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Pressure Relief Device Types, Their Advantages And Limitations

(4) PRD TYPES

Reference Documents

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code


Section I Power Boilers Section III Nuclear Components Section IV Heating Boilers

Section VIII Pressure Vessels

(4) PRD TYPES

Reference Documents

API Recommended Practices (RP) and Standards


RP521 Guide for Pressure Relieving and Depressuring Systems RP520 Part I Sizing and Selection of Pressure Relieving Devices in Refineries RP520 Part II Installation of Pressure Relieving Devices in Refineries STD526 Flanged Steel Pressure Relief Valves STD527 Seat Tightness of Pressure Relief Valves

Scope is 15 psig above


(4) PRD TYPES

Safety Valve
A PRV ACTUATED BY STATIC PRESSURE
RAPID OPENING (POP ACTION)
FULL LIFT

LIFT

SET PRESSURE

ALLOWABLE OVERPRESSURE

USED ON COMPRESSIBLE MEDIA (GAS, VAPOR, STEAM)

(4) PRD TYPES

Relief Valve
A PRV ACTUATED BY STATIC PRESSURE OPENS GENERALLY IN PROPORTION TO OVERPRESSURE
FULL LIFT

LIFT

SET PRESSURE

ALLOWABLE OVERPRESSURE

NORMALLY USED ON NON-COMPRESSIBLE MEDIA (LIQUIDS)

(4) PRD TYPES

Terminology
Operating Pressure Maximum Allowable Working Pressure Set Pressure Overpressure Blowdown

(4) PRD TYPES

Pressure %
Where PRDs Normally Sized (Except Fire Case)
Set Pressure Tolerance

110
Allowable Overpressure

100
Blowdown % of Set

MAWP
Typical Set Pressure Typical Operating Pressure

95 90

Reseat Pressure of PRV

(the money maker)

(4) PRD TYPES

10

The Basic Evolution

of
Pressure Relief Valves

(4) PRD TYPES

11

Weighted Pallet Valve


WEIGHT

(4) PRD TYPES

12

Less Simmer Longer Blowdown

Huddling Chamber

Blowdown Ring Position

More Simmer Shorter Blowdown

(4) PRD TYPES

17

Conventional Direct Spring PRV


(Unbalanced)
Set Pressure Adjustment Screw

Blowdown Adjustment Ring

P2 P1
In

Out

Huddling Chamber
(4) PRD TYPES

18

Conventional PRV

(4) PRD TYPES

19

Effect Of Inlet Piping


SV Closed SV Open
FLOW

PValve PSystem
PV = P S

PV PS
PV = PS - INLET LOSS

(4) PRD TYPES

20

Valve Set: 100 psig [6.90 barg) Blowdown: 7% (Reclose At 93 psig) [6.41 barg]
3% Inlet Loss Example: 3% Inlet Loss Valve Will Close When Inlet Flange Pressure Is 93 psig [6.41 barg]. System Pressure At Closing Equals 93 + 3 = 96 psig [6.41 + 0.21 = 6.62 barg] Due To Inlet Pressure Loss. System Blowdown Is 4%.

Protected System Or Vessel

(4) PRD TYPES

21

Valve Set: 100 psig [6.90 barg] Blowdown: 7% (Reclose At 93 psig) [6.90 barg] 10% Inlet Loss Example: 10% Inlet Loss Valve Will Close When Inlet Flange Pressure Is 93 psig [6.41 barg] But This Occurs When Valve Pops Since Inlet Pressure Will Instantly Be 90 psig [6.21 barg] Due To Inlet Loss.

SV WILL CHATTER
Protected System Or Vessel

(4) PRD TYPES

22

Typical Lift Characteristics


100 75 50 25 USUAL DIRECT SPRING OPERATED PRV

% LIFT (CAPACITY)

90

100

110

% SET PRESSURE
(4) PRD TYPES

25

Usual Seat Tightness Standards

API 527
(Now Incorporated Into ASME Section VIII)

(4) PRD TYPES

26

API 527 Seat Leakage Test

1/2

[1.27 cm]

I.D. [0.64 cm]

1/4

90% of Set Pressure

(4) PRD TYPES

27

API 527 And ASME Section VIII Code


Set Pressure, psig [barg] 15 - 1000 [1.03 - 69] 1500 [103] Metal Seat Leakage At 90% Of Set Pressure, Bubbles/Minute D thru F Orifice 40 60 G thru T Orifice 20 30

2000
2500 3000 4000

[138]
[172] [207] [276]

80
100 100 100

40
50 60 80

6000

[414]

100

100

Soft Seat Leakage At 90% Of Set Pressure, Bubbles/Minute 15 - 6000 [1.03 - 414] 0

(4) PRD TYPES

28

New Factor
Back Pressure Spring Bonnet

P1
Body

P2

(4) PRD TYPES

34

Possible Pressure Source

To Flare, Recovery System, or Atmosphere

Discharge Header System

Possible Pressure Source

Possible Pressure Source

Constant Purge?

Protected System

Superimposed Back Pressure


(4) PRD TYPES

V V V
PRV (Closed)

BPS

35

Built-up Back Pressure

Discharge

BPBU

PRV is Open and Flowing

In
(4) PRD TYPES

36

Effect of Built-Up Back Pressure


Unbalanced, Conventional Direct Spring SV
100 % RATED CAPACITY 90 80 70 60 50 0 10 20 30 40

10% OVERPRESSURE
PER API RP520 and ASME SECTION VIII, < 10 % BPBU =

50

% BUILT-UP BACK PRESSURE


(4) PRD TYPES

37

Balanced Bellows Direct Spring PRV


Set Pressure Adjustment Screw

Bonnet Vent
PA Metal Bellows

P2
Blowdown Adjustment Ring

Out

P1
In

Huddling Chamber
(4) PRD TYPES

38

Conversion From Conventional To Balanced Bellows PRV

(4) PRD TYPES

39

(4) PRD TYPES

40

Effect of Built-Up Back Pressure


Balanced Bellows Direct Spring PRV
100 90 80 70 60 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 10% OVERPRESSURE

Kb

% Built-up Back Pressure


(4) PRD TYPES

41

Pilot Operated PRV


Pilot Pressure Sense Line Piston Seal Piston Liner

P1 P2
Resilient Seat

Out
Unbalanced Moving Member (Piston) Pitot Tube

P1
In
(4) PRD TYPES

46

AG/C Series 200 POSV Pop Action


(4 x 6) [10 x 15 cm]

(4) PRD TYPES

47

Seating Force
100

% SEATING FORCE

75

Pilot Operated PRV

50 Direct Spring Operated PRV

25

25

50

75

100

% SET PRESSURE
(4) PRD TYPES

49

Usual Metal-seated Direct Spring SV

Pop Action Pilot

100

% LIFT (CAPACITY)

75

50 25

100

100
(4) PRD TYPES

% SET PRESSURE
50

AG/C Series 200 POSV (Closed)


100% Set

Relief Seat
Blowdown Seat
100% Set

(4) PRD TYPES

53

AG/C Series 200 POSV (Relieving)


100% 0% Set

Relief Seat Blowdown Seat


100% Set

(4) PRD TYPES

54

AG/C Series 200 POSV (Re-Closed)


100% Set

Relief Seat Blowdown Seat


100% Set

(4) PRD TYPES

55

Series 200 POSV


Main Valve Dome Volume Discharged Through Vent
Examples: 1F2, 0.0005 ft3 2J3, 0.0019 ft3 4P6, 0.0145 ft3 6R8, 0.0543 ft3 8T10, 0.0973 ft3

Approximate Operating Time To Full Lift For Gas


Examples: 1F2, 0.14 second 2J3, 0.19 second 4P6, 0.47 second 6R8, 0.77 second 8T10, 1.13 second

(4) PRD TYPES

56

Modulating AG/C Series 400 POSRV


6 x 8 [15 x 20cm]

(4) PRD TYPES

65

Direct Spring Operated Metal-seated

Pop Action POSV

Modulating Action POSRV

% Full Lift Capacity

100

Reseat Set Pressure

75
50 25 0

100

110

100

100

Area Enclosed By The Lift Curve Represents Product Lost Per Relief Cycle
(4) PRD TYPES

66

Series 400 POSRV


(Normally Closed Position)
Inlet Seat Set Pressure Adjustment Sense Diaphragm Spool

Dome

Outlet Seat Pilot Discharge Tubed To Main Valve Outlet Feedback Piston Balancing Seal
(4) PRD TYPES

67

Series 400 POSRV


(At Or Slightly Above Set Pressure, Main Valve Modulating)

(4) PRD TYPES

68

Series 400 POSRV


(Above Set Pressure And At Full Lift)

(4) PRD TYPES

69

Effect Of Back Pressure On Lift Of Pressure Relief Valve Types


100 90

Pilot Operated PRV (Standard)

% Rated Lift

80 70 60 50

Balanced Bellows Spring Operated PRV (Extra Cost)

Conventional Spring Operated PRV 0 10 20 30 40 50 90 100

(4) PRD TYPES

88

A Perfect Nozzle (KD = 1.0)


100

53%
80 % Rated Capacity 60

K = 1.3 40
20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100

P
1

P
2

% Back Pressure
(4) PRD TYPES

89

Benefits Of Modulating PRVs


Less Wasted Product (+$) (No Emissions, Minimized Releases) Less Environmental Pollution (No Emissions, Minimized Releases) Less Noise During Relief Cycle Greater Process Output/Profit (Can Operate Nearest Set Pressure) No Chatter Due To Poor Inlet Piping Less Built-Up Back Pressure (Header Savings)

(4) PRD TYPES

90

For High Back Pressure


High Pressure Outlet Flange Butt-Weld

Typical Example: 900# x 900# (Usually Fully Rated)

(4) PRD TYPES

91

Superb Application For Modulating POSRV


Do You Really Know How Much Flashes?

FLOW

Mixed Phase

Liquid Or Mixed Phase

More More = Built-Up Flashing Back Pressure

(4) PRD TYPES

92

Maintain While Installed In-line!


Pilot

Piston Seal

Servicing Main Valve Does Not Break Pilot Seal.

Seat

(4) PRD TYPES

95

Field Test Of Pilot Operated PRV


Accurate Test

Active Process

(4) PRD TYPES

96

Back Pressure On POPRV

P1

Piston

AP AS
P2 P1 P2

P2

(4) PRD TYPES

99

AG/C Series 200 POPRV With Backflow Preventer


Pilot Backflow Preventer

P2 > P1

P2
Process Pressure Discharge Pressure
(4) PRD TYPES

P1

100

Options For Dirty Service


Non-Flowing Pilot (Minimizes Flow Through Pilot) Auxiliary Filter In Pilot Supply (Filters The Minimal Flow) Remote Pressure Sensing (Low Velocity Picks Up Few Or No Particles, Plus Gravity Drop-out)

(4) PRD TYPES

108

Auxiliary Filter In Pilot Supply

(4) PRD TYPES

109

Remote Pressure Sensing Option For Dirty Service


STANDARD
Integral Pressure Sensing

OPTIONAL

Remote Pressure Sensing

(4) PRD TYPES

111

With Existing PRV Technology, Codes And Regulations,

No Specific Type Of PRD


Is Suitable For All Overpressure

Protection Conditions.

(4) PRD TYPES

123

Sizing Of Pressure Relief Valves

(4) PRD TYPES

125

Must Consider The One Worst Case Scenario


Blocked Discharge

External Fire
Thermal Expansion Runaway Reaction Tube Rupture In Heat Exchanger
(4) PRD TYPES

126

Basic Sizing Procedure


Establish Set Pressure Of PRV

Determine Required Relief Capacity


Select PRV Size That Will Flow At Least

That Capacity

(4) PRD TYPES

127

In 1962 The ASME Section VIII Code


Was Revised, Requiring That K Be Used In Sizing Calculations

(10% Safety Factor) Instead of KD


K = KD x 0.90

(4) PRD TYPES

128

JOS-E / JBS-E
Standard Orifice Areas
API Orifice Designation D E F G H J K L M N P Q R T T2 API Effective Orifice Area (in.) 0.110 0.196 0.307 0.503 0.785 1.287 1.838 2.853 3.60 4.34 6.38 11.05 16.0 26.0 27.872 ASME Actual Orifice Area (in.) 0.1244 0.2214 0.347 0.5674 0.887 1.453 2.076 3.221 4.065 4.90 7.206 12.472 18.065 29.359 31.47
(4) PRD TYPES

129

ASME Coefficient of Discharge


Valve Style JOS-E/JBS-E JLT-JOS-E/JLT-JBS-E Gas 0.865 0.865 Liquid N/A 0.656

(4) PRD TYPES

130

FOR SONIC GAS FLOW


W = CKAP

M TZ

The NB Allows Published Deviations From K And A Values In The Red Book. However - -

Advertised KA = ASME KA (Per NB Red Book)

[The NB Red Book is Pressure Relief Device Certifications Published Bi-Annually By The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors.]

(4) PRD TYPES

131

Since 1962, Most PRV Manufacturers

Have Overstated Their K Values


And Understated Their A Values.

(4) PRD TYPES

132

Example: Gas Service J ORIFICE (API = 1.287 in2) [8.303 cm2]


NATIONAL BOARD K FARRIS POPRV CONSOLID . DSOPRV AG/C POPRV (MARK II) A, in2 [cm2] 1.430 [9.226] 1.496 [9.652] KA 1.228 [7.925] 1.279 [8.252] 1.312 [8.464] K 0.953

CATALOG
A, in2 [cm2] 1.287 [8.303] 1.287 [8.303] KA 1.226 [7.910] 1.223 [7.888] 1.255 [8.095]

0.859

0.855

0.95

0.877

1.496 [9.652]

0.975

1.287 [8.303]

(4) PRD TYPES

133

Sonic Flow of Gas/Vapor


> 15 psig [1.03 barg] (Generally When Set Pressure =

ENGLISH UNITS

METRIC UNITS

V MTZ A= 6.32 CKP1 Kb OR A=

V MTZ A= 17.02 CKP1 Kb

OR
A=

TZ CKP1 Kb M
W

1.316 W

TZ CKP1 Kb M
(4) PRD TYPES

135

Units
ENGLISH METRIC

A V T KD
Z

in2 SCFM R = F + 460


Compressibilty Factor

cm2 Nm3 K = C + 273

Actual Coefficient Of Discharge

C K P1

Gas or Vapor flow constant


ASME Coefficient Of Discharge [K = 0.90 x KD]

psia (set pressure + overpressure + 14.7)

(4) PRD TYPES

136

Typical Properties of Gases


Gas ACETYLENE AIR AMMONIA ARGON BENZENE BUTADIENE CARBON DIOXIDE CARBON MONOXIDE ETHANE ETHYLENE FREON 22 HELIUM HEXANE Molecular C k, Ratio Of Weight Factor Specific Heats 26 29 17 40 78 54 44 28 30 28 86 4 86 343 356 348 378 329 329 345 356 336 341 335 377 322 1.26 1.40 1.31 1.67 1.12 1.12 1.28 1.40 1.19 1.24 1.18 1.66 1.06

If Gas/Vapor Is Unknown, Use: C = 315


(4) PRD TYPES

137

Typical Properties of Gases (contd)


Gas
HYDROGEN HYDROGEN SULFIDE METHANE METHYL MERCAPTON N-BUTANE NATURAL GAS (0.60) NITROGEN OXYGEN PENTANE PROPANE PROPYLENE STEAM SULPHUR DIOXIDE VCM

Molecular Weight
2 34 16 48 58 18.9 28 32 72 44 42 18 64 62

C Factor
357 349 348 337 326 344 356 356 323 330 332 348 346 335

k, Ratio Of Specific Heats


1.41 1.32 1.31 1.20 1.09 1.27 1.40 1.40 1.07 1.13 1.15 1.31 1.29 1.18

If Gas/Vapor Is Unknown, Use: C = 315

(4) PRD TYPES

138

C = 520
400 380 360

( k + 1)

k+1 k-1

C
340
320 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

RATIO OF SPECIFIC HEATS, k =

CP CV
(4) PRD TYPES

139

Compressibility Factor, Natural Gas, 0.60 S.G.


(Example)
1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 T = F [C]
500 [260] 400 [204] 300 [149] 200 [93] 100 [38] 0 [-18]

0.8
0.7 0.6 0.5
0

MW = 17.40 (0.6 sp gr)


500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 [34] [69] [103] [138] [172] [207] [241] [276] [310] [345]

PRESSURE, psig [barg]


(4) PRD TYPES

140

Back Pressure
Pb (back pressure)

Inlet
THE PRESSURE AT THE OUTLET OF A PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE.

(4) PRD TYPES

141

Possible Pressure Source

TO FLARE AND/OR BURNER STACK TO ATMOS.

Possible Pressure Source

CLOSED DISCHARGE HEADER SYSTEM

PRV (Closed)
Possible Pressure Source

Purge?

Protected System

SUPERIMPOSED BACK PRESSURE


(4) PRD TYPES

142

Built-up Back Pressure

DISCHARGE

PRV IS OPEN AND IS FLOWING

In
(4) PRD TYPES

143

Typical Back Pressure Characteristics


Unbalanced Conventional Direct Spring PRV
100 90 80 70 60 50 0 10 20 30 40

At 110% of Set Pressure

50

% Built-Up Back Pressure, Gauge


(4) PRD TYPES

144

Balanced Bellows Direct Spring PRV


Set Pressure Adjustment Screw Bonnet Vent PA Metal Bellows

P2
Blowdown Adjustment Ring

Out

P1
In

Huddling Chamber
(4) PRD TYPES

145

Conversion From Conventional To Balanced Bellows PRV

(4) PRD TYPES

146

Typical Back Pressure Characteristics


Balanced Bellows Direct Spring Valve
100
90 80 70

Kb

AT 110% of Set Pressure

60
50 0 10 20 30 40 50

% Built-up Back Pressure, Gauge


(4) PRD TYPES

147

Back Pressure Correction Factor for AG/C Piston POPRV (Gases)


1.0 k = 1.0 k = 1.2 0.8 k = 1.6 k = 1.8 0.6 k = 2.0 k = 1.4

Kb
0. 4

0.2

0.0 0.0

P2 P1

0. 2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

= Absolute Pressure Ratio


(4) PRD TYPES

148

Sonic Flow of Gas/Vapor


> 15 psig [1.03 barg] (Generally When Set Pressure =

ENGLISH UNITS

METRIC UNITS

V MTZ A= 6.32 CKP1 Kb OR A=

V MTZ A= 17.02 CKP1 Kb

OR
A=

TZ CKP1 Kb M
W

1.316 W

TZ CKP1 Kb M
(4) PRD TYPES

149

Sonic Flow - Steam


ENGLISH UNITS METRIC UNITS [ ]

W A= 51.5 K KS KP Kb P1
WHERE: A W

W A= 52.5 K KS KP Kb P1

= Orifice Area, in2 [cm2] = Flow Rate lbs/hr [kg/hr]

K
KP

= ASME Coefficient
= High Pressure Correction Factor (over 1600 psig [110 barg]) = Back Pressure Factor = Set + Overpressure + Local Atmospheric Pressure, psia [bara]
(4) PRD TYPES

KSH = Superheat Correction Factor

Kb
P1

153

KSH Superheat Correction Factor


Set Sat. Pres. Steam oF 280 psig
15 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500

Total Steam Temperature, oF


380 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 400 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 420 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 440 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00 460 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.00

(ENGLISH)
480 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.00 500 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99 520 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.99

300 320 340 360 250 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 259 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 287 1.00 1.00 0.99 308 1.00 1.00 324 1.00 1.00 338 350 361 371 380 388 395 403 409 416 422 436 448 460 470

(4) PRD TYPES

154

KSH Superheat Correction Factor


SET SAT. [METRIC] TOTAL STEAM TEMPERATURE, oC PRES. STEAM oC barg 138 149 160 171 182 193 205 216 227 238 249 260 271 1.03 121 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.93 1.38 126 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.93 2.76 142 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.93 4.14 153 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.93 5.52 162 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.94 0.93 0.93 6.90 170 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.94 8.27 177 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.94 9.65 183 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.94 11.0 188 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.94 12.4 193 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 13.8 198 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 15.2 202 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.96 0.95 0.95 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.95 16.6 206 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.96 17.9 210 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.97 0.96 0.96 19.3 213 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.96 0.96 20.7 217 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.97 0.97 24.1 225 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97 27.6 231 1.00 0.99 0.98 31.0 238 1.00 0.99 0.99 34.5 243

(4) PRD TYPES

155

High Pressure Correction Factor


1.25

1.15

Kp
1.05

KP =

0.1906P - 1000 0.2292P - 1061

0.95 1500 [103.4] 1900 [131.0] 2300 [158.6] 2700 [186.2] 3100 [213.8] 3500 [241.3]

Pressure, psig [barg]


(4) PRD TYPES

156

Liquid Flow
ENGLISH UNITS METRIC UNITS [ ]

G A= 38 K KW KV P1 - P2 VL

A=

0.196 VL
K K W KV

P1 - P 2

A = Orifice Area, in2 [cm2] VL = Reqd Capacity, USGPM [m3/hr] KW = Backpressure Correction Factor KV = Viscosity Correction Factor (Assume 1.0) P1 = Set + Overpressure , psig [barg] P2 = Back Pressure, psig [barg]

(4) PRD TYPES

157

Back Pressure Correction Factor for Type 81P DSORV


1.000 0.800

Correction curve for Types 81P-4 and 81P-8

Kw

0.600
0. 400

0.200
0.000

Correction curve for Types 81P-G and 81P-J

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Percent Back Pressure =

Pressure At Valve Outlet At 10% Overpressure, psig Set pressure, psig


(4) PRD TYPES

158

Determining Kv Viscosity Correction Factor


WHERE:
ENGLISH UNITS 2800 G VL R= A
R = Reynolds Number
A = Next Larger Orifice Area Than Calculated, Assuming Kv = 1.0, in2 [cm2] G = Specific Gravity VL = Required Capacity, USGPM [m3/hr] = Absolute Viscosity (Centipoises) U = Viscosity (Saybolt Seconds Universal)

R=

12,700 VL

U A

METRIC UNITS 31,313 G VL R= A

(4) PRD TYPES

159

Kv Viscosity Correction Factor


1.0 0.9 0.8

KV

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 100 1,000 10,000 100,000

Reynolds's Number
(4) PRD TYPES

160

If Kv < 1.0, Recalculate:


ENGLISH UNITS

A=

VL G
38 K KW KV

P 1 - P2

METRIC UNITS

A=

0.196 VL K KW KV

P1 - P2
(4) PRD TYPES

161

Mixed Phase Flow


(Until DIERS Have Practical and Proven Formulae)
A (Gas)

Size For Gas Flow

A (Liquid)

Size For Liquid Flow

A (Gas) A (Liquid)

Add Areas, Select Valve With At Least This Area

(4) PRD TYPES

162

Fire Sizing
The Procedure Used In Fire Sizing Depends On The Codes And Engineering Practices Applied At Each Installation. Some Procedures That May Be Used For Fire Sizing:
API RP 520, PART 1 Recommended Practices For The Design And Installation Of Pressure Relieving Systems In Refineries. (SET = > 15 psig [1.03 barg]) API 2000 Venting Atmospheric And Low Pressure Storage Tanks (SET < 15 psig [1.03 barg]) API 2510 Design Of Lp Gas Installations NFPA 58 Storage And Handling Liquefied Petroleum Gasses (National Fire Protection Association) CGA S-1.3 Stationary Storage Tanks

(4) PRD TYPES

164

API RP520
A=

F AS

(SET = > 15 psig [1.03 barg])

F = 0.042 (Conservative; Relates To Bare Vessel Metal Temperature At Relief) As = Total Exposed Surface Area Of Vessel

GAS

P1 = (Set Pressure + Allowable Overpressure (21%) + 14.7, psia


A = Calculated PRV Orifice Area, in2
Reference API RP520, Part 1, D.5
165

(4) PRD TYPES

API RP520
Q = 21,000 FA 0.82 Q = Total Heat Input To Wetted Surface Of Vessel, btu/hr F = 1.0 (Assumes No Vessel Insulation)

LIQUID

A = Total Vessel Wetted Surface, ft2 (Up To 25 Ft. Above Ground Level Or, In The Case Of A Sphere, To The Elevation Of Largest Diameter Whichever Is Greatest)
Reference API RP520, Part 1, D.5
167

(4) PRD TYPES

Total Vessel Wetted Surface, ft2, Up To 25 ft. Above Ground Level Or, In The Case Of A Sphere, To The Elevation Of Largest Diameter, Whichever Is Greater.
Vertical Vessel
Horizontal Vessel Sphere

Max. Dia.

25 ft.

Ground

(4) PRD TYPES

168

Q W= V

API RP520

W = Required Valve Capacity, lbs/hr Q = Total Heat Input to Wetted Surface of Vessel, btu/hr V = Latent Heat Of Vaporization, btu/lb EXAMPLES: AMMONIA BENZENE BUTANE CO2 ETHANE ETHYLENE METHANE PROPANE WATER 589 169 166 150 210 208 219 183 970
(4) PRD TYPES

169

API RP520
TZ A= CKP1 Kb M W Use Vapor Values. 1.316W

TZ CKP1 Kb M

For T, Use The Boiling Temperature Of The Liquid (Flash To A Vapor). If Unknown, We Suggest Using 200oF [93oC].

(4) PRD TYPES

170

References
Engineering Handbook TP-V300 API Standard 526 and 527 ASME Section VIII, Division 1 Anderson Greenwood Powerpoint Presentations

(4) PRD TYPES

171