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**Work and Power
**

Edexcel IGCSE Physics pages 142 to 149

June 17th 2012 All content applies for Triple & Double Science

Edexcel Specification

Section 4: Energy resources and energy transfer c) Work and power know and use the relationship between work, force and distance moved in the direction of the force: work done = force × distance moved W = F × d understand that work done is equal to energy transferred know and use the relationship: gravitational potential energy = mass × g × height GPE = m × g × h know and use the relationship: kinetic energy = ½ × mass × speed2 KE = ½ × m × v2 understand how conservation of energy produces a link between gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy and work describe power as the rate of transfer of energy or the rate of doing work use the relationship between power, work done (energy transferred) and time taken: power = work done / time taken P = W / t

**Work and energy
**

When a force causes a body to move through a distance, energy is transferred and work is done. work done = energy transferred. Both work and energy are measured in joules (J).

Work and friction Work done against frictional forces is mainly transformed into heat. In this case some of the car’s energy may also be transferred to sound in the form of a ‘squeal’ . Brakes pads become hot if they are applied for too long. Rubbing hands together causes them to become warm.

The work equation work done = force applied × distance moved in the direction of the force W=Fxd work. W is measured in joules (J) force. F is measured in newtons (N) distance. d is measured in metres (m) .

also: force = work done ‚ distance moved and: distance = work done ‚ force W F d .

Question 1 Calculate the work done when a force of 5N moves through a distance of 3m. W=Fxd = 5N x 3m work = 15 J .

W=Fxd = 6 N x 40 cm = 6 N x 0.Question 2 Calculate the work done when a force of 6N moves through a distance of 40cm.4 J .40 m work = 2.

Question 3 Calculate the value of the force required to do 600J of work over a distance of 50m. W=Fxd becomes: F=W÷d = 600 J ÷ 50 m force = 12 N .

Question 4 Calculate the distance moved by a force of 8N when it does 72J of work. W=Fxd becomes: d=W÷F = 72 J ÷ 8 N distance moved = 9 m .

Question 5 Calculate the work done by a child of weight 300N who climbs up a set of stairs consisting of 12 steps each of height 20cm.4m therefore: work = 300 N x 2. = (12 x 20cm) = 2.4 m W=Fxd The child must exert an upward force equal to its own weight. Therefore: force = 300N work = 720 J . This force is exerted upwards and so the distance must also be measured upwards.

W=Fxd the person must exert an upward force equal their weight the person’s weight = (80kg x 10N/kg) = 800N the distance moved upwards equals (10 x 25cm) = 2.5 m work = 2000 J .Question 6 Calculate the work done by a person of mass 80kg who climbs up a set of stairs consisting of 25 steps each of height 10cm.5m work = 800 N x 2.

Complete Answers work 150 J 800 J force 50 N distance 3m 20 m 2m 2m 40 N 250 N 4000 N 500 J 80 kJ 2 MJ 3.03 400 N 5 km .

Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: force Work is done when a _______ moves through a distance. energy transferred is also equal to the work The amount of _______ heat done. equal to the force _________ multiplied by the distance Work done is ______ moved in the __________ of the force. the _________ WORD SELECTION: energy direction force equal multiplied distance heat joules . The work done is direction measured in ______ joules if the force is measured in newtons and distance in metres. When a car brakes energy is transformed to ______.

Gravitational potential energy Gravitational potential energy (GPE) is the energy stored in an object when work is done in moving the object upwards. h is measured in metres (m) . GPE = mass x g x height GPE = m x g x h GPE is measured in joules (J) mass. g is measured in newtons per kilogram (N/kg) height. m is measured in newtons (N) gravitational field strength.

5m GPE = 3000 J .Question 1 Calculate GPE gained when a weightlifter lifts a mass of 120kg up by 2.5m. (g = 10N/kg) GPE = m x g x h = 120kg x 10N/kg x 2.

GPE = m x g x h = 70kg x 10N/kg x 4m GPE = 2 800 J .Question 2 Calculate the gravitational potential energy gained by a student of mass 70kg climbing a flight of stairs of height 4m.

v is measured in metres per second (m/s) .Kinetic energy Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by a body because of its speed and mass. KE is measured in joules (J) mass. kinetic energy = ½ x mass x (speed)2 KE = ½ x m x v2 kinetic energy. m is measured in kilograms (kg) speed.

Question 1 Calculate the kinetic energy of a car of mass 1000kg moving at 5 m/s. KE = ½ x m = ½ x 1000kg = ½ x 1000 x = 500 x 25 kinetic energy x v2 x (5m/s)2 25 = 12 500 J .

KE = ½ x m x v2 = ½ x 60kg x (3m/s)2 = ½ x 60 x 9 = 30 x 9 kinetic energy = 270 J .Question 2 Calculate the kinetic energy of a child of mass 60kg moving at 3 m/s.

100 x 144 kinetic energy = 14.4 J . KE = ½ x m x v2 = ½ x 200g x (12m/s)2 = ½ x 0.Question 3 Calculate the kinetic energy of a apple of mass 200g moving at 12m/s.200kg x 144 = 0.

KE = ½ x m x v2 2MJ = ½ x mass x (4m/s)2 2 000 000J = ½ x mass x 16 2 000 000 = 8 x mass 2 000 000 ÷ 8 = mass mass = 250 000 kg .Question 4 Calculate the mass of a train if its kinetic energy is 2MJ when it is travelling at 4m/s.

KE = ½ x m x v2 15 000J = ½ x 1200kg x (speed)2 15 000 = 600 x (speed)2 15 000 ÷ 600 = (speed)2 25 = (speed)2 speed = 25 speed = 5 m/s .Question 5 Calculate the speed of a car of mass 1200kg if its kinetic energy is 15 000J.

KE = ½ x m x v2 20J = ½ x 400g x (speed)2 20 = ½ x 0.400kg x (speed)2 20 = 0.200 = (speed)2 100 = (speed)2 speed = 100 speed = 10 m/s .Question 6 Calculate the speed of a ball of mass 400g if its kinetic energy is 20J.200 x (speed)2 20 ÷ 0.

Complete Answers kinetic energy 8J 27 J mass 4 kg speed 2 m/s 3 m/s 5 m/s 8 m/s 6 kg 80 kg 200 kg 1000 J 6.4 kJ 3.03g 400 4 m/s .2 J 3.

Falling objects If there is no significant air resistance then conservation of energy results in gravitational potential energy being converted into kinetic energy as an object falls. gain in KE = loss of GPE m h v1 gpe = ke gpe = ½ mgh ke = ½ mv12 gpe = mgh ke = 0 ½h v2 gpe = 0 ke = ½ mv22 ke = mgh .

Graphs of GPE and KE GPE TOTAL ENERGY = GPE + KE Energy KE 0 object dropped 0 Time object reaches lowest point .

Child’s initial gravitational potential energy: GPE = m x g x h = 40kg x 10N/kg x 4m GPE = 1 600 J If air resistance is insignificant then all of this GPE is converted into kinetic energy KE = ½ x m x v2 1600 J = ½ x 40kg x (speed)2 1 600 = 20 x (speed)2 1 600 ÷ 20 = (speed)2 80 = (speed)2 speed = 80 speed = 8. Calculate the speed at which the child reaches the bottom of the wall.94 m/s .Question A child of mass 40kg climbs a wall of height 3m and then steps off.

If the mass of an object is ________ doubled its _______ kinetic energy doubles. WORD SELECTION: falls speed four kinetic potential upwards doubled raised . If the speed is doubled the kinetic four energy will increase by ______ times.Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: potential energy is the energy stored when an Gravitational ________ upwards This energy is released when the object is lifted ________. object _____ Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its speed and mass. falls back to its initial position. raised When a __________ object is released gravitational potential kinetic energy is converted into _________ energy.

power = work done time taken P= W t power. . t is measured in seconds (s) One watt is the same as one joule per second. P is measured in watts (W) work done.Power (P) Power is a measured of how quickly work is done. W is measured in joules (J) time.

power = energy change time P=E t .Power is also equal to how quickly energy is transformed from one form to another.

W=Fs = 40 N x 2 m work done = 80 J P=W/t = 80J / 10 s power = 8.0 W .Question 1 Calculate the power of a motor that exerts a force of 40N over a distance of 2m for 10seconds.

Question 2 Calculate the power of an electric motor that lifts a mass of 50 kg upwards by 3. g = 10 N/kg gain in GPE = m g h = 50 kg x 10 N/kg x 3 m = 1500 J P=E/t = 1500 J / 20 s power = 75 W .0 m in 20 seconds.

Answers Complete: energy transfer 600 J 440 J 28 800 28 800JJ 2.5 kJ time 120 s power 5W 5 22 W 4W 50 W W 50 20 s s 2 hours 50 s .5 mJ 2500 J work done 600 J 600 J 440 J 440 J 28 800 800 J 28 J 2.

s total stairs height. Measure the weight. Work done = weight x height =Wxh =Wxnxs 4. h 3. W =nxs 2.Measuring a person’s power 1. W of person using weighing scales. h stairs of n steps person of weight. Power of the person = work done / time taken = ( W x n x s) / t . Measure the time taken for the person to run up a flight of stairs of height.

4m = 1920J Power = 1920J / 3. W =nxs Stairs: number of steps. h stairs of n steps person of weight.0 seconds s total stairs height. n = 12 height of step = 0.20m total stair height.20m = 2. t = 3.4m Work done = weight x height = 800N x 2. W = 800N Time taken.Example calculation Weight of person. h = 12 x 0.0s = 640W .

energy watts Power is measured in _________. thousand A one kilowatt motor will perform one ____________ joules second of work every __________. WORD SELECTION: second quickly power thousand watts joules energy . power The _________ of a device is also equal to the rate at which a device transforms ___________ from one form to another.Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: quickly Power is a measure of how ___________ a device does work. Power is equal to work done in _________divided by the joules time taken. symbol W.

7. Give the equation for power. state the units used and give an example calculation. state the units used and give an example calculation. Answer the questions on page 149. state the units used and give an example calculation. 2. Explain how gravitational potential and kinetic energy vary as an object falls. 6. Explain how the power of a person can be measured using a flight of stairs. 4. . You should copy all the diagrams on page 146 as part of your answer. Give the equation for kinetic energy.Work and Power Notes questions from pages 142 to 149 1. 3. Give the equation for gravitational potential energy. Give the equation for work done. state the units used and give an example calculation. 5. 8. Verify that you can do all of the items listed in the end of chapter checklist on page 149.

potential energy and friction as he moves.Fendt Bicycle gear distance multiplier demonstration .Funderstanding Energy conservation with falling particles .Learn about conservation of energy with a skater dude! Build tracks. ramps and jumps for the skater and view the kinetic energy.Online Simulations Work (GCSE) .com BBC AQA GCSE Bitesize Revision: Work.Powerpoint presentation by KT Bouncing ball with different surfaces showing KE & PE .Powerpoint presentation by KT Gravitational Potential Energy (GCSE) .Freezeway.com Energy Skate Park .Freezeway.NTNU Pulley System .NTNU Ball rolling up a slope . You can also take the skater to different planets or even space! Rollercoaster Demo .Colorado . force and distance Potential and kinetic energy Kinetic energy equation .Powerpoint presentation by KT Kinetic Energy (GCSE) .

EDEXCEL IGCSE / CERTIFICATE IN PHYSICS 4-1 Energy Transfers Edexcel IGCSE Physics pages 127 to 132 All content applies for Triple & Double Science June 17th 2012 .

sound. including their representation by Sankey diagrams . electrical. nuclear and potential (elastic and gravitational) understand that energy is conserved know and use the relationship: efficiency = useful energy output / total energy input describe a variety of everyday and scientific devices and situations. explaining the fate of the input energy in terms of the above relationship.Edexcel Specification Section 4: Energy resources and energy transfer b) Energy transfer describe energy transfers involving the following forms of energy: thermal (heat). kinetic. chemical. light.

Energy Energy is required to do work. Fuels are burnt to release energy The Sun is the ultimate source of most of our energy on Earth. .

2. 1. THERMAL or HEAT ENERGY This is the energy of an object due to its temperature. LIGHT ENERGY This is energy in the form of visible electromagnetic radiation.Forms of energy Energy can exist in many forms. .

ELECTRICAL ENERGY This is the energy transferred by an electric current. 4. . SOUND ENERGY This is energy in the form of a sound wave.3.

Kinetic energy increases is the object’s speed is increased. KINETIC ENERGY This is the energy possessed by a moving object. Also often called ‘Movement energy’ .5.

CHEMICAL ENERGY This is energy that is released when chemical reactions take place. 7. . food and batteries. This is the source of the Sun’s energy.6. NUCLEAR ENERGY This is energy that is released when nuclear reactions take place. Sources of chemical energy include: fuel.

8. . Elastic Potential Energy This is the energy stored in a stretched or squashed object . Gravitational Potential Energy The gravitational potential energy of an object increases if it is raised upwards.also known as strain energy Gravitational potential energy being converted into kinetic energy. POTENTIAL ENERGY This is the energy possessed an object due to its position.

1 kilojoule (kJ) = 1 000 J 1 megajoule (MJ) = 1 000 000 J .Energy measurement Energy is measured in joules (J) To lift an apple upwards by one metre requires about one joule of energy.

**Other energy measurement examples
**

4200 joules (4.2 kJ) 1 food Calorie 1 000 000 J (1 MJ) Energy of a Mars bar 0.000 02 J Energy need to produce a syllable of a word

15 000 000 000 000 Energy received by the Earth from the Sun in one day 000 000 000 J

Conservation of energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only be transformed from one form to another form.

Conservation of energy also means that the total energy in the universe stays constant.

Pendulum oscillation

GRAVITATIOINAL POTENTIAL ENERGY MAXIMUM MINIMUM

KINETIC ENERGY MAXIMUM ZERO

The total energy, gravitational potential plus kinetic, remains the same if there are no significant resistive forces

It is very difficult to ‘concentrate’ this energy again to make use of it. Other forms of energy are referred to as ‘wasted’. This is usually in the form of heat energy causing the energy changing device and its surroundings to become warmer. Wasted energy spreads out into the surroundings. .Useful and wasted energy Useful energy is energy transferred to where it is required in the form that it is wanted.

efficiency = useful energy output total energy input As the useful energy output can never be greater than the energy input the efficiency can never be greater than 1.0 .Energy efficiency Energy efficiency is a measure of how usefully energy is converted by a device.

• They waste less energy to heat. .Energy efficient light bulbs • These produce more useful light energy for the same amount of input electrical energy.

efficiency = useful energy output total energy input efficiency = 48J ‚ 80J efficiency of the motor = 0.6 .Question 1 Calculate the efficiency of an electric motor if it produces 48J of useful kinetic energy when supplied with 80J of electrical energy.

20 when it is of an electric motor if it supplied with 400J of electrical energy.20 = useful energy ‚ 400J useful energy = 0. efficiency = useful energy output total energy input 0.Question 2 Calculate the useful light output of a light bulb of efficiency 0.20 x 400J light output = 80J .

Percentage efficiency percentage efficiency = efficiency x 100 The greater the percentage of the energy that is usefully transformed in a device. the more efficient the device is. The maximum percentage efficiency is 100% .

125 % efficiency = efficiency x 100 Percentage efficiency of light bulb = 12.5% .Question Calculate the percentage efficiency of a light bulb if it produces 30J of light when supplied with 240J of electrical energy. efficiency = useful energy output total energy input efficiency = 30J ‚ 240J = 0.

Complete Answers Input energy (J) Useful energy (J) Wasted energy (J) Efficiency Percentage efficiency 100 250 40 200 60 50 0.30 0.20 0.50 20% 30% 50% .80 40% 80% 50 80 120 10 24 60 40 56 60 0.40 0.

Reducing air resistance by using streamlined shapes. . Reducing electrical resistance in electrical circuits. Reduce loss to sound by tightening the loose parts of machinery.Improving efficiency Decrease loss to heat by: Reducing friction by using a lubricant (eg oil).

Energy flow diagrams GENERAL DIAGRAM INPUT ENERGY USEFUL OUTPUT ENERGY DEVICE CAUSING ENERGY CHANGE WASTED ENERGY .

An electric light bulb electrical energy light bulb heat energy light energy .

Microphone sound energy electrical energy microphone heat energy .

Car engine chemical energy kinetic energy car engine heat & sound energy .

Photosynthesis light energy chemical energy plants heat energy .

Complete the table below: Device Electric motor Car brakes Input energy electrical Main output energy kinetic heat kinetic kinetic gravitational potential Falling object Candle Generator chemical kinetic light electrical .

Sankey Diagrams These are energy flow diagrams that show how well a device uses energy. The width of the flow arrows is proportional to the amount of energy Wasted energy is shown flowing downwards. WASTED OUTPUT INPUT Device USEFUL OUTPUT .

The heat & sound arrow should be 4/5th the width of the chemical energy arrow.Question Draw a Sankey diagram for car of efficiency 20% CHEMICAL ENERGY KINETIC ENERGY CAR HEAT & SOUND ENERGY The kinetic energy arrow should be 1/5th the width of the chemical energy arrow. .

moving Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by __________ bodies.Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: work Energy is required to do ________. joules (J) Energy is measured in ________ destroyed Energy cannot be created or ___________ but can only form change ________. potential WORD SELECTION: moving joules thermal wasted form work destroyed . When an object is lifted up it gains gravitational potential _____________ energy. thermal wasted Heat or __________ energy is often produced as a _________ energy form.

includes Sankey diagram Efficiency.by KT .Includes Bowling Ball Pendulum Demonstration Sequential Puzzle on Energy Size .Forms of energy Energy transfer diagrams .eChalk Energy transfer bounce quizes .by KT .includes Sankey diagrams BBC KS3 Bitesize Revision: Energy basics .'Whys Guy' Video Clip (4:40 mins) .Microsoft WORD Energy conversions & efficiency calculations .includes Sankey diagram .Online Simulations Energy Conservation .eChalk BBC AQA GCSE Bitesize Revision: Forms of energy Energy transfer.Microsoft WORD Hidden Pairs Game on Energy Transfers .

(see page 127) Give examples of the following energy changes: (a) electrical to light. (a) What is energy? (b) State the unit of energy. 5. (see pages 128 and 129) State the law of conservation of energy and give an example (see pages 129 and 130) Sketch a Sankey diagram showing the energy flow in an electric light bulb. (b) percentage efficiency. (e) elastic potential to thermal. (b) kinetic to sound. 6. Verify that you can do all of the items listed in the end of chapter checklist on page 132. Calculate both of these for an electric motor that uses 120J of electrical energy to output 90J of kinetic energy. (d) chemical to gravitational potential. (c) nuclear to light. (see pages 130 and 131) Define (a) efficiency. (see page 131) Answer the questions on page 132. 2. 7. . 3. 4.Energy Transfers Notes questions from pages 127 to 132 1.

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