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Tea, liquid gold.

Today we will talk about TEA, and all is to kown about it. We will review topics from origins and history to were its name come from. So we will have next topics: General view Cultivation and harvesting Processing and classification Blending and additives Origin and history Health effects The word "tea" Etymological observations Tea culture Preparation Economics Production Packaging

Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. After water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. It has a cooling, slightly bitter, and astringent flavour that many people enjoy. Tea likely originated in China during the Shang Dynasty as a medicinal drink. Tea was first introduced to Portuguese priests and merchants in China during the 16th century. Drinking tea became popular in Britain during the 17th century. The British introduced tea to India, in order to compete with the Chinese monopoly on tea. Tea has been historically promoted for having a variety of positive health benefits. Recent human studies suggest that green tea may help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer, promote oral health, reduce blood pressure, help with weight control, improve antibacterial and antivirasic activity, provide protection from solar ultraviolet light, increase bone mineral density, and have "anti-fibrotic properties, and neuroprotective power. Additional research is needed to "fully understand its contributions to human health, and advise its regular consumption in Western diets.

Tea catechins have known anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities, help to regulate food intake, and have an affinity for cannabinoid receptors, which may suppress pain, nausea, and provide calming effects. Consumption of green tea is associated with a lower risk of diseases that cause functional disability, such as stroke, cogni tive impairment, and osteoporosis in the elderly. Tea contains L-theanine, and its consumption is strongly associated with a calm but alert and focused, relatively productive (alpha wave dominant), mental state in humans. This mental state is also common to meditative practice. The phrase "herbal tea" usually refers to infusions of fruit or herbs made without the tea plant, such as rosehip tea, chamomile tea, or rooibos tea. Alternative phrases for this are tisane or herbal infusion, both bearing an implied contrast with "tea" as it is construed here.

Camellia sinensis is an evergreen plant that grows mainly in tropical and subtropical climates. Some varieties can also tolerate marine climates and are cultivated as far north as Pembrokeshire in the British mainland and Washington in the United States. Tea plants are propagated from seed and cutting; it takes about 4 to 12 years for a tea plant to bear seed, and about three years before a new plant is ready for harvesting. In addition to a zone 8 climate or warmer, tea plants require at least 127 cm (50 inches) of rainfall a year and prefer acidic soils. Many high-quality tea plants are cultivated at elevations of up to 1,500 m (4,900 ft) above sea level: at these heights, the plants grow more slowly and acquire a better flavour. Only the top 1-2 inches of the mature plant are picked. These buds and leaves are calledflushes. A plant will grow a new flush every seven to 15 days during the growing season, and leaves that are slow in development tend to produce better-flavoured teas. Pests of tea include mosquito bugs that can tatter leaves, so insecticides may be sprayed; it is important that these be applied judiciously to avoid excessive residues. A tea plant will grow into a tree of up to 16 m (52 ft) if left undisturbed, but cultivated plants are pruned to waist height for ease of plucking. Two principal varieties are used: the China plant (C. s. sinensis), used for most Chinese, Formosan and Japanese teas (but not Pu-erh); and the clonal Assam tea plant (C. s. assamica), used in most Indian and other teas (but not Darjeeling). Within these botanical varieties, there are many strains and modern Indian clonal varieties. Leaf size is the chief criterion for the classification of tea plants, with three primary classifications being: Assam type, characterised by the largest leaves; China type, characterised by the smallest leaves; and Cambod, characterised by leaves of intermediate size.

Teas can generally be divided into categories based on how they are processed. There are at least six different types of tea: white, yellow, green, oolong (or wulong), black (called red tea in China), and post-fermented tea (or black tea for the Chinese) of which the most commonly found on the market are white, green, oolong, and black. Some varieties, such as traditional oolong tea and Pu-erh tea, a post-fermented tea, can be used medicinally. After picking, the leaves of C. sinensis soon begin to wilt and oxidise, unless they are immediately dried. The leaves turn progressively darker as their chlorophyll breaks down and tannins are released. This enzymatic axidation process, known as fermentation in the tea industry, is caused by the plant's intracellular enzymes and causes the tea to darken. In tea processing, the darkening is stopped at a predetermined stage by heating, which deactivates the enzymes responsible. In the production of black teas, the halting of oxidisation by heating is carried out simultaneously with drying. Without careful moisture and temperature control during manufacture and packaging, the tea may become unfit for consumption, due to the growth of undesired molds and bacteria. At minimum, it will make the taste unpleasant.

Although single estate teas are available, almost all teas in bags and most other teas sold in the West are now blends. Blending may occur in the tea-planting area (as in the case of Assam), or teas from multiple areas may be blended. The aim of blending is to obtain better taste, higher price, or both, as a more expensive, better-tasting tea may cover the inferior taste of cheaper varieties. Some teas are not pure varieties, but have been enhanced through additives or special processing. Tea is highly receptive to inclusion of various aromas; this may cause problems in processing, transportation, and storage, but also allows for the design of an almost endless range of scented and flavoured variants, such as bergamot (Earl Grey), vanilla, and caramel.

Tea plants are native to East and South Asia, and probably originated around the meeting points of the lands of northeast India, north Burma and southwest China. Statistical cluster analysis, chromosome number (2n=30), easy hybridisation, and various types of intermediate hybrids and spontaneous polyploids indicates that there is likely a single place of origin for Camellia sinensis, an area including the northern part of Burma, and Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China. According to The Story of Tea, tea drinking likely began during the Shang Dynasty, as a medicinal drink. From there, it is believed that there "for the first time, people began to boil tea leaves for consumption into a concentrated liquid without the addition of other leaves or herbs, thereby using tea as a bitter yet stimulating drink, rather than as a medicinal concoction. Although there are tales of tea's first use as a beverage, no one is sure of its exact origins. A Chinese inventor was the first person to invent a tea shredder. The first recorded drinking of tea is in China, with the earliest records of tea consumption dating to the 10th century BC. Another early credible record of tea drinking dates to the 3rd century AD, in a medical text by Hua T'o, who stated that "to drink bitter t'u constantly makes one think better." Another early reference to tea is found in a letter written by the Qin Dynasty general Liu Kun.[ Chinese legends attribute the invention of tea to Shennong during 3000 BC.It was already a common drink during the Qin Dynasty (third century BC) and became widely popular during the Tang Dynasty, when it was spread to Korea, Japan and Vietnam.

Tea was first introduced to Portuguese priests and merchants in China during the 16th century, at which time it was termed ch. In 1750, tea experts travelled from China to the Azores, and planted tea, along with jasmines and mallows, to give it aroma and distinction. Both green and black tea continue to grow in the islands, which are the main suppliers to continental Portugal. Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II, took the tea habit to Great Britain around 1660, but tea was not widely consumed in Britain until the 19th century. In Ireland, tea had become an everyday beverage for all levels of society by the late 19th century, but it was first consumed as a luxury item on special occasions, such as religious festivals, wakes, and domestic work gatherings such as quiltings. The first European to successfully transplant tea to the Himalayas, Robert Fortune, was sent by the East India Company on a mission to China to bring the tea plant back to Great Britain. He began his journey in high secrecy as his mission occurred in the lull between the two Anglo-Chinese Wars or opium wars, and westerners were not in high regard at the time. Tea was first introduced into India by the British, in an attempt to break the Chinese monopoly on tea. The British brought in Chinese seeds to Northeast India but the plants failed, they later discovered that a variety of tea was endemic to Assam and Northeast region of India and used by local tribes. Using the Chinese planting and cultivating techniques, British launched a tea industry by offering land in Assam to any European who agreed to cultivate tea for export."[Tea was originally only consumed by anglicised Indians, it was not until the 1950s that tea grew widely popular in India through a successful advertising campaign by the India Tea Board

Tea contains a large number of potentially bioactive chemicals, including flavinoids, amino acids, vitamins, caffeine and several polysaccharides, and a variety of health effects have been proposed and investigated. It has been suggested that green and black tea may protect against cancer,[though the catechins found in green tea are thought to be more effective in preventing certain obesity-related cancers such as liver and colorectal while both green and black tea may protect against cardiovascular disease. Numerous recent epidemiological studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of green tea consumption on the incidence of human cancers. These studies suggest significant protective effects of green tea against oral, pharyngeal, oesophageal, prostate, digestive, urinary tract, pancreatic, bladder, skin, lung, colon, breast, and liver cancers, and lower risk for cancer metastasis and recurrence.[ Preliminary lab studies show that a wide variety of commercial teas appear to either inactivate or kill viruses reports Reuters Health Information. Several types of green and black teas, regular and iced, were tested on animal tissues infected with such viruses as herpes simplex 1 and 2 and the T1 (bacterial) virus. According to researcher Dr. Milton Schiffenbauer of Pace University in New York, iced tea or regular tea does destroy or inactivate the [herpes] virus within a few minutes. Similar re sults were obtained with the T1 virus.

The Chinese character for tea is . It is pronounced differently in the various Chinese languages. Most pronounce it along the lines of cha (Mandarin has ch), but the Min varieties along the central coast of China and in Southeast Asia pronounce it like te. These two pronunciations of the Chinese word for tea have made their separate ways into other languages around the world: Te is from the Amoy t of Fujian Province and Taiwan. It reached the West from the port of Xiamen (Amoy), once a major point of contact with Western European traders such as the Dutch, who spread it to Western Europe. Cha is from the Cantonese chh of Guangzhou (Canton) and the ports of Hong Kong and Macau, also major points of contact, especially with the Portuguese, who spread it to India in the 16th century. The Korean and Japanese words cha come not from Cantonese but from the Mandarin ch. The widespread form chai comes from Persian chay. This derives from Mandarin ch, which passed overland to Central Asia and Persia, where it picked up the Persian grammatical suffix -yi before passing on to Russian, Arabic, Urdu, Turkish, etc. English has all three forms: cha or char (both pronounced t), attested from the 16th century; tea, from the 17th; and chai, from the 20th. Languages in more intense contact with Chinese, Sinospheric languages like Vietnamese, Zhuang, Tibetan, Korean, and Japanese, may have borrowed their words for tea at an earlier time and from a different variety of Chinese, so-called Sino-Xenic pronunciations. Korean and Japanese, for example, retain early pronunciations of ta and da. Ta comes from the Tang Dynasty court at Chang'an: that is, from Middle Chinese. Japanese da comes from the earlier Southern Dynasties court at Nanjing, a place where the consonant was still vvoiced, as it is today in neighbouring Shanghainese zo. Vietnamese and Zhuang have southern cha-type pronunciations.

Derivatives of te
Language Name Language Name Language Name Language Name Language Name

Afrikaans

tee

Armenian (Western Dialec) Dutch Finnish Greek Irish Latvian

tey

Basque

tea

Catalan

te

Czech

t or th

Danish Faroese German Indonesia n scientific L atin Low Saxon Norwegia n Sinhalese Tamil

te te Tee teh thea Tee [t ] or Tei[t a] te t t heneer(3)

thee tee to n tae tja

English French Hebrew Italian Leonese Malayala m Polish Scots Welsh

tea th ,te t, th or the t Thyila herbata(2) tea [ti] ~ [te] te

Esperanto West Frisian Hungaria n Javanese Limburgis h Maltese

teo tee tea th ti

Estonian Galician Icelandic Khmer Lithuania n Mongolia n Scottish Gaelic Swedish

tee t te tae arbata(2) tsa

Malay

teh

t Tee-soppu enth

Occitan Spanish Telugu

t t the neeru

Kannada Sundanes e

t, teatha te

The different words for tea fall into two main groups: "te-derived" (Min) and "cha-derived" (Cantonese and Mandarin). The words that various languages use for "tea" reveal where those nations first acquired their tea and tea culture. Portuguese traders were the first Europeans to import the herb in large amounts. The Portuguese borrowed their word for tea ( cha) from Cantonese in the 1550s via their trading posts in the south of China, especially Macau. In Central Asia, Mandarin cha developed into Persian chay, and this form spread with Persian trade and cultural influence. Russia (chai) encountered tea in Central Asia. The Burmese word for "tea" ("Laphet" MLCTS: lak hpak, pronounced: [lp]) does not fall into either of the two main groups. The Dutch word for "tea" (thee) comes from the Min dialect. The Dutch may have borrowed their word for tea through trade directly from Fujian, or from Fujianese or Malay traders in Java. From 1610 on, the Dutch played a dominant role in the early European tea trade, via the Dutch East India Company, influencing other languages to use the Dutch word for tea. Other European languages whose words for tea derive from the Min dialect (via Dutch) include English, French (th), Spanish (te), and German (Tee). The Dutch first introduced tea to England in 1644. By the 19th century, most British tea was purchased directly from merchants in Canton, whose population uses cha, though English never replaced its Dutch-derived Min word for tea. In North America, the word chai is used to refer almost exclusively to the Indian masala chai (spiced tea) beverage, in contrast to tea itself. The inverse pattern is seen in Moroccan colloquial Arabic (Darija), ash-shay means "generic, or black Middle Eastern tea" whereas attay refers particularly to Zhejiang or Fujian green tea with fresh mint leaves. The Moroccans are said to have acquired this taste for green tea unique in the Arab world for East Chinese green tea after the ruler Mulay Hassan exchanged some European hostages captured by the Barbary pirates for a whole ship of Chinese tea. See Moroccan tea culture. The colloquial Greek word for tea is ts, from Slavic chai. Its formal equivalent, used in earlier centuries, is ton, from t. The Polish word for a tea-kettle is czajnik, which could be derived directly from chai or from the cognate Russian word. However, tea in Polish is herbata, which, as well as Lithuanian arbata, was derived from the Latin herba thea, meaning "tea herb. The normal word for tea in Finnish is tee, which is a Swedish loan. However, it is often colloquially referred to, especially in Eastern Finland and in Helsinki, as tsai, tsaiju, saijuor saikka, which is cognate to Russian word chai. The latter word refers always to black tea, while green tea is always tee. The British slang word "char" for "tea" arose from its Cantonese Chinese pronunciation "cha" with its spelling affected by the fact that ar is a more common way of representing the phoneme // in British English.

Tea may be consumed early in the day to heighten calm alertness; it contains L-theanine, theophylline, and bound caffeine (sometimes called theine). Decaffeinated brands are also sold. While tea is the second most consumed beverage on Earth after water, in many cultures it is also consumed at elevated social events, such as afternoon tea and the tea party. Tea ceremonies have arisen in different cultures, such as the Chinese and Japanese tea ceremonies, each of which employs traditional techniques and ritualised protocol of brewing and serving tea for enjoyment in a refined setting. One form of Chinese tea ceremony is the Gongfu tea ceremony which typically uses small Yixing clay teapots and oolong tea. Ireland has, for a long time, been one of the biggest per-capita consumers of tea in the world. The national average is four cups per person per day, with many people drinking six cups or more. Tea in Ireland is usually taken with milk and/or sugar and is slightly spicier and stronger than the traditional English Blend. The two main brands of tea sold in Ireland are Lyons and Barry's. The Irish love of tea is perhaps best illustrated by the stereotypical housekeeper, Mrs Doyle in the popular sitcom Father Ted. Tea is prevalent in most cultures in the Middle East. In Arab culture tea is a focal point for social gatherings. In Pakistan both black and green teas are popular and are known locally as sabz chai and kahwah, respectively. The popular green tea called kahwah is often served after every meal in the Pashtun belt of Balochistan and in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, which is where the Khyber Pass of the Silk Road is found. In the transnational Kashmir region, which straddles the border between India and Pakistan, Kashmiri chai or noon chai a pink, creamy tea with pistachios, almonds, cardamom and sometimes cinnamon, is consumed primarily at special occasions, weddings, and during the winter months when it is sold in many kiosks. In central and southern Punjab and the metropolitan Sindh region of Pakistan, tea with milk and sugar (sometimes with pistachios, cardamom, etc.), commonly referred to as chai, is widely consumed. It is the most common beverage of households in the region. In the northern Pakistani regions of Chitral and Gilgit-Baltistan, a salty, buttered Tibetan-style tea is consumed. In Iranian culture, tea is so widely consumed, it is generally the first thing offered to a household guest In the United States and Canada, 80% of tea is consumed cold, as iced tea. Sweet tea is a cultural symbol of the southern US, and is common in that portion of the country. Switzerland has its own unique blend of iced tea, made with the basic ingredients like black tea, sugar, lemon juice and mint, but a variety of Alp herbs are also added to the concoction. Apart from classic flavours like lemon and peach, exotic flavours like jasmine and lemongrass are also very popular.

The traditional method of making or brewing a cup of tea is to place loose tea leaves, either directly or in a tea infuser, into a tea pot orteacup and pour freshly boiled water over the leaves. After a few minutes, the leaves are usually removed again, either by removing the infuser, or by straining the tea while serving. Most green teas should be allowed to steep for about two or three minutes, although some types of tea require as much as ten minutes, and others as little as 30 seconds. The strength of the tea should be varied by changing the amount of tea leaves used, not by changing the steeping time. The amount of tea to be used per amount of water differs from tea to tea, but one basic recipe may be one slightly heaped teaspoon of tea (about 5 ml) for each teacup of water (200 240 ml) (78 oz) prepared as above. Stronger teas, such as Assam, to be drunk with milk, are often prepared with more leaves, and more delicate high-grown teas such as a Darjeeling are prepared with somewhat fewer (as the stronger mid-flavours can overwhelm the champagne notes). The best temperature for brewing tea depends on its type. Teas that have little or no oxidation period, such as a green or white tea, are best brewed at lower temperatures, between 65 and 85 C (149 and 185 F), while teas with longer oxidation periods should be brewed at higher temperatures around 100 C (212 F). The higher temperatures are required to extract the large, complex, flavourful phenolic molecules found in fermented tea. In addition, boiling reduces the dissolved oxygen content of water. Dissolved oxygen would otherwise react with phenolic molecules to turn them brown and reduce their potency as antioxidants. To preserve the antioxidant potency, especially for green and white teas brewed at a lower temperature, water should be boiled vigorously to boil off any dissolved oxygen and then allowed to cool to the appropriate temperature before adding to the tea. An additional health benefit of boiling water before brewing tea is the sterilisation of the water and reduction of any dissolved VOCs, chemicals which are often harmful.

Type
White tea Yellow tea Green tea Oolong tea Black tea Pu'er tea Tisanes

Water temp.
65 to 70 C (149 to 158 F) 70 to 75 C (158 to 167 F) 75 to 80 C (167 to 176 F) 80 to 85 C (176 to 185 F) 99 C (210 F) 95 to 100 C (203 to 212 F) 99 C (210 F)

Steep time
12 minutes 12 minutes 12 minutes 23 minutes 23 minutes Limitless 36 minutes 3 3 4-6 4-6 2-3

Infusions

Several Varied

Some tea sorts are often brewed several times using the same leaves. Historically in China, tea is divided into a number of infusions. The first infusion is immediately poured out to wash the tea, and then the second and further infusions are drunk. The third through fifth are nearly always considered the best infusions of tea, although different teas open up differently and may require more infusions of hot water to produce the best flavour. To keep the temperature of the tea in a teapot a tea cosy is often used. One way to taste a tea, throughout its entire process, is to add hot water to a cup containing the leaves and after about 30 seconds to taste it. As the tea leaves unfold (known as "The Agony of the Leaves"), they give up various parts of themselves to the water and thus the taste evolves. Continuing this from the very first flavours to the time beyond which the tea is quite stewed will allow an appreciation of the tea throughout its entire length.[ Antioxidant content, measured by the lag time for oxidation of cholesterol, is improved by the cold-water steeping of varieties of tea.

Tea is the most popular manufactured drink in the world in terms of consumption. Its consumption equals all other manufactured drinks in the world including coffee, chocolate, soft drinks, and alcohol put together. Most tea consumed outside East Asia is produced on large plantations in the hilly regions of India and Sri Lanka, and is destined to be sold to large businesses. Opposite this large-scale industrial production are many small "gardens," sometimes minuscule plantations, that produce highly sought-after teas prized by gourmets. These teas are both rare and expensive, and can be compared to some of the most expensive wines in this respect. India is the world's largest tea-drinking nation, although the per capita consumption of tea remains a modest 750 grams per person every year. Turkey, with 2.5 kg of tea consumed per person per year, is the world's greatest per capita consumer

Country
Argentina In 2003, world tea production was 3.21 million tonnes annually.[ In 2010, world tea production reached over 4.52 million tonnes. The largest producers of tea are the People's Republic of China, India, Kenya, Sri Lanka, and Turkey. Percentage of total tea production in 2008 Less than 0.5% or insignificant quantities From 0.5 to 1%. From 1 to 5%. From 5 to 10%. From 10 to 20%. More than 20% Percentage of total global tea production by country in 2007 The following table shows the amount of tea production (in tonnes) by leading countries in recent years. Data are generated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations as of February 2012. China India Indonezia Iran Japan

2008
80,142 1,274,984

2009
71,715 1,375,780

2011
88,574 1,467,467

987,000
150,851 165,717 96,500

972,700
146,440 165,717 86,000

991,180
150,000 165,717 85,000

Kenya
Sri Lanka Turkey Vietnam

345,800
318,700 198,046 173,500

314,100
290,000 198,601 185,700

399,000
282,300 235,000 198,466

Total

4,211,397

4,242,280

4,518,060

In 1907, American tea merchant Thomas Sullivan began distributing samples of his tea in small bags of Chinese silk with a drawstring. Consumers noticed they could simply leave the tea in the bag and reuse it with fresh tea. However, the potential of this distribution/packaging method would not be fully realised until later on. During World War II, tea was rationed in the United Kingdom. In 1953 (after rationing in the UK ended), Tetley launched the tea bag to the UK and it was an immediate success. Tea leaves are packed into a small envelope (usually composed of paper) known as a tea bag. The use of tea bags is easy and convenient, making them popular for many people today. However, the use of tea bags has negative aspects, as well. The tea used in tea bags is commonly fannings or "dust", the waste product produced from the sorting of higher quality loose leaf tea. However, this is not true for all brands of tea; many high quality speciality teas are available in bag form. Tea aficionados commonly believe this method provides an inferior taste and experience. The paper used for the bag may also be tasted, which can detract from the tea's own flavour. Because fannings and dust are a lower quality of the tea to begin with, the tea found in tea bags is less finicky when it comes to brewing time and temperature. Additional reasons why bag tea is considered less well-flavoured include:

Dried tea loses its flavour quickly on exposure to air. Most bag teas (although not all) contain leaves broken into small pieces; the great surface area to volume ratio of the leaves in tea bags exposes them to more air, and therefore causes them to go stale faster. Loose tea leaves are likely to be in larger pieces, or to be entirely intact. Breaking up the leaves for bags extracts flavoured oils. The small size of the bag does not allow leaves to diffuse and steep properly.
The "pyramid tea bag" (or sachet) introduced by Lipton and PG Tips/Scottish Blend in 1996, attempts to address one of the connoisseurs' arguments against paper tea bags by way of its three-dimensional tetrahedron shape, which allows more room for tea leaves to expand while steeping. However, some types of pyramid tea bags have been criticised as being environmentally unfriendly, since their synthetic material is not as biodegradable as loose tea leaves and paper tea bags.

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