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Chapter 5

Working in Teams

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Chapter Outline
Teams vs.Groups: Whats the Difference? Why Have Teams Become So Popular? Stages of Group and Team Development

Creating Effective Teams


Twenty-First Century Teamwork: Virtual Teams Beware! Teams Arent Always the Answer

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Groups and Teamwork


1. What are teams and groups? 2. Does everyone use teams? 3. Do groups and teams go through stages while they work? 4. How do we create effective teams? 5. How do virtual teams work? 6. Are teams always the answer?
Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Teams vs. Groups: Whats the Difference?


Groups
Two or more people with a common relationship.

Teams
A small number of people who work closely together toward a common objective and are accountable to one another.

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Why Have Teams Become So Popular?


A Conference Board of Canada report found that more than 80 of it 109 respondents used teams. In the U.S.:
80 percent of Fortune 500 companies have half or more of their employees on teams 68 percent of small U.S. manufacturers use teams in their production area.

The extensive use of teams creates the potential for an organization to generate greater outputs with no increase in inputs.
Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Exhibit 5-1 Stages of Group Development

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Stages of Group and Team Development


Stage I: Forming
Characterized by much uncertainty

Stage II: Storming


Characterized by intragroup conflict

Stage III: Norming


Characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness
Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Stages of Group Development


Stage IV: Performing
The stage when the group is fully functional

Stage V: Adjourning
The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance
Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Putting the Five-Stage Model Into Perspective


Groups do not necessarily progress clearly through the stages one at a time. Groups can sometimes go back to an earlier stage. Conflict can sometimes be helpful to the group. Context can matter: airline pilots can immediately reach performing stage.
Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model


Phase 1 The first meeting sets the groups direction. The first phase of group activity is one of inertia. Transition A transition takes place at the end of the first phase, which occurs exactly when the group has used up half its allotted time. The transition initiates major changes. Phase 2 A second phase of inertia follows the transition. Last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity.
Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Exhibit 5-2 The PunctuatedEquilibrium Model


(High) Completion Phase 2 Performance

First Meeting Transition Phase 1

(Low) A (A+B)/2 Time


Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Exhibit 5-3 Characteristics of an Effective Team


Clear purpose Informality Participation Listening Civilized disagreement Consensus decisions Open communication Clear rules and work assignments Shared leadership External relations Style diversity Self-assessment

Source: G. M. Parker, Team Players and Teamwork: The New Competitive Business Strategy (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990), Table 2, p. 33. Copyright 1990 by Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Exhibit 5-4 A Model of Team Effectiveness


Context
Adequate resources Leadership and structure Climate of trust Performance evaluation and rewards

Composition
Skills Personality Roles Diversity Size Member flexibility Member preference for teamwork

Team effectiveness

Work design
Autonomy Skill variety Task identity Task significance

Process
Common purpose Specific goals Team efficacy Managed level of conflict Accountability

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Creating Effective Teams Context


Adequate Resources Leadership and Structure Climate of Trust Performance Evaluation and Rewards

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Creating Effective Teams Composition


Skills Personality Roles Diversity Size Member Flexibility Members Preference for Teamwork
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Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

Skills
Teams need the following skills to perform effectively:
Technical expertise Problem-solving and decision-making skills Interpersonal skills

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Roles
Task-oriented roles
Roles performed by group members to ensure that the tasks of the group are accomplished.

Maintenance roles
Roles performed by group members to maintain good relations within the group.

Individual roles
Roles performed by group members that are not productive for keeping the group on task.
Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Exhibit 5-5 Roles That Build Task Accomplishment


Initiating Stating the goal or problem, making proposals about how to work on it, setting time limits Asking group members for specific factual information related to the task or problem Sharing information or opinions related to the task or problems Helping one another understand ideas and suggestions that come up in the group Building on one anothers ideas and suggestions Reviewing the points covered by the group and the different ideas stated so that decisions can be based on full information Periodic testing about whether the group is nearing a decision or needs to continue discussion
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Seeking information and opinions Providing information and opinions Clarifying Elaborating Summarizing

Consensus Testing

Source: Team Processes, in Managing for the Future, ed. D. Ancona, T. Kochan, M. Scully, J. Van Maanen, and D. E. Westney (Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing, 1996), p. 9. Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

Exhibit 5-5 Roles That Build and Maintain a Team


Harmonizing Compromising Gatekeeping Mediating conflict among other members, reconciling disagreements, relieving tensions Admitting error at times of group conflict Making sure all members have a chance to express their ideas and feelings and preventing members from being interrupted Helping a group member make his or her point. Establishing a climate of acceptance in the group

Encouraging

Source: Team Processes, in Managing for the Future, ed. D. Ancona, T. Kochan, M. Scully, J. Van Maanen, and D. E. Westney (Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing, 1996), p. 9.

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Diversity
Impact of diverse groups
Diversity in personality, age, gender, and experience promotes conflict, which stimulates creativity and idea generation, which leads to improved decision making. Cultural diversity in groups initially leads to more difficulty in building cohesion, gaining satisfaction, being productive.
Problems pass with time (certainly by three months). Culturally diverse groups bring more viewpoints out.

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Advantages

Exhibit 5-6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Diversity


Disadvantages

Multiple perspectives Greater openness to new ideas Multiple interpretations Increased creativity Increased flexibility Increased problemsolving skills

Ambiguity Complexity Confusion Miscommunication Difficulty in reaching a single agreement Difficulty in agreeing on specific actions
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Source: Adapted from N. J. Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, 4th ed., p. 109. Copyright 2002. By permission of South-Western College Publishing, a division of International Thomson Publishing, Cincinnati, OH 45227. Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

Group Size
Research shows that:
Smaller groups are faster at completing tasks. When problem solving, larger groups do better.

Social Loafing
The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. To reduce social loafing, teams should not be larger than necessary, and individuals should be held accountable for their actions.
Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Team Member Attributes


Member Flexibility
The ability of team members to complete each others tasks.

Members Preference for Teamwork


Team members who would prefer to work on their own threaten the teams morale.

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Creating Effective Teams Work Design


Effective teams need to work together and take collective responsibility to complete significant tasks. They must be more than a team-in-name-only.

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Creating Effective Teams Process


Common Purpose Specific Goals Team Efficacy Managed Level of Conflict Accountability

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Creating a Team Charter


What are team members names and contact information (e.g., phone, email)? How will communication among team members take place (e.g., phone, email)? What will the team ground rules be (e.g., where and when to meet, attendance expectations, workload expectations)? How will decisions be made (e.g., consensus, majority vote, leader rules)? What potential conflicts may arise in the team? Among team members? How will conflicts be resolved by the group?
Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Increasing Socio-emotional Cohesiveness


Keep the group relatively small. Strive for a favourable public image to increase the status and prestige of belonging. Encourage interaction and cooperation. Emphasize members common characteristics and interests. Point out environmental threats (e.g., competitors achievements) to rally the group.
Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Increasing Instrumental Cohesiveness


Regularly update and clarify the groups goal(s). Give every group member a vital piece of the action. Channel each group members special talents toward the common goal(s). Recognize and equitably reinforce every members contributions. Frequently remind group members they need each other to get the job done.
Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Exhibit 5-7 Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness, Performance Norms, and Productivity
High

Cohesiveness

Low

Performance Norms

High

High productivity

Moderate productivity

Low

Low productivity

Moderate to low productivity

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Virtual Teams
Virtual Teams
Use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Managing Virtual Teams


Establish regular times for group interaction. Set up firm rules for communication. Use visual forms of communication where possible. Copy the good points of on-site teams. For example, allow time for informal chitchat and socializing, and celebrate achievements. Give and receive feedback and offer assistance on a regular basis. Be persistent with people who are not communicating with you or each other. Agree on standard technology so all team members can work together easily.

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Managing Virtual Teams


Consider using 360-degree feedback to better understand and evaluate team members. This type of feedback comes from the full circle of daily contacts that an employee might have, including supervisors, peers, subordinates, and clients. Provide a virtual workspace via an intranet, website, or bulletin board. Note which employees effectively use email to build team rapport. Smooth the way for the next assignment if membership on the team, or the team itself, is not permanent. Be available to employees, but dont wait for them to seek you out. Encourage informal, off-line conversation between team members.
Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Exhibit 5-8 An Illustration of Virtual Workspace

Source: Reprinted by permission of Shell Chemical LP. Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Beware! Teams Arent Always the Answer


Teams work best when the answer is yes:
Can the work be done better by more than one person? Does work create a common purpose or set of goals for the people in the group that is more than the aggregate of individual goals? Are members of the group interdependent?
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Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

Summary and Implications


What are teams and groups? Groups are simply the sum of individual efforts. Teams generate positive synergy through coordinated efforts. Does everyone use teams? Teams have become an essential part of the way business is being done, with a large majority of companies now using them. Do groups and teams go through stages while they work? Two different models were presented:
The five stage model: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning The punctuated-equilibrium model: describes the pattern of development of specific to temporary groups with deadlines
Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Summary and Implications


How do we create effective teams? For teams to be effective, careful consideration must be given to resources, the teams composition, work design, and process variables How do virtual teams work? Virtual teams function much as face-to-face teams, but have more challenges. Virtual team members need to communicate more about themselves at the start of projects. Are teams always the answer? Ask
Can the work be done better by more than one person? Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the people in the group that is more than the aggregate of individual goals? Are the members of the group interdependent?
Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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OB at Work

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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For Review
1. How can teams increase employee motivation? 2. Describe the five-stage model of group development. 3. Describe the punctuated-equilibrium model of group development. 4. What are the characteristics of an effective team? 5. How can team members harm their team?

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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For Review
6. What is the difference between task-oriented roles and maintenance roles? 7. What are the effects of team size on performance? 8. How can a team minimize social loafing? 9. Contrast virtual and face-to-face teams. 10. What conditions favour creating a team, rather than letting an individual perform a given task?
Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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For Critical Thinking


1. How could you use the punctuated-equilibrium model to better understand team behaviour? 2. Have you experienced social loafing as a team member? What did you do to prevent this problem? 3. Would you prefer to work alone or as part of a team? Why? How do you think your answer compares with that of others in your class? 4. What effect, if any, do you think workforce diversity has on a teams performance and satisfaction?

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Sports Teams as Models


Good Models
Successful teams integrate cooperation and competition. Successful teams score early wins. Successful teams avoid losing streaks. Practice makes perfect. Successful teams use halftime breaks. Winning teams have a stable membership. Successful teams debrief after failures and successes.

Poor Models
All sport teams arent alike. Work teams are more varied and complex. A lot of employees cant relate to sports metaphors. Work team outcomes arent easily defined in terms of wins and losses.

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Breakout Group Exercises


Form small groups to discuss the following topics.
1. One of the members of your team continually arrives late for meetings and does not turn drafts of assignments in on time. In general this group member is engaging in social loafing. What can the members of your group do to reduce social loafing? 2. Consider a team with which youve worked. Was there more emphasis on task-oriented or maintenance-oriented roles? What impact did this have on the groups performance? 3. Identify 4 or 5 norms that a team could put into place near the beginning of its life that might help the team function better over time.

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Paper Tower Exercise


Step 1 (10 minutes): Each group will receive 20 index cards, 12 paper clips, and 2 marking pens (1 red, 1 green). Using these materials you will build a paper tower that will be judged on: height, stability, and beauty. Plan your construction. No building allowed during this step. Step 2 (15 minutes): Construct the tower. Be sure to put your group number somewhere on the tower. Step 3 (5 minutes): Towers will be delivered to the front of the room, where they will be judged by the class.

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Paper Tower Questions


Step 4: In small groups, discuss the following questions: a. What percent of the plan did each member of group contribute, on average? b. Did your group have a leader? Why or why not? c. How did the group respond to ideas during the planning stage? d. To what extent did you follow the five-step model of group development? e. List helpful behaviours. Explain. f. List dysfunctional behaviours. Explain.
Source: This exercise is based on The Paper Tower Exercise: Experiencing Leadership and Group Dynamics , by Phillip L. Hunsaker and Johanna S. Hunsaker, unpublished manuscript. A brief description is included in Exchange, The Organizational Behavior Teaching Journal 4, no. 2 (1979), p. 49. Reprinted by permission of the authors. The materials list was suggested by Professor Sally Maitlis, Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia.

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Conducting a Team Meeting


12 steps to more efficient and effective meetings: 1. Prepare a meeting agenda. 2. Distribute the agenda in advance. 3. Consult with participants before the meeting. 4. Get participants to go over the agenda. 5. Establish specific time parameters. 6. Maintain focused discussion. 7. Encourage and support participation of all members. 8. Maintain a balanced style. 9. Encourage the clash of ideas. 10. Discourage the clash of personalities. 11. Be an effective listener. 12. Bring proper closure.
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Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada