHAPTER

13
Electrical and Magnetic Properties

8-1
Electric Conduction – Classical Model

• Metallic bonds make free movement of valence electrons


possible.
• Outer valence electrons are completely free to move
between positive ion cores.
• Positive ion cores vibrate with greater amplitude with
increasing temperature.
• The motion of electrons are random and restricted in
absence of electric field.
• In presence of electric field, electrons attain directed drift
velocity.
Ohm’s Law

• Ohm’s law states that electric current flow I is directly


proportional to the applied voltage V and inversely
proportional to resistance of the wire.
i = V/R where i = electric current (A)
V = potential difference (V)
R = resistance of wire (Ω)
• Electric resistivity ρ = RA/l where l = length of the
conductor and A = Cross-sectional area of the conductor.
• Electric Conductivity σ = 1/ ρ
• Microscopic Ohm's law Conduc Insulators Semi-
- tors conductors
J = E/ ρ
Silver Polyethylene Silicon
J= Current density A/m2
Copper Polystyrene Germanium
E = electric field V/m
Gold
Drift Velocity of Electrons

• Electrons accelerate when electric field E is applied and


collide with ion cores .
• After collision, they accelerate again.
• Electron velocity varies in a saw tooth manner.
• Drift velocity Vd = μE where μ = electron mobility m2/(V.s)
• Direction of current flow is apposite to that of electron flow.
Electrical Resistivity
• Electrical resistivity ρtotal = ρT + ρr
• ρT = Thermal component : Elastic waves (phonons)
generated due to vibration of electron core scatter
electrons.
 Resistivity increases with temperature.
 Alloying increases resistivity.
 Resistivity increases with temperature.
• ρr = Residual component : Due to
structural imperfections like
dislocations.
• ρT = ρ0C(1+ αTT)
ρ0C = Resistivity at 00C
αT = Coefficient of resistivity.
T = Temperature of the metal
Energy Bond Model of Electric Conduction

• Valence electrons are delocalized, interact and


interpenetrate each other.
• Their sharp energy levels are broadened into energy
bands.
• Example:- Sodium has 1 valence electron (3S1). If there
are N sodium atoms, there are N distinct 3S1 energy levels
in 3S band.
• Sodium is a good conductor
since it has half filled outer
orbital
Energy Band Structures and Conductivity
Conduction In Terms of Band and Atomic Bonding

Conduction in Metal

• Only the electrons with energies greater than Fermi energy


can be accelerated in the presence of an electric field and
participating in the conduction process, which are called
free electrons.
• In metals there are empty states just above the Fermi
levels, where electrons can be promoted.
• The promotion energy is extremely small. The energy
provided by electric field is sufficient to excite large
numbers of electrons into the empty/ conduction band.
(a) Before and (b) after electron excitation
Conduction In Terms of Band and Atomic Bonding
Semiconductor and Insulator
(a) Before and (b) after electron excitation
Energy Band Structures and Bonding
Semiconductivity
• For every electron excited into the conduction band they
left behind a vacancy of electron in the valence band
(Fig.above).
• The position of the vacancy may be thought as moving by
the motion of other valence electrons that fill in the
vacancy. The vacancy is called hole and have positive
charge (+1.6 ×10-19 C).
• Thus in the present of electric filed the electrons and holes
move in opposite directions and both can be scatter by
lattice imperfections
Conduction in Intrinsic Semiconductors

• Semiconductors: Conductors between good conductors


and insulators.
• Intrinsic Semiconductors: Pure semiconductors and
conductivity depends on inherent properties.
• Example: Silicon and Germanium – each atom contributes
4 valence electrons for covalent bond.
• Valence electrons are excited
away from their bonding
position when they are
excited.
• Moved electron leaves
a hole behind.
Intrinsic Semiconductor
Extrinsic Semiconductor
n-Type Extrinsic Semiconductor
p-Type Extrinsic Semiconductor
Effect of Doping on Carrier Concentration

• The mass action law: np = ni2 where ni (constant) is


intrinsic concentration of carriers in a semiconductor.
• Since the semiconductor
must be electrically neutral
Na + n = Nd + p
where Na and Nd are
concentrations of negative
donor and positive acceptors.
• In a n-type semiconductor, Na = 0 and n>>p
hence nn = Nd and pn = ni2/nn=ni2/Nd
np = ni2/pp = ni2/Na
Carrier Concentration

• For Si at 300K, intrinsic carrier concentration ni=1.5 x


1016 carier/m2
• For extrinsic silicon doped with arsenic
nn = 1021 electrons/m3
pn = 2.25 x 1011 holes/m3
• As the concentration of
impurities increase ,
mobility of carriers
decrease.
Effect of Temperature on Electrical Conductivity

• Electrical conductivity increases with temperature as more


and more impurity atoms are ionized.
• Exhaustion range: temperature
at which donor atom becomes
completely ionized .
• Saturation range: Acceptor
atoms become completely
ionized.

• Beyond these ranges, temperature does not change


conductivity substantially.
• Further increase in temperature results in intrinsic
conduction becoming dominant and is called intrinsic
range.
Semiconductor Devices – pn Junction

• pn junction if formed by doping a single crystal of silicon


first by n-type and then by p type material.
• Also produced by diffusion and impurities.
• Majority carriers cross over the junction and recombine
but the process stops later as electrons repelled by negative
ions giving rise to depleted zones.
• Under equilibrium conditions, there exists a barrier to
majority carrier flow.
Reverse and Forward Biased pn Junction

• Reverse biased: n-type is connected to the positive


terminal and p-type to negative.
 Majority carrier electrons and holes move away from
junction and current does not flow.
 Leakage current flows due to minority carriers.
• Forward biased: n-type is connected to negative terminal
and p-type to positive.
 Majority carriers are repelled to the junction and
recombine and the current flows.
Application of pn Junction Diode

• Rectifier Diodes: Converts alternating voltage into direct


voltage (rectification).
• When AC signal is applied to diode, current flows only
when p-region is positive and hence half way rectification
is achieved.
• Signal can be further
smoothened by using
electronics.
Breakdown Diodes (Zener Diodes)

• Zener diodes have small breakdown currents.


• With application of breakdown voltage, in reverse bias,
reverse current increases rapidly.
• Electrons gain sufficient energy to knock more electrons
from covalent bonds.
• These are available for conduction in reverse bias.
Bipolar Junction Transistor
• BJT consists of two pn junctions occurring sequentially
on a single crystal.
 Can serve as current amplifier.
 Emitter: n-type emits
electrons.
 Base: p-type, o.1mm thick,
controls flow of charge.
 Collector: n-type, collects
charge carrier.
• Emitter base junction is forward
biased and collector base junction
is reverse biased.
• Small base current can be used to control large collector
current.
Magnetic Properties
Magnetic Fields and Quantities

Magnetic Dipole
• In magnetic materials there are south and north poles.
These two poles is called dipoles.
• Magnetic force is shown as imaginary lines from North to
South. Magnetic force also can think as magnetic field.
• Within a magnetic field the force exerts a torque and
produce magnetic moment. For example a magnetic
compass needle lines up with the earths magnetic field.

The magnetic moment as


designated by an arrow
Magnetic Fields
• Ferromagnetic materials: Iron, cobalt and nickel -provide
strong magnetic field when magnetized.
• Magnetism is dipolar up to atomic level.
• Magnetic fields are also produced by current carrying
conductors.
• Magnetic field of a solenoid is

H = 0.4П n i / l A/m
n = number of turns
l = length
i = current
Magnetic Induction
• If demagnetized iron bar is placed inside a solenoid, the
magnetic field outside solenoid increases.
• The magnetic field due to the bar adds to that of solenoid -
Magnetic induction (B) .
• Intensity of Magnetization (M) : Induced magnetic
moment per unit volume
B = μ0H + μ0 M = μ0(H+M)
μ0 = permeability of free space
= 4π x 10-7 (Tm/A)
• In most cases μ0 > μ0 H
Therefore B =~ M
Magnetic Permeability
• Magnetic permeability = μ = B/H
• Magnetic susceptibility = Xm = M/H
• For vacuum μ = μ0 = = 4π x 10-7 (Tm/A)
• Relative permeability = μr = μ/ μ0
B = μ0 μr H
• Relative permeability is
measure of induced magnetic field.
• Magnetic materials that
are easily magnetized
have high magnetic
permeability.
Types of Magnetism
Diamagnetism:
 A very weak and non permanent magnetism.
 Persist only when external field is being applied.
 The magnitude of magnetic moment is very small and in opposite
direction to the applied field.
 µr < 1 ,    χ m= -10-5 (-ve)

Paramagnetism:
 Each atom possesses a permanent dipole moment. But the orientation
is random.
 The orientation of magnetic moments are align in the direction of
external field when external magnetic field is applied.
 µr >1 ,    χ m= 10-5 ~ 10-2 (+ve)
Anti-Ferromagnetism:
 The alignment of the spin moments of
neighboring atoms or ions are exactly in
opposite directions and canceling each
other.

Ferrimagnetism:
 Similar to ferromagnetism but the source
of the net moment is different.
 A permanent magnetization but the
saturation magnetizations are not as high
as for ferromagnets.
 Example Fe3O4
Magnetic Moments

No Applied Applied
Magnetic Field (H = 0) Magnetic Field (H)

opposing
(1) diamagnetic

none
Adapted from Fig.
20.5(a), Callister 7e.

random

aligned
(2) paramagnetic Adapted from Fig.
20.5(b), Callister 7e.

aligned
aligned

(3) ferromagnetic Adapted from Fig. 20.7,


Callister 7e.
ferrimagnetic
Ferromagnetism

 The permanent magnetic moment is exist even in the absence of an


external magnetic field.
 Permanent magnetic moments are result from un-cancelled electron
spin magnetic moments.The contribution of orbital magnetic moments
are small ( can be neglected).
 χ  = ~106
m
 Because M>>H,  B = µoH+ µoM can be written as B = µoM.
 When an external magnetic field is applied, the materials is said in
Saturation Magnetization (Ms) condition if all of the magnetic dipoles
are mutually aligned with the external field.
Ms= KN
Where K; net magnetic moment per atom
(depend on the type of materials)
N; number of atoms present N = ρNA / A
• Ferromagnetic elements (Fe, Co, Ni and Gd) produce
large magnetic fields.
• It is due to spin of the 3d electrons of adjacent atoms
aligning in parallel directions in microscopic domains by
spontaneous magnetization.
• Random orientation of domains results in no net
magnetization.
• The ratio of atomic
spacing to diameter
of 3d orbit must be
1.4 to 2.7.
Effect of Temperature on Ferromagnetism

• Above 0 K, thermal energy causes magnetic dipoles to


deviate from parallel arrangement.
• At higher temperature, (curie temperature)
ferromagnetism is completely lost and material becomes
paramagnetic.
• On cooling, ferromagnetic
domains reform.
• Examples: Fe 7700C
Co 11230C
Ni 3580C
Ferromagnetic Domains

• Magnetic dipole moments align themselves in parallel


direction called magnetic domains.
• When demagnetized, domains are rearranged in random
order.
• When external magnetic
field is applied the domains
that have moments parallel
to applied filed grow.
• When domain growth
finishes, domain rotation
occurs.
Types of Energies that Determine the Structure

• Most stable structure is attained when overall potential


energy is minimum.
• Potential energy with a domain is minimized when all
atomic dipoles are aligned in single direction.
• Magnetostatic energy: Potential energy produced by its
external field.
 Formation of multiple
domain reduces
magnetostatic energy.
Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy Energy

• Magnetization with applied field for a single crystal varies


with crystal orientation.
• Saturation magnetization occurs most easily for the <100>
direction of BCC iron.
• Saturation magnetization occurs with highest applied field
for <111> direction.
• Some grains of polycrystalline
materials need some energy
to rotate their resultant
moment.

• This energy is magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy.


Domain Wall Energy

• Domain wall is the region through which the orientation


of the magnetic moment changes gradually.
• 300 atoms wide due to balance between exchange
force and magnetocrystalline anisotropy.
• Equilibrium wall width is width at which sum of two
energies are minimum.
Magnetostrictive Energy
• Magnetostriction: Magnetically induced reversible elastic
strain.
• Energy due to mechanical stress created by
magnetostriction is called magnetostriction energy.
• It is due to change in bond length caused by rotation of
dipole moments.
• Equilibrium domain configuration is reached when sum of
magnetostrictive and domain wall energies are minimum.
Magnetization and Demagnetization
• Magnetization and demagnetization do not follow same
loop.
• Once magnetized, remnant induction ‘Br’ remains even
after demagnetization.
• Negative field Hc (coercive
force) must be applied to
completely demagnetize.
• Magnetization loop is
called hysteresis loop.
• Area inside the loop
is a measure of work done
in magnetizing and
demagnetizing.
Soft Magnetic Materials

• Easily magnetized and demagnetized.


• Have high initial permeability and low coercitivity.
• Reach saturation at low applied field.
• Must be free from structural defects and highly resistance to electrical
currents.
• Low coercive force and high saturation induction are desirable
properties.
• The soft magnetic materials have small hysterisis loop ( energy loss is
small).
• Hysteresis energy losses: Due to dissipated energy required to push
the domain back and forth.
 Imperfections increases hysteresis.
• Eddy current energy losses: Induced electric current causes some
stray electric currents resulting from transient voltage.
 Source of energy loss by electrical resistance healing.
Hard Magnetic Materials

• Difficult to demagnetization.
• Have high remanance Br, coercitivity Hc and saturationflux density
Ms.
• Have low initial permeability.
• High hysterisis energy losses.
• Energy product rectangle (BH)max, shows the energy required to
demagnetize a magnet material.
• The restriction to the domain wall movement can increase the external
field required to demagnetization.
• Some energy of the field is converted to potential energy.
• Maximum energy product is a measure of magnetic potential energy =
Max (B x H).
• Max (B x H) = area of largest rectangle that can be inscribed in the
second quadrant of the hysteresis loop.
Hard vs. Soft Magnets

large coercivity

d
--good for perm magnets

Har

d
Har
--add particles/voids to

Soft
make domain walls Applied Magnetic
hard to move (e.g., Field (H)
tungsten steel:
Hc = 5900 amp-turn/m) small coercivity--good for elec. motors
(e.g., commercial iron 99.95 Fe)