Você está na página 1de 33

Teaching Approaches Week 3

4 PISMP

Audio-Lingual Method
a style of teaching used in teaching foreign languages. based on behaviourist theory, which professes that certain traits of living things, and in this case humans, could be trained through a system of reinforcementcorrect use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of that trait would receive negative feedback. Adapted many of the principles and procedures of the Direct Method

Principles
New material is presented in the form of a dialogue. fosters dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases and overlearning Structures are sequenced and taught one at a time patterns are taught using repetitive drills Little or no grammatical explanations are provided; grammar is taught inductively Skills are sequenced: Listening, speaking, reading and writing are developed in order

Principles
Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context Importance is given to precise native-like pronunciation Use of the mother tongue by the teacher is permitted, but discouraged among and by the students Successful responses are reinforced, great care is taken to prevent learner errors

Strategies
The teacher must be careful to insure that all of the utterances which students will make are actually within the practiced pattern. Drills should be conducted as rapidly as possibly so as to insure automaticity and to establish a system. Ignore all but gross errors of pronunciation when drilling for grammar practice. Use of shortcuts to keep the pace o drills at a maximum. Use hand motions, signal cards, notes, etc. to cue response. You are a choir director. Use normal English stress, intonation, and juncture patterns conscientiously. Drill material should always be meaningful. If the content words are not known, teach their meanings. Intersperse short periods of drill (about 10 minutes) with very brief alternative activities to avoid fatigue and boredom.

Strategies
Introduce the drill in this way: a. Focus (by writing on the board, for example) b. Exemplify (by speaking model sentences) c. Explain (if a simple grammatical explanation is needed) d. Drill Dont stand in one place; move about the room standing next to as many different students as possible to spot check their production. Thus you will know who to give more practice to during individual drilling. Use the "backward buildup" technique for long and/or difficult patterns. --tomorrow --in the cafeteria tomorrow --will be eating in the cafeteria tomorrow --Those boys will be eating in the cafeteria tomorrow. Arrange to present drills in the order of increasing complexity of student response. The question is: How much internal organization or decision making must the student do in order to make a response in this drill. Thus: imitation first, single-slot substitution next, then free response last.

Example
Teacher: There's a cup on the table ... repeat Students: There's a cup on the table Teacher: Spoon Students: There's a spoon on the table Teacher: Book Students: There's a book on the table Teacher: On the chair Students: There's a book on the chair etc.

Community Language Learning


Takes its principles from the Counselling-Learning approach Developed by Charles A.Curran Patterned upon counselling techniques Not based on the usual methods by which languages are taught Adapted and treat personal and language problems a person encounters in the learning of foreign languages

Principles
Learners not thought as students but as clients Instructors not considered as teachers but as language counselors; this does not mean someone trained in psychology; it means someone who can understand the struggle students face as they try to internalize another language Building a relationship with and among students is very important

Principles
Language-counseling relationship begins with the clients linguistic confusion and conflict Teacher should be sensitive to students level of confidence and give them just what they need to be successful Process is furthered by the language counselors ability to establish a warm, understanding, and accepting relationship. The process involves five stages adaptation

Strategies
Stage 1 - clients express ideas in their own language - counselor reflect these ideas in the target language in a pleasant tone, in simple language in phrases or five or six words - clients repeat, and counsellors correct them if there are words is pronounced or hesitation on a word or phrase.

Stage 2 - as in stage 1 - Clients begins to speak the target language directly to the group - Counsellor aids only when necessary. This is signs of positive confidence and hope Stage 3 - Clients speak directly to the group in the target language. Presumably the group understands his simple phrases - Client is more confident, independent. Translation is given only when a group member needs it.

Strategies

Stage 4 - Client speaking freely and complexly in the target language. Groups understanding presumed - Counselor intervenes in grammatical error, mispronunciation, or when aid in complex expression is needed Stage 5 - As in stage 4 - Counsellor intervenes not only to offer correction but to add idioms and more sophisticated contructions - At this stage, client can become counselor to groups in stages 1,2 and 3

Strategies

Method derived from Bulgarian psychologist Georgi Lozanovs (1979) Now called desuggestopedia to reflect on importance placed on desuggesting limitations onlearning Method of learning that capitalized on relaxed states of mind for maximum retention of material Baroque music created the kind of relaxed concentration that led to superlearning - while listening to soft playing of baroque music, one can take in tremendous quantities of material due to an increase in alpha brain waves and a decrease in blood pressure and pulse rate.

Suggestopedia

Principles
Learning is facilitated in a cheerful environment Student can learn from what is present in the environment If students trust and respect teachers authority, they will accept and retain information better Students bring certain psychological barriers with them so teacher should attempt to desuggest these Introduce dialogue that students can use immediately

Principles
Teacher should integrate indirect positive suggestions into the learning situation Teacher should present and explain the grammar and vocabulary One way that meaning is made clear is through native language translation Errors are corrected gently, not in a direct, confrontational manner

Strategies
The classroom is bright and colourful with posters hanging around the room which may include grammatical information Teacher speaks confidently and gives the students the impression that learning the target language will be easy and enjoyable Teacher briefly mentions a few points about English grammar and vocabulary

Strategies
Teacher reads dialogue with a musical accompaniment. Teacher matches his/her voice to the rhythm and intonation of the music. Teacher reads the script a second time as the students listen. This time to different music Teacher leads the class in various activities involving dialogue, questionand-answer, repetition and translation

The Silent Way


Developed by Caleb Gattegno, shares certain principles with Cognitive Approach Characterised by a problem-solving approach to learning More learning by discovering for oneself various facts and principles Teacher as a stimulator but not a hand-holder- was silent much of the time, thus the name of the method

Principles
Teaching should be subordinated to learning To teach means to serve the learning process rather than to dominate it Learning is a process which we initiate by ourselves by mobilising our inner resources (our perception, awareness, cognition, imagination, intuition, creativity, etc) to meet the current challenge

Principles
Learning is facilitated if learner discovers or creates rather than remembers and repeats what is to be learned Learning is facilitated by accompanying physical objects Learning is facilitated by problem solving involving the material to be learned

Strategies
This method begins by using a set of coloured rods of varying lengths and verbal commands The rods were used to introduce vocabulary, verbs and syntax. Teacher provides single-word stimuli, or short phrases and sentences, once or twice Then students refined their understanding and pronunciations among themselves with minimal corrective feedback from the teacher The charts introduced pronunciation models, grammatical paradigms,

Total Physical Response


The developer of TPR is James Asher Combines information and skills through the use of the kinesthetic sensory system Combination of skills allows the student to assimilate information and skills at a rapid rate Asher reasoned that the fastest, leat stressful way to achieve understanding of any target language is to follow directions uttered by the instructor (without native language translation)

Principles
Meaning in the target language can often be conveyed through actions Students understanding of the target language should be developed before speaking The imperative is a powerful linguistic device through which the teacher can direct student behaviour

Principles
Students should not be made to memorise fixed routines Language learning is more effective when it is fun Spoken language should be emphasized over written language Teachers should be tolerant of students errors when they first begin speaking

Strategies
Teacher says the commands as he himself performs the action Teacher says the command as both the teacher and the students then perform the action Teacher says the command but only students perform the action

Strategies
Teacher tells one student at a time to do commands The role of teacher and student are reversed. Students give commands to teacher and to other students Teacher and student allow for command expansion of produces new sentences

Communicative Approach
Communicative competence the goal of language teaching Language and communication are interdependent Classroom goals are focused on all of the components of communicative competence Fluency and accuracy are seen as complementary principles underlying communicative techniques

Principles
The target language is a vehicle for classroom communication, not just the object of study Wherever possible, authentic languagelanguage as it is used in a real contextshould be introduced Since the focus is on real language use, a variety of linguistic forms are presented together Students should be given an opportunity to express their ideas and opinions

Principles
One of teachers major responsibilities is to establish situations likely to promote communication The social context of the communicative event is essential in giving meaning to the utterances The grammar and vocabulary that the students learn follow from the function, situational context, and the roles of the interlocutors Games are important because they have certain features in common with real communicative events

Strategies
Techniques and materials that can be considered to use this approach: Authentic materials Scrambled sentence Language games Picture strip story Role play

Strategies
Learner-Centred Instruction Cooperative and Collaborative Learning Interactive Learning Whole Language Education Content-Based Instruction Task-Based Instruction