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Parallel Operation

PRODUCT TRAINING

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - When is it Required?


1. To increase the capacity of available power without loss of supply to the customers distribution system. 2. To allow the Generator to be connected to a live system ( e.g ; the Mains, (Grid, Utility,), Multiple Generator systems, C.H.P, etc.

3. To allow shutdown of individual Generators for Maintenance or repair purposes.


4. To economise operating costs by running multiple generators according to load demand. 5. To provide an emergency back-up to critical supplies without loosing power, ( e.g ; Hospitals, Ships, Computer data systems, etc).

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Essential Requirements


1. All Generators must have the same voltage.

2. All Generators must have the same phase rotation.

3. All Generators must have the same frequency.


4. All Generators and Prime Movers (Engines), must have similar no load, to full load, voltage and frequency characteristics. 5. Generator installation must be provided with Synchronising equipment. 6. Essential protection should include Reverse power, Over-current , Over-temperature, Generator Over/Under excitation. 7. Generator of dissimilar design or manufacturer, should have similar waveform characteristics (harmonics), if Neutrals are joined.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Synchronising AC Generators

Synchronisation is carried out in order to parallel a Generator onto a live Bus-bar, either in Island mode ( with multiple Generator sets as the only supply), or to the Utility..

Synchronisation can be achieved Manually, Semi-Automatic with Check-sync, or by fully automatic P.L.C systems.

Why is Synchronisation of AC Generators necessary ?

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Synchronising AC Generators


GEN 1
AVR DROOP CT

CB1

BUS-BAR

LOAD GEN 2
AVR DROOP CT

MCB

CB2

Consider a simple installation with two Identical Gen-sets, (breakers open circuit). Normally, one (or more), generators will already be connected to the load, and supplying power. (GEN 2 is now closed onto the Bus-bar). It is also normal that the Generator on line (GEN2) will be running at nominal frequency (50 or 60 HZ), while the incoming generator (GEN1), can be running at a higher (NO LOAD), frequency of about 52 or 62 HZ.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Synchronising AC Generators


GEN 1
Synchronising AVR DROOP CT Equipment

CB1

BUS-BAR

LOAD GEN 2
AVR DROOP CT

MCB

CB2 When the relative Engine speeds are different, the Generator waveforms will be rapidly going in and out of phase with each other. To correctly Synchronise A.C. Generators, the frequencies must be ALMOST identical. Frequency (HZ), is the Electrical equivalent of Speed (RPM), which means that the engine SPEEDS must be ALMOST identical. Synchronising equipment is required to monitor the Bus Frequency and the Incoming Generator frequency, to ensure that the Generators are in Synchronism.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Synchronising AC Generators


SYNCHRONISED Incoming Incoming Generator Generator Set Set On-line On-line Generator Generator SetSet

EXAMPLE : In this analogy two trucks represent two Generator sets, to be paralleled . If both trucks are travelling at EXACTLY THE SAME SPEED, they will ALWAYS remain the SAME DISTANCE APART, ( IRRESPECTIVE OF SPEED). However, if the REAR truck is A FEW RPM FASTER than the FRONT truck, it will VERY SLOWLY catch up with the truck in front. SYNCHRONISING is exactly the same process, the RATE OF CHANGE in speed must be SLOW ENOUGH to allow the BREAKER to close when the Generators are IN PHASE .

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Synchronising AC Generators


GEN 1 IN PHASE

50 HZ
(1500 RPM)

GEN 2

50.1 HZ
(1503 RPM)

Example :- GEN 2 is supplying load and is running at 50HZ (1500 RPM). GEN 1 is INCOMING, and the engine speed has been adjusted down slightly to almost 1500 RPM (for example 50.1 HZ).

As there is a SMALL RELATIVE DIFFERENCE between speeds, the Synchronising equipment should be indicating that the Generators are moving IN and OUT of phase SLOWLY enough to ALLOW TIME to close the breaker.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Synchronising AC Generators


GEN 1 IN PHASE 180 OUT OF PHASE
o

50 HZ

GEN 2

50.1 HZ

Consider above condition: The Generator is IN PHASE, , but is now about to go OUT OF PHASE. What will happen if the circuit breaker is closed in the final condition above ?

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Synchronising AC Generators


GEN 1

CRASHED
180 INTO PHASE

GEN 2

The Generator waveforms are 180 OUT OF PHASE with each other. As the breaker closes, GEN 1 will instantly try to reverse the rotation of GEN 2. This is IMPOSSIBLE, because of the inertia in the Engine/Generator moving parts. The Generators will be INSTANTLY CRASHED into synchronism. . The transient forces created are both Electrically and Mechanically DESTRUCTIVE Electrical damage can occur to Diodes, Varistors, and Main Stator windings. Mechanical damage may also occur to Couplings, Bearings, and Shaft.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Synchronising AC Generators


GEN 1 IN PHASE

50 HZ
1500 RPM

GEN 2

50.1 HZ
1503 RPM

Example 2 :- GEN 2 is supplying load and is running at 50HZ (1500 RPM). GEN 1 engine speed has been adjusted to almost 1500 RPM (50.1 HZ). The Generator waveforms are SLOWLY moving IN and OUT of phase. The Synchronising equipment indicates that the Generator are IN PHASE. The circuit breaker can be SAFELY closed in the above condition.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Synchronising AC Generators


GEN 1
Synchronising AVR DROOP CT Equipment

OK !
CB1
BUS-BAR

LOAD
GEN 2
AVR DROOP CT

MCB

CB2

When the Synchronising equipment indicates that the incoming Generator (GEN 1) is IN PHASE with the Bus-bar frequency, the circuit breaker can be safely closed.

The INCOMING Generator should ALWAYS be slightly FASTER than the loaded Generator. This ensure that the incoming Generator ALWAYS takes a small proportion of load when the breaker is closed. This will prevent REVERSE POWER protection tripping. The Generators are now IN PARALLEL, the next step is LOAD SHARING.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Load Sharing


REACTIVE kVAr LAGGING VOLTAGE (50 OR 60HZ)

ACTIVE CURRENT
p.f 1 (kW)

90 90

POWER ( kW )

COS COS

TIME

REACTIVE (kVAr) LEADING

REACTIVE CURRENT LEADING p.f 0

REACTIVE CURRENT LAGGING p.f 0

ACTIVE CURRENT is the USEFUL CURRENT , which is IN PHASE with the Voltage, and provides the POWER, or kWATT component of the load.

INDUCTIVE CURRENT is WASTED or WATTLESS CURRENT, which is LAGGING the Voltage by 90. This is the kVAr component, (POWER FACTOR 0).
The VECTORIAL RESULTANT is the kVA , ( APPARENT POWER). The COSINE of the RESULTANT ANGLE is called the POWER FACTOR ( COS ). CAPACITIVE CURRENT LEADS the Voltage by 90. REACTIVE CURRENT SHARING is controlled by the GENERATORS, (AVR & DROOP).

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Load Sharing


REACTIVE (WATTLESS) CURRENT SHARING The Brushless AVR controlled Generator has a natural linear voltage DROOPING characteristic from NO LOAD to FULL LOAD.
VOLTS

415V

0% 0.5% 1.0%

409V

0%

50%
PERCENTAGE LOAD

100%

0.5% Voltage Regulation for AVR Types MX321, MA325, MA327 1.0% Voltage Regulation for AVR Types MX341 TO AUTOMATICALLY SHARE REACTIVE LOAD CURRENT, GENERATORS MUST HAVE SIMILAR NO LOAD TO FULL LOAD VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Load Sharing


REACTIVE (WATTLESS) CURRENT SHARING
The PARALLEL DROOP CIRCUIT, provides a signal which allows the AVR to sense WATTLESS REACTIVE CURRENT, ( ZERO POWER FACTOR ).
VOLTS

415 V

0% 1.0% (SINGLE)

403 V 0% 50%
LOAD AT 0.8 POWER FACTOR

3.0% 100%

At full load 0.8 power factor the voltage DROOP required (single running), is 3%. This is in addition to the normal (natural) voltage regulation of the AVR, and allows the DROOP CIRCUIT to automatically control a % of the voltage. The DROOP SETTING is adjusted on the AVR DROOP CIRCUIT.

A SHORTING SWITCH may be fitted across the DROOP CT for single running.

PRODUCT TRAINING

DROOP

kWATT

Parallel Operation - Circulating Current


WHY IS DROOP IS REQUIRED FOR GENERATORS IN PARALLEL ?
GEN 1
AVR 1 SYNCHRONISING

403V 400V
CB1 CB1
BUS

EQUIPMENT

GEN 2

403V
AVR 2

0 LOAD LOAD
MCB

403V 406V
CB2 CB2

EXAMPLE: Two similar 400V Generators are required to operate in parallel Generator 2 is incorrectly adjusted to 406V (at no load). GEN 2 is connected to the Bus by closing circuit breaker CB2 GEN 1 is synchronised with GEN 2, and breaker CB1 is closed The resultant Bus-Bar Voltage will be approximately average of the two Generators.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Circulating Current


WHY IS DROOP IS REQUIRED FOR GENERATORS IN PARALLEL ?
GEN 1
AVR BUS-BAR

400V

CB1

403 V

403V
GEN 2
AVR

LOAD MCB

406V
CB2 CIRCULATING CURRENT

GEN 1 EXCITATION SYSTEM is trying to PULL the voltage DOWN to 400 V. GEN 2 EXCITATION SYSTEM is trying to PUSH the voltage UP to 406 V. The RESULTANT VOLTAGE will be approximately. AVERAGE of the two Generators This PRESSURE DIFFERENCE (VOLTS), forces CIRCULATING CURRENT into GEN 1. CIRCULATING CURRENT is WATTLESS, (POWER FACTOR 0).

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Circulating Current


PF 1 LEAD

GEN 1

AVR 1

DROOP CT

LAG

CB1

BUS-BAR

403 V
LOAD GEN 2
AVR 2 DROOP CT

MCB CB2 CIRCULATING CURRENT

POWER FACTOR METERS

PF 11

LEAD LEAD

LAG

HIGH LAGGING CURRENT ( INDUCTIVE, power factor 0 ) is now flowing OUT of GEN 2. HIGH LEADING CURRENT ( CAPACITIVE, power factor 0 ) is now flowing INTO GEN 1. The DROOP CONTROL must REDUCE circulating current to ACCEPTABLE limits. The MAXIMUM acceptable limit for circulating current is normally 8 %.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Circulating Current


PF 1 LEAD

GEN 1

AVR 1

DROOP CT

LAG

CB1

BUS-BAR

403 V
LOAD

GEN 2

AVR 2

DROOP CT

MCB
CB2 CIRCULATING CURRENT

POWER FACTOR METERS

PF 11

LEAD LEAD

LAG

AVR 2 receives a signal proportional to the circulating current (LAGGING p.f) which DROOPS (DECREASES), the Generator D.C EXCITATION VOLTAGE. AVR 1 receives a signal proportional to the circulating current (LEADING p.f), which INCREASES the Generator D.C EXCITATION VOLTAGE.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - Circulating Current


PF 1 LEAD

GEN 1

VR 1

DROOP CT

LAG

CB1

BUS-BAR

403 V
LOAD LOAD

GEN 2

VR 2

DROOP CT

MCB
CB2

LOAD CURRENT
POWER FACTOR METERS
PF 11 LEAD LEAD

LAG

When the MCB is closed, the DROOP CONTROL must also assist in SHARING the REACTIVE, ( power factor 0 ), component of the LOAD CURRENT.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - kW Load Sharing


kW
LEAD

GEN ENG 1

kWATT METER

AVR 1

DROOP CT BUS-BAR

LOAD ENG GEN 2


AVR 2 DROOP CT

MCB

ACTIVE CURRENT or kW
kW
LEAD

kWATT METER

ACTIVE CURRENT (power factor 1) is the kWATT component of the load, and is CONTROLLED and SHARED by the PRIME MOVERS (ENGINES).
The PRIME MOVERS (ENGINES), must have similar NO LOAD to FULL LOAD GOVERNOR CHARACTERISTICS, in order to share the ACTIVE CURRENT, (PF1).

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - kW Load Sharing


ACTIVE CURRENT ( kWATT) LOAD SHARING
1 HORSE POWER = 746 WATTS , ( OR 0.746 kWATTS .)

HORSE POWER is the mechanical equivalent of kWATTS, (ELECTRICAL POWER). kWATTS = CURRENT X VOLTAGE X POWER FACTOR ( X 1.732 for 3 phase ).

ACTIVE LOAD CURRENT SHARING, is controlled by the ENGINE GOVERNORS. SPEED 1560 RPM

0%

1500 RPM 0%

50% PERCENTAGE LOAD

4.0% 100%

A MECHANICAL ENGINE GOVERNOR REQUIRES A MINIMUM OF 4% SPEED DROOP IN ORDER TO SHARE THE ACTIVE CURRENT (KW), WHEN IN PARALLEL.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - kW Load Sharing


ENGINE 1/ 500 H.P

CB1

BUS-BAR

LOAD
ENGINE 2/ 500 H.P

MCB

CB2

EXAMPLE : Two Generator Sets are required to run in parallel, both sets have equal size 500 H.P Engines, with mechanical ENGINE GOVERNORS. How will ENGINE 1 and 2 share the load AUTOMATICALLY, throughout all load variations, from NO LOAD to FULL LOAD ?

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - kW Load Sharing


ENGINE GOVERNING

A.C Generator

Engine

EXAMPLE : In this analogy the truck ENGINE represents the GENSET DIESEL ENGINE, and the TRUCK represents the GENERATOR.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - kW Load Sharing


ENGINE GOVERNING

LOAD

LOAD

EXAMPLE : In this analogy the truck ENGINE represents the GENSET DIESEL ENGINE, and the TRUCK represents the GENERATOR.

As with a Genset, the truck engine speed is FIXED, at a constant speed ie.,1500 RPM.
When the truck is UNLOADED, the engine is powering the LOSSES only.

When the truck is LOADED, the engine must provide extra power, and the truck speed will fall (for example 4% SPEED DROOP), because the ENGINE GOVERNOR is fixed at constant speed.
What will happen if the trucks are NOW JOINED SOLIDLY TOGETHER??

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - kW Load Sharing


ENGINE GOVERNING

LOAD

LOAD

The trucks are now JOINED TOGETHER, similar to two GENERATOR SETS when they are in PARALLEL.
How will the engines SHARE THE LOAD in the following situations ?...

1) Both ENGINES have SIMILAR LOAD CHARACTERISTICS from no load to full load ?
ANSWER - THEY WILL AUTOMATICALLY SHARE THE LOAD - EQUALLY

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - kW Load Sharing


ENGINE GOVERNING

LOAD

LOAD

2) THE TRUCK IN FRONT HAS A STRONGER ENGINE THAN THE ONE AT THE BACK.?

ANSWER- THE FRONT ENGINE WILL TAKE LOAD AWAY FROM THE REAR ENGINE.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - kW Load Sharing


ENGINE GOVERNING

LOAD

3) The TRUCK AT THE BACK develops an ENGINE FAULT, and LOOSES POWER ?

ANSWER - THE FRONT TRUCK TAKES ALL OF THE LOAD, AND MOTORS MOTORS THE REAR TRUCK.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - kW Load Sharing


1560 RPM
ENGINE 1 500 H.P ENGINE 2 500 H.P

1500 RPM

4.0% SPEED DROOP

ENGINE SPEED
0% 50% 100% PERCENTAGE LOAD 50% 0%

When BOTH Engines have similar GOVERNOR CHARACTERISTICS, they will share the kW load in parallel, AUTOMATICALLY, from NO LOAD to FULL LOAD.
When the engines have DIFFERENT governor characteristics, (as single running engines), load sharing will become UNEQUAL as kW load is INCREASED. In above example ENGINE 2 is the STRONGER ENGINE

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - kW Load Sharing


ENGINE 1/ 50 H.P BUS-BAR

CB1
ENGINE 2/ 500 H.P

LOAD MCB CB2

EXAMPLE: Two different sizes of Generator Sets are required to run in parallel, Set 1 has a 50 H.P ENGINE, set 2 has a 500 H.P ENGINE. How will ENGINE 1 know that it must take 10% of the total kW load, AUTOMATICALLY, from NO LOAD to FULL LOAD ?

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - kW Load Sharing


1560 RPM
ENGINE 1 50 H.P ENGINE 2 500 H.P

1500 RPM

4.0% SPEED DROOP

ENGINE SPEED
0%

37 kW
50% 100% PERCENTAGE LOAD

370 kW
50% 0%

When BOTH Engines have similar GOVERNOR CHARACTERISTICS, they will PROPORTIONALLY share the kW load, AUTOMATICALLY, from NO LOAD to FULL LOAD. ENGINE 1 should AUTOMATICALLY take 10% of the load throughout all load changes.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - kW Load Sharing


WHAT IS REVERSE POWER ?
ENGINE 1, 50 H.P

REVERSE POWER. GEN 1 MOTOR


ENGINE 2, 500 H.P

CB1

BUS-BAR

LOAD MCB CB2

GEN 2

ACTIVE CURRENT

Example : Engine 1 (50HP) develops a fault, which causes it to loose speed & power. What will happen if Engine 1 is running in parallel with Engine 2? Answer; Engine 2 will be supplying ALL OF THE LOAD CURRENT, and feeding back ACTIVE CURRENT (kWATTS) INTO GEN 1. GEN 1 has now become a MOTOR, DRIVING ENGINE 1. This is REVERSE POWER, and can severely DAMAGE the ENGINES.

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - kW Load Sharing


ENGINE 1, 50 H.P
REVERSE POWER PROTECTION

MOTOR GEN 1
ENGINE 2, 500 H.P

CB1

BUS-BAR

LOAD MCB CB2

GEN 2

ACTIVE CURRENT

REVERSE POWER can occur :1. NO LOAD - following synchronisation, if the INCOMING Engine speed is lower than the BUS BAR speed/frequency. 2. ON LOAD - if a FAULT occurs on one of the Engines, causing it to LOOSE POWER, or if the Governor is INCORRECTLY ADJUSTED relative to the other Generators. The Generator should be DISCONNECTED from the system to avoid damage. THIS IS ACHIEVED WITH REVERSE POWER PROTECTION

PRODUCT TRAINING

Parallel Operation - kW Load Sharing


ISOCHRONOUS GOVERNOR kW FEEDBACK

CB1

BUS-BAR

ISOCHRONOUS GOVERNOR

LOAD
kW FEEDBACK

MCB CB2 ACTIVE CURRENT

How can kW Load sharing be achieved WITHOUT SPEED DROOP?, i.e., constant speed from no load to full load?
Answer : The Engines must be fitted with ISOCHRONOUS ELECTRONIC GOVERNORS. kW LOAD SHARING (kW), is achieved by GOVERNOR CONTROL from a kW feedback signal, which automatically controls the kW LOAD SHARING.

PRODUCT TRAINING

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PARALLEL DROOP CIRCUIT POWER FACTOR CONTROLLER PFC3

PRODUCT TRAINING