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COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Amina Solaiman Fatimah Amilhasan

The Circulatory System


The Circulatory System of Vertebrates is basically a set of connecting tubes and pumps that move fluid. The ability of theorganism to adjust to immediate physiological changesin physical and metabolic activty depends on the rapid response of this system. It is also a means of changing and refreshing the fluids necessary to renew the nutrients and prevent pollution caused by the buildup of wastes through the bodys delivery routes- the blood vessels Using blood as a transport vehicle, substances such as oxygen, nutrients, hormones and cell wastes move to and from the cells. the force that moves the blood around the body is provided by the beating heart and by blood pressure.

The circulatory system is divided into: -Cardiovascular system which constitute the blood, arteries, veins, capillaries and the; -Lymphatic system which houses white blood and cells and involved in immunity

relation of the circulatory system to other body systems

Parts of the heart

Cardiovascular System transport routes


Blood - functions in respiration and disease protection, nutrition (carries carbohydrates, fats, proteins), excretion (carries spent metabolites), regulation of body temperature (carries and distributes heat), maintenance of water balance and transport of hormones. Arteries- carry blood away from the heart and has muscular elastic fibrous walls Veins- carry blood toward the heart Capillaries- tiny vessels that lie between arteries and veins

Cross section of artery and vein.

Single and Double Circulation


Blood travels in two general patterns. Single circulation-as in most fishes, blood passes only once through the heart during each complete circuit. with this design, blood moves from the heart to the gills to the systemic tissues and back to the heart. Double Circulation- as in amniotes, blood passes through the heart twice during each circuit, travelling fromthe heart to the lungs, back to the heart,out to the systemic tissues, and back to the heart a second time. The rise of this double circulation was a major evolutionary event.

Arterial Vessels
Arterial vessels supply most organs with oxygenated blood, although they carry deoxygenated blood to respiratory organs. In primitive pattern of gnathostomes, the major arterial vessels consist of: ventral aorta emerging from the heart and passing forward beneath the pharynx, dorsal aorta paired abovethe pharynx only and extendingcaudad in the roof of the coelom and six pairs of aortic arches connecting the ventral aorta with the dorsal aorta

table comparing aortic arches of the different groups


fish amphibians reptiles Birds mammals

Aortic arches

-1st and 2nd arches lost -Dorsal aorta become internal carotids (teleost)

-Ductus caroticus -Ductus arteriosusdorsal segment of 6th arch - Most terrestrial amphibians have 4 pairs of aortic arches

-1st and 2nd arches lost -Ductus caroticus lost 5th arch lost -Ductus arteriosus lost -Additional aortic arch introduced * Arch from left side loops right *arch from right loops left

-Right portion of aortic arch is retained and left is lost (opposite to mammals) -Birds have right aortic arch

-3rd, 4th, 5th, & 6th retained embryonically -Adults- 1st and 2nd dropped -3rd carotid arch -4th systemic arch 5th lost -Dorsal segment of 6th lost Retained embryonically- ductus arteriosus (becomes ligamentum arteriosum -Mammals have left aortic arch

Venous Vessels
In vertebrates with an established double circulation, there are two general functional systems of venous circulation: -Systemic system (which includes the hepatic portl vein, renal portal system and general body veins) draining the general body tissues and -Pulmonary system (which include the pulmonary vein) draining the lungs

Venous vessels
Major venous channels
Cardinals: anterior, posterior, common Renal portal Lateral abdominals Vitellines- associated with hepatic portal system Coronary veins
Common Cardinals- directs blood to sinus venosus Anterior Cardinals- receives blood from head Post Cardinals- receives blood from kidneys Renal Portal- receives blood from caudal vein Lateral Abdominals- receives blood from abdominal stream to iliac (lateral wall of body) Hepatic Veins- receives blood from intestine into liver

Additional characteristics of higher vertebrates


Pulmonary Posterior vena cava

- Most mammals lose renal portal system - Pre-cava- common cardinals in higher verts - Internal jugular- anterior cardinal veins - Anterior vena cava- only right pre-cava retained

Venous vessels of the various animal groups

Table comparing the venous vessels of the different groups


fish amphibians reptiles Birds mammals

Venous vessels

-Paired anterior cardinal veins and small inferior jagular vein drains the head and joins cardinal vein before emptying to the sinus venosus in the heart. -Subclavian and iliac vein drain appandages via lateral abdominal vein -Modification of posterior cardinal diverts all returning blood from the tail to flow through kidneys before emptying to posterior cardinal -Hepatic portal vein transport blood from digestive tract to capillaries in liver. Blood from liver flows to the heart through short hepatic vein

-Internal jagular and external jagular vein together with small lingual vein from the tongue return blood from the head. -Large post cava provides one route for blood coming from kidneys -Ventral abdominal vein transport blood from the limb to liver sinusoid -Blood from tail may either go through the ventral abdominal, the posterior cardinal or postcava via the kidneys. -Hepatic veins enter postcava and drains the liver.

-Internal jaggular and subclavian streams from the paired common cardinal which is enlarged and modified and commonly referred to as precava. -Posterior cardinal reduced to small azygos vein draining the inner wall of the thorax -Paired lateral abdominal vein are present -Hepatic portal vein joins capillaries in digestive tract. Blood from liver sinusoids return by short hepatic veins joining the post cava. -The precava and postcava enter sinus venosus in the heart.

-Short external jagular joins long internal jagular to return blood to common cardinal which is modified into precava -The femoral caudal and renal veins branch out from the extensive post cava which also receives blood from hepatic vein before entering the heart. -Hepatic and renal portals are also present.

-Renal portal and abdominal veins are absent but hepatic vein is present. -Cardinal vessels are modified to produce major vessels: the single precava (superior vena cava) and single post cava(inferior vena cava) -the vessels collect blood from the anterior and posterior part of the body -the posterior vena cava branches out into sections like hepatic, renal and subclavian vein.

Heart
The heart is a pump that moves blood through vessels both by pushing blood through the circulatory system and also by aspiration

Table comparing the hearts of the different groups


heart fish -Fish heart- tube like -4 chambers: sinus venosus, Atrium, ventricle, Conus arteriosus The Designation of fish hearts as two chamberd recognizes only atria and ventricles as chambers which is a term not definitive Sinus venosus : Thin walled venous chamber Receives blood from: duct of Cuvier, coronary veins, hepatic veins Atrium Large and thin walled Dorsal to ventricle Ventricle amphibians Amphibians have 3 chambered heart and two circuits of blood flow; pulmocutaneous and systematic Modifications of partial or complete partition in atrium Left and right atria Advent of lungs Double circulation Modification in conus arteriosus Semi-lunar valve modified to shunt deoxygenated blood to lungs (spiral valve) -Spiral valve directs oxy. blood entering ventricle from left atrium Dumps into conus artriosus- -Conus (truncus) continuous with aorta arteriosus; also called Chambers separated by bulbous cordis valves: sino-atrial note, sino-Bulbous arteriosus ventricular node, semi-lunar Swelling of ventral valve aorta Conus arteriosus Smooth muscle Short in bony fish and amphibians Not found in adult amniotes reptiles Lizard snakes and turtles have 3 chambered hearts with a septum partially dividing the single ventricle in crocodiles, the septum is complete and the heart is four chambered Birds Four chambered heart 2 atria and 2 ventricles mammals Four chambered heart 2 atria and 2 ventricles