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# Mathematics

Circle Sessions - 3
Session
Session Objectives
Session Objective
1. Equation Of Family Of Circles
2. Equation Of Chord Whose
mid Point is Given
3. Equation Of Chord Of Contact
4. Angle Between Two Circles
5. Orthogonal Intersection
6. Equation Of Common Chord
Equation Of Family Of Circles
Family of circles passing through
the intersection of a circle S = 0
and a line L = 0 is
S = 0 L = 0
A
B
S+L = 0
Questions
Illustrative Problem
Write the family of circles passing
through the intersection of x
2
+ y
2
9 =
0 and x + y 1 = 0. Find that member
of this family which passes through the
origin.
Solution:
Family of required circle is
S + L = 0
Solution Cond.
2 2
(x y 9) (x y 1) 0 ...(1) + + + =
Since the required circle passes
through the origin, we have
(0+0-9) + (0+0-1) = 0
= -9
Substituting value of in (1) we get
2 2
x y 9x 9y 0 + =
Equation Of Family Of Circles
Passing through points (x
1
,y
1
)
and (x
2
,y
2
)
A(x
1
,y
1
)
B(x
2
,y
2
)
S (x-x
1
)(x-x
2
) + (y-y
1
)(y-y
2
) = 0
2 1
1
2 1
y y
L y y 0
x x

Family of circles is S + L = 0
Questions
Illustrative Problem
Find the equation of the circle passing
through the (4,1), (6,5) and having
its centre on 4x+3y-16=0
Solution:
Circle whose end points of diameter are
(4,1), (6,5) is
(x 4)(x 6) (y 1)(y 5) 0 + =
Equation of line passing through
(4,1) and (6,5) is 2x-y-7=0.
Therefore family of circles is
2 2
x y 10x 6y 29 (2x y 7) 0 + + + =
Solution Cond.
6
centre is 5, lieson 4x 3y 16 0
2
+ | |
+ + =
|
\ .
6 26
4( 5) 3 16 0
2 5
+ | |
+ + = =
|
\ .
2 2
Circle is 5(x y 10x 6y 29) 26(2x y 7) 0 + + + =
2 2
5x 5y 2x 56y 37 0 + + =
Equation of family of circle
which touches a given circle S
at a given point (x
1
,y
1
)
S=0
L=0
A(x
1
,y
1
)
S + L = 0 where L = 0 is tangent at the
given point on it.
Questions
Illustrative problem
Find the equation of the circle
which touches the circle x
2
+y
2
=25
at (3,4) and passes through (1,1).
Solution:
Tangent at (3,4) is 3x+4y-25=0
Therefore family of circle
touching x
2
+y
2
-25 at (3,4) is
2 2
x y 25 (3x 4y 25) 0 + + + =
Solution Cond.
It passes thorough (1,1)
1 + 1 25 + (3x+4y-25) = 0
23
18
=
Therefore the required equation of
the circle is
2 2
23
x y 25 (3x 4y 25) 0
18
+ + =
Equation of circles which
touches a given line at a given
point on it
A(x
1
,y
1
)
L = 0
2 2
1 1
S (x x ) (y y ) 0 + =
family of circle is S + L=0
Questions
Illustrative Problem
Find the equation of the circle
passing through origin(0,0) and
touching the line 2x+y-1=0 at (1,-1)
Solution:
Family of the circles touching
2x+y-1 = 0 at (1,-1) is
2 2
(x 1) (y 1) (2x y 1) 0 + + + + =
It passes through (0,0)
= 2
2 2
the equation of the circle is x y 2x 4y 0 + + + =
Equation of Circle Passing through
the points of intersection of two
circles
S
1
+ S
2
= 0 ( = -1)
S
1
= 0
S
2
= 0
Question
Illustrative Problem
Find the equation of circle passing
through origin and the points of
intersection of the two circles x
2
+
y
2
- 4x - 6y 3 = 0 and x
2
+ y
2
+
4x - 2y 4 = 0
Solution:
Equation of family of circle is
x
2
+ y
2
- 4x - 6y 3 + (x
2
+ y
2
+ 4x - 2y - 4) = 0
It passes through (0,0)
3
4
=
=>x
2
+ y
2
- 28x - 18y = 0
Equation of chord whose
mid-point is (x
1
,y
1
)
S=0
C=(0,0)
A B (x
1
,y
1
)
D
xx
1
+ yy
1
= x
1
2
+ y
1
2
T = S
1
Questions
Illustrative Problem
Find the equation of the chord of
the circle (x-1)
2
+ (y-2)
2
= 4 whose
mid point is (2,1).
Equation of circle is
2 2
x y 2x 4y 1 0 + + =
x 2 y 1
T 2(x) 1(y) 2 4 1 0
2 2
+ + | | | |
+ + =
| |
\ . \ .
T x y 3 0 =
Solution: Method 1
2 2
1
S (2) (1) 2(2) 4(1) 1 + +
1
T S x y 3 2 = =
x y 1 =
Illustrative Problem
Find the equation of the chord of
the circle (x-1)
2
+ (y-2)
2
= 4 whose
mid point is (2,1).
Solution Method 2:
C=(1,2)
A B (2,1)
D
2 1
Slope of CD 1
1 2

= =

Slope of AB = 1
Equation of AB is
x y 1 = 0
Equation of chord of contact of
tangents drawn from a point
(x
1
,y
1
)
P(x
1
,y
1
)
A(x
2
,y
2
)
B(x
3
,y
3
)
Equation of chord of
contact is
xx
1
+yy
1
=a
2
or
T = 0
Question
Illustrative problem
Find the equation of chord of contact of
a point (-2,-3) with respect to circle x
2

+ y
2
- 2x - 6y + 1=0
Required circle is T = 0
x(-2) + y(-3) 2(-2) 6(-3) + 1 = 0
2x + 3y - 23 = 0
Solution :
Angle at which two circles
intersect
2 2 2
1 2
1 2
d r r
cos
2r r

u =
S
1
=0 S
2
= 0
C
1
C
2
P
u
r
1 r
2
d = distance(c
1
,c
2
)
Question
Illustrative Problem
Find the angle at which the
circles x
2
+ y
2
8x 2y - 9 =0
and x
2
+ y
2
+ 2x + 8y - 7 = 0
intersect.
C
1
= (4,1); r
1
=
16 1 9 26 + + =
C
2
= (-1,-4); r
2
=
1 16 7 24 + + =
2
d 25 25 50 = + =
50 26 24
cos 0
2 26 24

u = =

90 u =
Solution :
Orthogonal Intersection
C
1
C
2
r
1
r
2
S
1
=0 S
2
=0
90
d = distance (c
1
,c
2
)
Method 1:
d
2
= r
1
2
+r
2
2
Orthogonal Intersection
C
1
C
2
r
1
r
2
S
1
=0 S
2
=0
90
Method 2:
2g
1
g
2
+ 2f
1
f
2
= c
1
+ c
2
Question
Illustrative Problem
If two circles of equal radii a with
centre (2,3) and (5,6) respectively cut
each other orthogonally then find the
value of a.
Two circles cut orthogonally
2 2 2
1 2
d r r = +
2 2
d (2 5) (3 6) 3 2 = + =
Therefore a
2
+ a
2
= 18 => a = 3
Solution :
Common Chord Of two circles
S
1
= 0 and S
2
= 0
S
1
=0
S
2
=0
A
B
Equation of common chord is S
1
- S
2
= 0
Question
Illustrative Problem
Find the equation of common chord of
two circles x
2
+ y
2
=25 and
4x
2
+ 4y
2
- 40x + 91=0
2 2
1
here S x y 25 0 + =
2 2
2
91
S x y 10x 0
4
+ + =
1 2
S S 0 40x 191 0 = =
Solution :
Class Test
Class Exercise - 1
A variable chord is drawn through the
origin to the circle x
2
+ y
2
2ax = 0.
The locus of the centre of the circle
drawn on this chord as diameter is
+ + =
2 2
(a) x y ax 0
+ + =
2 2
(b) x y ay 0
+ =
2 2
(c) x y ax 0 + =
2 2
(d) x y ay 0
Solution
Let (h, k) be the centre of the circle.
Then (h, k) being the mid-point of
the chord of the given circle
( )
+ + = +
2 2
hx ky a x h h k 2ah.
Since it passes through (0, 0)
= +
2 2
ah h k 2ah + =
2 2
h k ah 0
Locus is + =
2 2
x y ax 0
Class Exercise - 2
If the circle passes through the point
(a, b) and cuts the circle orthogonally,
equation of the locus of its centre is
(a) 2ax + 2by = a
2
+ b
2
+ k
2
+ = + +
2 2 2
(b) ax by a b k
+ + + + =
2 2 2
(c) x y 2ax 2by k 0
+ + + =
2 2 2 2 2
(d) x y 2ax 2by a b k 0
Solution
Let (h, k) be the centre
( ) ( )
+ = + +
2 2
2 2 2
h k h a k b k
+ = + + + +
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
h k h 2ah a k 2bk b k
( )
+ + + =
2 2 2
2ah 2bk a b k 0
Locus is 2ax + 2by
( )
+ + =
2 2 2
a b y 0
Class Exercise - 3
Equation of the circle which passes
through the origin, has its centre on
the line x + y = 4 and cuts the circle
x
2
+ y
2
4x + 2y + 4 = 0 orthogonally is
+ =
2 2
(a) x y 2x 6y 0
+ =
2 2
(b) x y 6x 3y 0
+ =
2 2
(c) x y 4x 4y 0
(d) None of these
Solution
Let centre of the circle is (g, 4 g)
[its centre is on x + y = 4]
Equation of circle is ( )
+ =
2 2
x y 2gx 2 4 g y 0
[ it passes through origin]
Since it cuts the given circle orthogonally,
2 g 2 2 (4 g) = 4 6g = 12 g = 2
Equation of the required circle is
+ =
2 2
x y 4x 4y 0
Class Exercise - 4
If O is the origin and OP, OQ are
distinct tangents to the circle
x
2
+ y
2
+ 2gx +2fy + c = 0, the
circumcentre of the triangle OPQ is

(a) (g, f) (b) (g, f)
(c) (f, g) (d) None of these
Solution
O
(0,0)
P
Q
(g, f)
PQ is chord of contact of (0, 0)
Equation of PQ is gx + fy + c = 0
Family of circles passing through PQ
and given circle is
( )
+ + + + + + + =
2 2
x y 2gx 2fy c gx fy c 0
Solution Cont.
It passes through (0, 0) = 1
+ + + =
2 2
x y gx fy 0
| |

|
\ .
g f
Centre is ,
2 2
Class Exercise - 5
Prove that the circle
x
2
+ y
2
6x 4y + 9 = 0 bisects the
circumference of the circle
x
2
+ y
2
8x 6y + 23 = 0.
Solution:
Equation of common chord of the given circle is
S
1
S
2
= 0
+ = + = 2x 2y 14 0 x y 7 0
Solution Contd..
Centre of circle

is (4, 3) + + =
2 2
x y 8x 6y 23 0
which lies on x + y 7 = 0, first circle
bisects the circumference of the second
circle because common chord passes
through the end points of a diameter
of the second circle.
Class Exercise - 6
If OA and OB are two equal chords
of the circle x
2
+ y
2
2x + 4y = 0
perpendicular to each other and
passing through the origin then find
the equation of OA and OB.
Solution:
Let chords be y = mx and . Since chords are

of equal lengths, perpendicular distance from
the centre to the chords will be same.
=
1
y x
m

=
+ +
2 2
1 2m 2 m
1 m 1 m
Solution Contd..
+ = m 2 2m 1
( )
+ = =
1
m 2 2m 1 m 3,
3
Equations of OA and OB are x + 3y = 0 and 3x y = 0
Class Exercise - 7
The coordinate of two points P and Q
are (2, 3) and (3, 2) respectively.
If circles are described on OP and OQ
as diameters, O being the origin then
find the length of their common chord.
Solution:
(0,0)
O
Q
(3,2)
P
(2,3)
R
t t
Z = Z = ORP , ORQ
2 2
Therefore OR is perpendicular
to PQ. We have to find the length
of OR. From figure it is clear that
OR is length from origin to the
line PQ.
Solution Contd..
Equation of PQ is y 2 = 1 (x 3)
+ = x y 5 0
=
5
OR
2
Class Exercise - 8
Determine the equation of the circle
whose diameter is the chord x + y = 1
of the circle x
2
+ y
2
= 4.
Solution:
Equation of family of circles passing
through the intersection of circle and
line is
( )
+ + + =
2 2
x y 4 x y 1 0 ...(i)
+ + + =
2 2
x y x y 4 0
Solution Contd..
Its centre lies on x + y 1 = 0

| |
|
\ .
,
2 2

= = 1 0 1
2 2
Substituting value of in the equation (i), we get
+ =
2 2
x y x y 3 0
Class Exercise - 9
Consider a family of circles passing
through two fixed points A (3, 7)and
B (6, 5). Show that the chords in which
the circle x
2
+ y
2
4x 6y 3 = 0
cuts the members of the family are
concurrent at a point. Find the coordinate
of this point.
Solution:
Family of circles is
(x 3) (x 6) + (y 7) (y 5) ( )

(
+ =
(

5 7
y 7 x 3 0
6 3
( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
+ + + = x 3 x 6 y 7 y 5 2x 3y 27 0
Solution Contd..
( ) ( )
+ + + + =
2 2
x y 2 9 x 3 12 y 53 27 0
Common chord is
S
1
S
2
= 0
( ) ( )
+ + = 2 5 x 3 6 y 56 27 0
+ + + = ( 5x 6y 56) (2x 3y 27) 0
This chord is intersection of 5x 6y + 56 = 0
and 2x + 3y 27 = 0
Solving these equations we get .
| |
|
\ .
23
2,
3
Class Exercise - 10
If two chords, drawn from the point
(p, q) on the circle x2 + y2 = px + qy
(where pr # 0) are bisected by the x-axis,
then

(a) p
2
= q
2
(b) p
2
= 8q
2

(c) p
2
< 8q
2
(d) p
2
> 8q
2

Solution:
Let the chord is bisected at A (h, 0)
P is (p, q)
P Q
(p,q) A(h,o)
Solution Contd..
Q (2h p, q) lies on circle
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
+ = +
2 2
2h p q p 2h p q q
+ + =
2 2 2 2 2
4h p 4ph q 2ph p q
( )
+ + =
2 2 2
4h 6ph 2 p q 0
This is quadratic in h and h is real and distinct
> D 0
( )
+ >
2 2 2
36p 32 p q 0
>
2 2
4p 32q 0
>
2 2
p 8q
Thank you