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DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM

ECOLOGY
• Ecology: the scientific study of the
interactions of living organisms with
other living organisms and with the
physical environment.
• Environment = Biotic components +
Abiotic components.
• Biotic components: Living organisms
• Abiotic components: Nonliving
components.
ABIOTIC COMPONENTS
• pH value: pH of the soil and water.
Most organisms survive well in neutral
or nearly neutral environment
• Light intensity: affects the distribution
and growth of plants and animals
• Temperature: most living organisms
can only tolerate a narrow range of
tempearture (0oC to 45oC): exceptional
to certain species, example:
termophilic bacteria that can survive in
hot springs.
ABIOTIC COMPONENTS

4. Humidity: amount of water vapour


present in the air. Humidity affects the
rate of water loss by plants and
animals
5. Topography: physical features of land.
Topographic factors are altitude,
gradient and aspect
TOPOGRAPHIC FACTORS
1. Altitude: Higher altitude associates with lower
athmopheric pressure and temperature.
Different plants grow at different altitudes.
2. Gradient : The steepness of a slope. Steep
slopes result in rapid drainage and run off.
3. Aspect: associated with the direction of the
wind. The slopes of a mountain facing the
direction of the wind received more rain.
4. Microclimate: climate of a microhabitat.
Microclimated includes the humidity,
temperature, light intensity and atmopheric
conditions
BIOTIC COMPONENTS
• Consists of producer (green plants),
primary consumer, secondary
consumer, tertiary consumer and
decomposer (bacteria and fungi).
FOOD CHAIN, FOOD WEB &
TROPHIC LEVELS
• Food chain: a sequence of organisms through
which energy is transferred
• Each stage of food chain is known as a trophic
level
• Food web: Interconnected food chains
• In a food web, the source of energy is sunlight
• Only 10% of energy is transferred to each
trophic level: see pyramid of numbers
• Energy loss is in the form of heat energy,
decaying and etc.
INTERACTION BETWEEN BIOTIC
COMPONENTS IN RELATION TO
FEEDING
• Symbiosis: a close relationship between
two or more different species which live
closely together and interact with each
other.
• Symbiotic relationships: commensalism,
mutualism and parasitism
COMMENSALISM
• Clown fish and sea anemones
• One species is benefit, the other species
neither harmed nor get benefit.
MUTUALISM
• Mutualism refers to the
relationship of two
organisms where both
benefit from the association.
The example below is a
lichen growing on the trunk
of a mangrove tree. The
lichen consists of a fungus
and an algae growing
together. The fungus gets
food from the
photosynthesising algae
and the algae gets a place
to live.
PARASITISM

ECTOPARASITE ENDOPARASITE

• The association in the parasite host relationship


is one in which one organism benefits from the
relationship and the other is disadvantaged..
DISCUSSION
• In groups, discuss about saprophytism,
prey-predator relationships and
competition.
• What do you understand about dynamic
equilibrium? Discuss…