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Control of Emissions from Power Plants/Large Scale Industries Present and Future Approach

By: Lalit Kapur, Senior Environmental Engineer

Central Pollution Control Board

Control Strategies for: 1. Power Plants, Cement, Aluminium and Integrated Iron & Steel are the major sectors from infrastructure development of the country. However, these are one of the major polluting in nature. Besides Green House Gas Emission, SO2, NOx, Fluoride & CO are the critical pollutants emitted from these industries. To contain emissions of these pollutants, environmental standards have been developed. Implementation of environmental standards has been taken up at National & State Level. To give impetus in implementation of environmental standards National Task Force for each industrial section have been constituted. Specific measure such as use of clean fuel, clean process technologies/alternate control systems have been suggested for each individual industrial section separately to tackle the serious issues related to air pollution, water pollution and solid waste disposal. Guidelines have also been evolved to deal with problem of flyash, (spent pot lining) and coke oven emissions.

2. 3. 4.


Power Plants

Development of Environmental Standards Development of Environmental standards is based on the premise that the standards so developed are : Technically feasible; Best practicable Economically viable; and Technology(BPT) Socially acceptable Technical Feasibility : Representative industry Raw material use Processes of manufacture Water balance and mass balance Waste water characteristics Economic Viability : Various treatment alternatives & their economics(Annual burden: annual turn-over >3%) Evolve environmental standards & prescribe monitoring procedure Social Acceptability : The industry should provide to its effluent/emission, the minimal (at least) treatment

Power Plants

Power Sector : A Profile

Seventy one per cent of total installed capacity of electricity production is based on coal and gas in the country.

81 coal based thermal power plants comprising of 57799 MW electricity generating capacity as on March 2002
More than 200 million tonnes of coal with ash contents 35-45% is consumed in Thermal Power Plants

Power Plants

Environmental Issues
Use of high ash content coal in power generation leads to the following environmental issues : Air Pollution Emission of particulate matter (dust) Emission of sulphur dioxide and Oxides of Nitrogen Green House Gas Emissions Water Pollution Cooling water discharge Ash pond effluent Solid Waste Large volume of coal ash generation

Power Plants

Emission Standards For Thermal Power Plant

Power generation Capacity (MW)
Less than 210 MW

Particulate matter emission

350 mg/Nm3

210 MW or more

150 mg/Nm3

Depending upon the requirement of local situations, which may warrant stricter standards as in case of protected areas the State Pollution Control Boards and other implementing agencies within the provisions of the EPA, 1986 may prescribe limit of 150 mg/Nm3 irrespective of the generation capacity of the plant.

Power Plants

Stack Height Requirement

In order to proper dispersion of SO2 emissions from thermal power plants, stack height criteria is adopted in the country. However, for larger capacities of boilers (500 MW and above), space provision for installing FGD system has been recommended.

Power generation Capacity

Less than 200/210 MW

Stack height (metre)

H= 14(Q)0.3 where Q is emission rate of SO2 in kg/hr and H is stack height in metre 220

200/210 MW or less than 500 MW 500 MW and above


Power Plants

Conventional Practices for Control of Pollution

Air Pollution:

Particulates: precipitator Gaseous emission: stacks

High efficiency Electrostatic Dispersion through tall

Water Pollution

Cooling Water Discharge: Once through with long channels/cooling tower Ash Pond effluent: Settling ponds

Solid Waste
Coal ash: Dumped into ash ponds. Emphasis is being given to utilize ash for the manufacture of builder products, cement,

Power Plants

Future Technologies for Pollution Prevention & Control in Power Section Adoption of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs)
To meet increasing demand of power with minimal environmental impact for sustainable development, adoption of clean coal technologies with enhanced power plant efficiency, use of washed coal, efficient pollution control systems and proper by-product and waste handling & utilization, is necessary

Clean Coal Technologies

Pre-combustion Technologies: Ash sulphur and other impurities can be reduced (coal benefaction) from the coal before it is burned.
Combustion technologies Generation of emissions of SO2, NOx & CO2 can be FBC(CBFC, AFBC & PFBC) and IGCC minimised by adopting improved combustion

Power Plants

Use of Beneficiated Coal

Ministry of Environment & Forests, vide notification no. GSR 560(E) & 378(E) dated September 19, 1997 and June 30,1998 respectively made mandatory use of beneficiated/blended coal containing ash not more than 34 per cent on annual average basis w.e.f. June 2001 (extended to June, 2002) in following category of power plants Power plants located beyond 1000 km from pit head Power plants located in critically pollutied areas, urban areas and ecologically sensitive areas. The Power Plants using FBC (CFBC, PFBC & AFBC) & IGCC CCTs are exempted to use beneficiated coal

Power Plants

Requirements Of Beneficiated/blended Coal

Out of 81 coal based Thermal Power Plants, 39 plants are required to use beneficiated coal not containing ash more than 34 per cent w.e.f. June 2002

As per Central Electricity Authority (CEA) estimation, the requirement of coal for existing and the plants to be installed under Ninth Plan would be 85.46 million tonnes per annum.
Coal India Ltd. would able be meet the requirement of 68.48 million tonnes per annum coal from their sources (by existing washeries and blending of domestic coals). The remaining quantity could be

Power Plants Thermal Power Plants Required to use Beneficiated Coal

S. No.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Name of Thermal Power Station

Badarpur Indraprastha Rajghat Faridabad Panipat (Units 1-5) Bhatinda (Units 1-4) Ropar (Units 1-6) NCR Dadri Harduaganj Panki Paricha Kota (Units 1-5) Sabarmati Wanakbori (Units 1-6) Gandhi Nagar

Capacity (MW)
705 278 135 165 650 440 1260 840 425 274 220 850 410 1260 660

UA UA UA UA >1000 km >1000 km >1000 km >1000 km >1000 km U.A. >1000 km U.A. U.A. >1000 km U.A.

Estimated Annual beneficiated Coal Requirement (MTPA)

2.75 0.67 0.58 0.80* 3.60* 1.98 5.08 4.00 1.06 0.79 0.89 3.65 1.32* 6.06 3.00*

17. 18. 19. 20.

Sikka (Units 1-2) Bhusawal Koradi Nasik

240 478 1080 910

>1000 km
>1000 km >1000 km U.A. >1000 km

1.00* 2.24 5.50* 3.60

Power Plants Thermal Power Plants Required to use Beneficiated Coal

S. No.

Name of Thermal Power Station

Trombay Dahanu DPL Muddanur (Rayalaseema) North Chennai-I Ennore Raichur (1-4) Mettur Tuticorin (1-5) Bokaro Durgapur Bhatinda-5&6 Wanakbori-7 Gandhinagar-7 Raichur (5-6)

Capacity (MW)
1150 500 390 420 630 450 840 840 1050 820 350 420 210 210 420

U.A. S.A. CPA >1000 km U.A. >1000 km >1000 km >1000 km >1000 km CPA CPA >1000 km >1000 km >1000 km >1000 km

Estimated Annual beneficiated Coal Requirement (MTPA)

Oil/Coal 2.01 0.49 2.37 2.97 1.92* 4.38 4.39 4.08* 1.84 1.00 1.88* 1.00* 0.95 2.14

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

37. 38. 39. Total

North Chennai II
Mangalore Tranagallu Suratgarh-I

1000 260 500

>1000 km (Imported Coal)


>1000 km >1000 km

Total coal consumption based on 2002-2003 data upto ix plan 85.46 MTPA
* Revised based on data provided by SEBs/utilities UA : Urban Area, CPA : Critically Polluted Area, SA: Sensitive Area and IC: Imported Coal

Power Plants

Coal Beneficiation Status

Coal Beneficiation Plants under operation Piparwar Washery 6.5 Mt/y of raw coal Bina Deshaling plant of raw coal Bilaspur washery MP coal Girdih washery of raw coal Kargali washery of raw coal Dipika washery 8.0 Mt/y of raw coal Orissa MP 4.5 Mt/y 2.5 Mt/y of raw Bihar 2.5 Mt/y


1.5 Mt/y

Coal Beneficiation Plants under Planning

Power Plants

Setting up of Coal Washeries Suggestions

To find the options/mechanism for setting up of coalwasheries for non coking coals :
Coal India will set up its own washery State Electricity Board to set up its own washery Coal India to ask private entrepreneurs to set up washeries for CIL and taking washing charges State Electricity Board to select a private entrepreneur to set lup a washery near pit-head

Power Plants

Clean Coal Combustion Technologies

1. Super Critical Technology

Larger unit size (more than 500 MW) Higher thermal efficiency (of 5% and above) Low gaseous & soots emissions
2. Fluidised Bed Combustion (CFBC/PFBC/AFBC)

Can burn wide range of coals and other fuels such as pet coke, lignite etc. Higher thermal efficiency (>40%) Lower NOx emissions Low CO2 emissions Insitu SO2 control Sizes upto 250 MW commercially available indigenous Contd

Power Plants

3. Integrated Gassification Combined Cycle (IGCC)

Through ash developing stage Limitation on availability of larger unit size High thermal efficiency (>45%) Sulphur dioxide removal upto 99% NOx reduction by 90% Low CO2 emission

4. Post Combustion Technologies

High efficiency electrostatic precipitator Replacement of ESP with Bag filter De SOx and DeNOx systems

Recycling of ash pond effluents

Switching over to medium concentration slurry disposal system (MCSD) with ash concentration in slurry 40-45% for high concentration slurry disposal systems (HCSD) with ash concentration in slurry 65-72%

Utilization of Flyash (at present about 19% coash ash is

Cement Industries

Cement Sector: Profile

India Ranks World's producing country 2nd largest cement

No. of Large Cement Plants in the country 113 Total Annual Installed Capacity Million Tonnes March 2000) 110.10 (As on

Per Capita Consumption of Cement (1999) Annual Cement Production 94.21 MillionIndia Tonnes World Average (As on March 97 kg/annum 256 kg/annum 2000)

Cement Industries

Environmental Issues in Cement Sector

Uncontrolled fugitive emission

Raw Material Storage Loading/Unloading Operation Material Transfer Point

Continuous dust monitoring system & its calibration Industrial solid waste utilisation in cement manufacturing
Flyash Blast Furnace Slag Lime Sludge


Cement Industries

Use of Hazardous Waste in Cement Kiln

Reduction of Green House Gases
Reduction in power consumption Reduction in coal consumption

Promotion of Energy Efficient Technology

Waste heat recovery from kiln &

clinker cooler exit


Energy Conservation

Use of petroleum coke as fuel in kiln

Cement Industries

Sources of Dust Emissions

Point Sources
Stack attached with kiln, Stack attached with Raw Mill, Stack attached with Clinker Cooler, Stack attached with Coal Mill, Stack attached with Cement Mill,

Fugitive Sources
Open air handling & storage of raw materials & clinker Transfer Points Leaking Joints Loading & unloading operation Vehicular movement on unpaved roads

Dust Generation at various sections in Cement Plant

S. No.
1. 2.

Cement Industries

Source of Pollution
Crusher Raw Mill: Gravity Discharge Air Swept (e.g. Roller Mill)

Normal dust range (g/Nm3)

5-15 25-60 300-500 25-60 100-120 50-75 10-15 30-40 5-10 60-150 20-30


Coal Mill: Gravity Discharge Drying Grinding

Kiln: Dry Semi-Dry Wet Clinker Cooler Cement Mill Packing Plant


5. 6. 7.

Cement Industries

Emissions of Pollutants
SO2 Emission from kiln Formation Mechanism *Oxidation of sulphur compounds present in raw material & fuel (300-600C) Emission Range: 300-2300 mg/Nm3 (Coal based kiln) Emission of SO2 may be very high in case of Pet Coke based kiln NOx Emission From Kiln

90% of NOx is in the form of NO Formation Mechanism: Thermal NO & Fuel NO Emission Range 200-2500 mg/Nm3 Literature indicates wide variation in emission range

Cement Industries

Selection of Air Pollution Control Equipment

Size of dust particles

Flue gas characteristics Collection efficiency Emission standard Techno-economic Feasibility of Air Pollution

Control Equipment

Cement Industries

Recommended Air Pollution Control Equipment

for different Sections
S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Section Crusher Raw Mill Kiln Clinker Cooler Coal Mill Cement Mill Packing Plant Dust Collector Bag Filter Bag Filter/ESP Bag Filter/ESP with GCT ESP/Bag Filter with heat exchanger Bag Filter/ESP Bag Filter/ESP Bag Filter

Cement Industries

Fugitive Emission Control

Fugitive dust is 10-30% of total emission Local exhaust ventilation system Water spray

Proper House Keeping

Enclosed storage facilities (silo, dome-shaped building) to store raw materials, additives, coal,

clinker, flyash

Cement Industries

Emission Standards in India

Plant capacity in tonnes per day <200 >200 Particulate matter Emission nor to exceed mg/Nm3 Protected Area 250 150 Other Area 400 250

CPCB/SPCB may fix stringent standards, if required

Cement Industries

Emission Standards in other Countries

Country Particulate Matter Emission Limit (mg/Nm3)

Australia Germany South Africa Switzerland Japan USA Portugal

50 50 120 50 100 100 / 50 100 / 50

Cement Industries

Utilisation of Industrial Solid Waste in Cement Manufacturing

Flyash (solid waste from TPP)

Blast Furnace Slag (Solid Waste from Iron &

Steel Plant)
Phospho-gypsum (Solid Waste from Fertilizer Plant) Lime sludge (Solid Waste from Pulp & Paper Industry)

Cement Industries

Pollution Control Implementation Status

Constitution of National & Zonal Task Forces (1986)

Prosecution of Recalcitrant units

Notification No. 66, dated 12.02.92,

Establishment before 1981 : Comply by 31.12.93

Establishment after May 1981 : Comply by 31.12.92

CPCB issued direction under Section 5 of EPA, 1986


Cement Industries

Complying units Non complying units Closed units Status Awaited Kiln + Raw Mill :

: : : :

58 16 14 25

Bag Houses (emission 50 mg/Nm3) Replace by ESP

Multicyclone with clinker cooler : Kiln ESP Tripping :

High CO (Fluctuation in coal quality)

Bed blending system : Reduces variation in coal quality : Reduces Problem of high CO : ESP operation more stable

Cement Industries

New Initiatives taken/Proposed by CPCB for Cement Industry

Constitution of National Task Force

Effective implementation of standards through Task Force

Engineering Design parameters of A.P.C.E. Fugitive Emission control new regulation and standard for fugitive

emission and monitoring protocol being finalized

Pollution load standards for cement mill, kiln and clinker cooler instead of concentration limit Emission standard for SO2, Ni and V for petroleum coke based cement kiln Proper calibration of Opacity Monitor

Cement Industries

Proper record keeping of ESP / Bag filter

Regular interaction meeting of National Cement Task Force (NCTF) with cement industries and SPCB to discuss & sort out technical issues

Common consent (Air, Water) for cement industries

Incentive for using flyash in cement making

Effective noise pollution control from cement industries

Material balance and Environmental Audit in cement


Defaulter list in CPCB web site

Aluminium Industries

Aluminium Sector: Present Capacity and Future Expansion*

S. No. Name of Smelter Installed capacity (TPA) Alumina Aluminium Metal Aluminium Products Future Expansion Proposed (TPA) Alumina Aluminium Metal Aluminium Products


NALCO, Angul, Orissa BALCO Korba, Orissa INDALCO Alupuram, Kerala INDALCO Belgaum, Karnataka INDALCO Hirakud, Orissa HINDALCO Renukoot, UP

8,00,00 0 2,00,00 0 -



15,75,00 0# -








2,70,00 0 -







4,50,00 0





7. *Based MALCO 60,000 of 1999-2000 30,000 on information Mettureda # Expansion complete m, TN


Aluminium Industries

Environmental Issues
Ambient Fluoride levels around Smelter Fluoride emissions from Smelters HC/PAH emissions from Smelters and Anode plant

Disposal of Spent Pot Lining

Presence of leachable cyanide and fluoride

Disposal of Red Mud Presence of alkalinity

Mercury discharge from Gallium plant

National Emission Standards

Fluoride (kg/t)
a) Smelter Plant
(i) Potline VSS HSS 4.7 6.0 150

Aluminium Industries

EPA Standards
Particulates (mg/Nm3) Stack Height (m) CO

PBCW (ii) Green Anode Shop (iii) Anode Bake oven b) Alumina Plant

1.0 150 0.3 150 H = 14 (Q)0.3

(i) Primary 150 and Note: Secondary Q-Emission of SO2 in kg/hr, H-Stack Height in m Crusher Source: MoEF notification GSR 742 (E), dated 30.08.1990

Aluminium Industries

Fluoride Emissions
S. No.

Name of Smelter NALCO, Angul,Oris sa BALCO Korba, Orissa INDALCO Alupuram, Kerala

Type of Anode PBCW


(kg/t)* 17.28

Actual Emissions (kg/t)* Stack Roof Total 0.23 5 10.1 7

mg/N m3

Control System




Dry Scrubbing System Wet Scrubbing











Wet Scrubbing


INDALCO# Hirakud, Orissa



1.43 -2.53

1.40 2.23

2.83 4.76

Wet Scrubbing (Proposing to convert to Dry Scrubbing by 2005) Dry Scrubbing System


HINDALCO PBSW 29.0 *kg/t Renukoot, of aluminum UP # MoEF condition 2.5 kg F/t after expansion

0.03 -0.39

0.44 1


Aluminium Industries

Spent Pot Lining (1999-2000)

S. No. Name of Smelter Quantity Generated
(Million Tonne per Annum)

Method of disposal


NALCO, Angul, Orissa

BALCO, Korba, Orissa


Secured landfill
Carbon - in covered storage shed Refractory -in unsecured landfill Carbon-stored under cover Refractory -Either land filled or stored under cover Secured Landfill Carbon-used for recovery of cryolite followed by


INDALCO, Alupuram, Kerala


4. 5.

INDALCO, Hirakud, Orissa HINDALCO, Renukoot, UP

500 2,382.5

Aluminium Industries

Red Mud (1999-2000)

S. No Name of Refinery Quantity Generated Method of disposal (000Tonne/Annum)

1. 2. 3.

NALCO Damanjodi, Orissa BALCO Korba, Orissa INDALCO Belgaum, Karnataka

1,620 280.5 321.0

Wet (50-60% solid) Wet Dry (70% solid)


INDALCO Muri, Jharkhand



Dry (70% solid)




Dry (62-65% solid)

Aluminium Industries

Proposed Future Policy

Phasing out of the Soderberg Technology Revising fluoride emission standards and converting

to Dry Scrubber Setting up a limit for fluoride consumption per tonne of aluminium Prescribing standards for ambient fluoride/forage fluoride Developing emission standards for HC/PAH Setting up a centralised SPL treatment and disposal facility Converting to Dry methods for disposal of Red Mud

Iron & Steel Industries

Integrated Iron & Steel Sector

Major Sources of Pollution:
Coke Oven and By-product Plant Steel Melting Shop

Sintering Plant
Blast Furnace Refractory Material Plant

Captive Thermal Power Plant

Iron & Steel Industries

Emission Standards
Stack Emissions
Plants Particulate Matter Emission (mg/Nm3)

Sintering Plant Steel Melting Shop

Refractory Material Plant/

150 150 (during normal operation) 400 (during oxygen lancing) 150

Iron & Steel Industries S. Industry No.

1. Coke oven plants (by product recovery type)


Standards New Existing Batteries Batteries


Fugitive Emissions

(a) Leakage from door (b) Leakage from charging lids

5 (PLD)* 1 (PLL)* 4 (PLO)* 16 (with HPLA)*

10 (PLD)* 1 (PLL)* 4 (PLO)* 50 (with HPLA)*

(c) Leakage from AP Covers (d) Charging emission (second/charge) 2. Stack Emission of Coke Oven (a) SO2(mg/Nm3) (b) NOx, (mg/Nm3) (c) SPM, (mg/Nm3) (i) SPM emission during charging (stack emission)

800 500 50 25

800 500 50 25


Iron & Steel Industries S. Industry No. Sulphur in Coke Oven gas used for heating (mg/Nm3) Sulphur in Coke Oven gas used for heating (mg/Nm3 Emission for quenching operation Particulate matter gm?MT of coke produced Benzo-Pyerine (BOP) concentration in work zone air (ug/m3) Battery area (top of the battery) Other units in coke oven plant 5 2 5 2 800 800 Parameter Standards New Existing Batteries Batteries

Iron & Steel Industries

Current Practices and Future Requirement for Control of Pollution

Technologies / Current Practices Raw material Handling Units Enclosures and water
sprinkling system

Further Requirement
Improvements in the systems controlling fugitive emissions. for

Coke Oven Plant HPLA system Hydraulic door and door

frame cleaner Air cooled Self Sealing doors Water sealed AP caps

Screw feeder Land based pushing emission control system Self sealing air cooled doors Possibility of coke dry quenching needs to be tried out Effluent treatment plant to treat cyanide, phenol ammonia, COD etc. Hazardous waste (tar sludge and ETP sludge) handling and disposal following Hazardous Waste Handling, Rules; or, tar sludge / ETP sludge charging alongwith the coal fines in the coke ovens.


Iron & Steel Industries

Technologies / Current Practices

Sintering Plant ESP / bag filter / wet scrubber for

Further Requirements
ESP / bag filters with higher efficiency of removal for process emissions.

process emissions ESP / bag filter / wet scrubber for work zone environment

Thermal Power Plant ESP for the emissions

Proper management utilisation of flyash


Steel Melting Shop ESP / bag filter wet scrubber for the

process emissions Effluent treatment comprising settling unit and re-circulation system for the treated effluent

Proper operation and maintenance of air emission control and effluent treatment systems. Secondary emission control system.
Proper operation and maintenance of ESP / bag filter / wet scrubber for air emissions BF slag utilisation

Blast Furnace ESP / bag filter / wet scrubber for

air emissions

Iron & Steel Industries

Problems in Achieving the Standards

SAIL coke oven batteries are old batteries, most of which have been installed alongwith the installation of Steel Plants. 22 batteries are in operation at present. The main problems faced by the industry is due to non installation of the following pollution control units:

Air-cooled self-sealing doors. The hydrojet cleaning system shall be provided for the door and door frame
cleaning with a facility of hydrojet pressure of 600 kg/cm2.

Provision of water sealed AP covers should be provided. To provide aspiration through high pressure ammonia liquor (HPLA) injection in
goose neck and emissions should be transferred directly to gas collecting mains.

To reduce generation of emissions during coal charging, the charging should be

accomplished with hermetically sealed charging sleeves and screw feeders in charging car. Provision of new charging car with magnetic lid lifter in the charging car alongwith lid and frame cleaning should be made. collection hood and wet scrubbing unit for gas cleaning. The height of chimney discharging the cleaned gases must ensure proper dispersion of gaseous pollutants. be provided.

The coke pushing emission should be treated in stationary land-based system with

Computerized combustion control and computerized moisture control system to