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DESIGNING OF BUSBAR SYSTEM

BUSBAR SYSTEM DESIGN PART 1


BASIC REQUIREMENTS DESIGN PARAMATERS

BASIC REQUIREMENTS
THE BUSBAR SHOULD BE ABLE TO CARRY

The Rated Current The Current That Would Flow Under Abnormal Conditions

BASIC REQUIREMENTS
BUSBAR SYSTEM SHOULD ALSO BE PROTECTED AGAINST

VERMIN, FALLING TOOLS & HARDWARES WHICH INITIATES ARCING FAULTS DUST & CONDUCTING DEPOSITS WHICH ACCELERATE TRACKING

DESIGN PARAMETERS
THE CONFIGURATION OF BUSBAR THE ORIENTATION OF BUSBAR CLEARANCE & CREEPAGE DISTANCE INSULATING SUPPORTS INSULATION OF BUSBARS SINGLE OR MULTI BAR BUSBAR JOINTS BUSBAR MATERIAL

DESIGN PARAMETERS
THE CONFIGURATION OF BUSBAR

CONFIGURATION OF BUSBARS
ALTERNATING CURRENT CAPACITIES FOR SAME CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA

160
%

154 100 118 125 128

157

U P R A T I N G

120 80 40 0

VARIOUS TYPES OF CONFIGURATION

DESIGN PARAMETERS
THE CONFIGURATION OF BUSBAR

THE ORIENTATION OF BUSBAR

ORIENTATION OF BUSBARS
1) HORIZONTAL

2) VERTICAL ORIENTATION

s s s
INVARIABLY S > S SHORT CIRCUIT FORCE FOR VERTICAL ORIENTATION IS LESS THAN THAT FOR HORIZONTAL ORIENTATION

DESIGN PARAMETERS
THE CONFIGURATION OF BUSBAR THE ORIENTATION OF BUSBAR CLEARANCE & CREEPAGE DISTANCE

CLEARANCE & CREEPAGE DISTANCE


CLEARANCE IS THE SHORTEST DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO CONDUCTORS AT DIFFERENT POTENTIAL.

CREEPAGE DISTANCE IS THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO CONDUCTORS AT DIFFERENT POTENTIAL, MEASURED ALONG THE SURFACE OF INSULATING SUPPORT.

MEASUREMENT OF CREEPAGE DISTANCE


CONDUCTING PART 2mm CONDUCTING PART

2mm

INSULATING MATERIAL

CREEPAGE DISTANCE

INCLUSION OF A GROOVE IN CREEPAGE DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT OF CREEPAGE DISTANCE


CREEPAGE DISTANCE

CONDUCTING PART

2mm

CONDUCTING PART

INSULATING MATERIAL

INCLUSION OF A RIDGE IN CREEPAGE DISTANCE

MINIMUM VALUES OF CLEARANCES & CREEPAGE DISTANCES (IS 4237 : 1982)


RATED INSULATION VOLTAGE
CLEARANCES mm CREEPAGES mm

I 63 A

I 63 A

I 63 A

I 63 A

L-L L-A L-L L-A L-L L-A L-L L-A


UP 61 251 381 501 661 661 751 801 TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO 50 2 250 3 380 4 500 6 660 6 750 ac 10 800 dc 1000 ac 14 1200 dc 3 5 6 8 8 14 20 3 5 6 8 8 10 14 5 6 8 10 10 14 20 2 3 4 6 8 10 14 3 4 6 10 12 14 20 3 5 6 8 10 14 20 4 8 10 12 14 20 24

CLEARANCE & CREEPAGE DISTANCE


ASSUMPTION AS GIVEN IN INDIAN STANDARD THE VALUES OF CLEARANCES & CREEPAGE DISTANCES SPECIFIED IN THIS STANDARD ARE BASED ON THE ASSUMPTION THAT THE AIR IS CLEAN & ITS RELATIVE HUMIDITY DOESNT EXCEED 50 PERCENT AT TEMPERATURE OF 40C

DESIGN PARAMETERS
THE CONFIGURATION OF BUSBAR THE ORIENTATION OF BUSBAR CLEARANCE & CREEPAGE DISTANCE INSULATING SUPPORTS

INSULATING SUPPORTS
DESIRABLE PROPERTIES

HIGH MECHANICAL STRENGTH HIGH DIELECTRIC STRENGTH HIGH TEMPERATURE WITHSTAND NON FLAMMABLE PROPERTIES NON HYGROSCOPIC PROPERTIES HIGH COMPARATIVE TRACKING INDEX (CTI)

TRACKING

(A) LEAKAGE CURRENT THRU THE CONDUCTIVE LAYER

(B) CONDUCTIVE LAYER CONTINUITY BREAKS

(C) ABRUPT STOPPAGE OF CURRENT CAUSES OVER VOLTAGE RESULTING IN SPARK

(D) SPARKS CAUSE BREAKDOWN OF SURFACE RESULTING IN SPREAD OF TRACK MARKS

CTI
CTI IS A MEASURE OF THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE INSULATION MATERIAL TO ELECTRICAL TRACKING. TEST FOR CTI
DROPS OF NH4CL

4mm

COMPARISION OF SOME INSULATING MATERIAL


HYLUM
MECHANICAL STRENGTH DIELECTRIC STRENGTH CTI (VOLTS) TEMP. WITHSTAND INFLAMMABLE MOISTURE ABSORPTION MOULDING TO SHAPES

PORCELAIN EPOXY
BRITTLE HIGH 500 HIGH NO LOW DIFFICULT HIGH HIGH 1000 250 NO LOW YES

SMC/DMC
HIGH HIGH 800 200-250 NO LOW YES

LOW HIGH 133 120 YES HIGH NO

DESIGN PARAMETERS
THE CONFIGURATION OF BUSBAR THE ORIENTATION OF BUSBAR CLEARANCE & CREEPAGE DISTANCE INSULATING SUPPORTS

INSULATION OF BUSBARS

INSULATION OF BUSBARS
MINIMIZES OCCURENCES OF ARCING FAULTS ARRESTS SPREAD OF ARCING IF AT ALL FAULT OCCURS BLACK SLEEVES IMPROVES HEAT DISSIPATION (BUT INSIGNIFICANT) BECAUSE OF SLEEVES BUSBARS ARE NEVER IN DIRECT CONTACT WITH THE SUPPORTS

ARCING FAULTS
CAUSE MAXIMUM DAMAGE LOW CURRENTS (5 TO 10 kA COMPARED TO 50 kA S/C CURRENT) HIGH TEMPERATURES UPTO 3000C FROM POINT OF INITIATION, IT TRAVELS AWAY FROM THE SUPPLY SOURCE VERY HIGH SPEED OF TRAVEL 550 m/Sec

REDUCING RISKS OF ARCING FAULTS


INCREASE CLEARANCE BETWEEN PHASES SLEEVING OF BUSBARS SHROUDING BUSBARS JOINTS PROPER SUPPORT MATERIAL/PROFILE

DESIGN PARAMETERS
THE CONFIGURATION OF BUSBAR THE ORIENTATION OF BUSBAR CLEARANCE & CREEPAGE DISTANCE INSULATING SUPPORTS INSULATION OF BUSBARS

SINGLE OR MULTI BAR

SINGLE BAR OR MULTIPLE BAR


SKIN EFFECT IS THE PHENOMENON BY WHICH THE CURRENT DISTRIBUTION IN THE BUSBARS IS DISTORTED DUE TO THE INDUCTIVE EFFECT OF THE CURRENT IN THE CONDUCTOR ITSELF. PROXIMITY EFFECT IS THE PHENOMENON BY WHICH THE CURRENT DISTRIBUTION IN ONE CONDUCTOR IS DISTORTED BY THE CURRENT IN THE ADJACENT CONDUCTORS.

SINGLE BAR OR MULTI BAR


SIZE IN MM
25.4 6.35 38.1 6.35 50.8 6.35 63.5 6.35 76.2 6.36 101.6 6.35 127.0 6.35 152.4 6.35 50.8 9.53 76.2 9.53 101.6 9.53 127.0 9.53 152.4 9.53 203.2 9.53 76.02 12.7 101.6 12.7 127.0 12.7 152.4 12.7 203.2 12.7 254.0 12.7

1 BAR
356 520 670 812 958 1235 1505 1780 830 1180 1495 1860 2120 2750 1355 1740 2080 2420 3060 3640

2 BARS
715 1020 1290 1510 1740 2140 2510 2860 1500 2050 2480 2930 3340 4150 2240 2720 3120 3500 4450 5000

3 BARS
970 1350 1705 2000 2310 2800 3240 3680 1970 2660 3150 3660 4080 4900 2830 3360 3900 4400 5300 6000

4 BARS
1100 1535 1940 2260 2620 3200 3700 4240 2260 3030 3560 4200 4680 5740 3240 3900 4550 5100 6150 6850

DESIGN PARAMETERS
THE CONFIGURATION OF BUSBAR THE ORIENTATION OF BUSBAR CLEARANCE & CREEPAGE DISTANCE INSULATING SUPPORTS INSULATION OF BUSBARS SINGLE OR MULTI BAR

BUSBAR JOINTS

BUSBAR JOINTS
PROPER CONTACT PRESSURE MUST BE APPLIED AND MAINTAINED THE SURFACE OF THE ALUMINIUM MUST BE CLEANED BEFORE BOLTING UP AIR & MOISTURE MUST BE EXCLUDED FROM THE JOINT THE OVERLAP SHOULD BE ATLEAST EQUAL TO THE WIDTH OF BUSBAR

BUSBAR JOINTS
DESIRABLE PROPERTIES OF INHIBITING COMPOUND ASSIST IN MAKING ELECTRICAL JOINTS OF LOW RESISTANCE INHIBIT OXIDE FORMATION CONSISTENT PROPERTIES OVER WIDE TEMP. RANGE EXCLUDE MOISTURE UNDER ALL CONDITIONS NON TOXIC & NON CORROSIVE FOR Cu & Al

BUSBAR JOINTS
NUMBER OF HOLES IN A BUSBAR
PART OF BUSBAR MATERIAL MAY BE REMOVED FOR HOLES OR SLOTS PROVIDED
THE REMAINING MATERIAL AT ANY CROSS SECTION ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE BUSBAR HAS AT LEAST 70% OF THE REQUIRED AMPACITY THE REMAINING METAL IN ANY 150 MM LENGTH OF THE BUSBAR IS AT LEAST 93% OF THE METAL OF A BUS HAVING THE REQUIRED AMPACITY

DESIGN PARAMETERS

THE CONFIGURATION OF BUSBAR THE ORIENTATION OF BUSBAR CLEARANCE & CREEPAGE DISTANCE INSULATING SUPPORTS INSULATION OF BUSBARS SINGLE OR MULTI BAR BUSBAR JOINTS BUSBAR MATERIAL

BUBAR MATERIAL
COPPER & ALUMINIUM
DENSITY OF Al IS 2.95 gm/cc COMPARED TO 9.7 gm/cc OF COPPER BECAUSE OF THE INCREASED AREA, THE ALUMINIUM BUSBAR WILL RUN COOLER THAN THEIR COPPER BUSBAR Al IS EASILY AVAILABLE & OF LOWER COST