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DED BY:-BISWA RANJAN NAYAK

SUMIT KUMAR
REGD.NO:-
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INTRODUCTION:-
 A distributed system is one in which hardware or
software components located at networked computers
communicate and coordinate their actions only by
message passing.
 In the term distributed computing, the word
distributed means spread out across space. Thus,
distributed computing is an activity performed on a
spatially
distributed system.

 These networked computers may be in the same


room, same campus, same country, or in different
continents
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Agent Agent

Cooperation
Agent Cooperation

Distribution Distribution Cooperation

Distribution
Agent
Internet
Subscription Distribution

Job Request

Large-scale
Resource
Application
Management

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Rise of Distributed Systems:-

 Computer hardware prices are falling and power


increasing.
 Network connectivity is increasing.
 Everyone is connected with fat pipes.
 It is easy to connect hardware together.
 Combination of cheap processors often more
cost-effective than one expensive fast system.
 Flexibility to add according to needs.
 Potential increase of reliability.
 Sharing of resources.

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Characteristics of Distributed Computing:-
Parallel activities
Autonomous components executing concurrent tasks
Communication via message passing
No shared memory.
Resource sharing
Printer, database, other services
No global state
No single process can have knowledge of the current global
state of the system
No global clock
Only limited precision for processes to synchronize their
clocks

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Characteristics of Distributed Computing(Cont.):-

Communication, failure handling, synchronization

Protection, security

Resource management (allocation of process,


devices, memory, re-allocation)

Naming (of resources, locating)

Data management (files, sharing)

Deadlock

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Distributed Computing Paradigms:-
The Message Passing Paradigm:-
Message passing is the most fundamental paradigm for
distributed applications.
A process sends a message representing a request.
The message is delivered to a receiver, which processes the
request, and sends a message in response.
In turn, the reply may trigger a further request, which leads to a
subsequent reply, and so forth.

PROCESS PROCESS
A B

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The Client-Server Paradigm:-
Simple in concept, the client-server model provides an
efficient abstraction for the delivery of network services.

Operations required include those for a server process to


listen and to accept requests, and for a client process to
issue requests and accept responses.

By assigning asymmetric roles to the two sides, event


synchronization is simplified: the server process waits for
requests, and the client in turn waits for responses.

Many Internet services are client-server applications. These


services are often known by the protocol that the application
implements. Well known Internet services include HTTP , FTP,
DNS,etc.

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SERVER HOST
CLIENT HOST

SERVER PROCESS A SERVICE

CLIENT PROCESS SERVICE REQUEST

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The Peer-to-Peer System Architecture:-
An architecture where computer resources and services are
direct exchanged between computer systems.

Resources and services include the exchange of information,


processing cycles, cache storage, and disk storage for files.

Computers that have traditionally been used solely as clients


communicate directly among themselves and can act as both
clients and servers, assuming whatever role is most efficient for
the network.
PROCESS 1

REQUEST

RESPONSE

PROCESS 2
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Application of Distributed Computing:-
Distributed Computing Using Mobile Programs:-

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Local Intranet:-

Internet:-

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JAVA RMI:-

Communicating Entities:-
 Implementing some application for user
 Using support of distributed services
 Layers of support
 Client/server
 Embedded in language Java:-
 Object variant of remote procedure call
 Adds naming compared with RPC
 Restricted to Java environments

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JAVA RMI ARCHITECTURE:-

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Advantages:-
 Economics:-
 Computers harnessed together give a better
price/performance ratio than mainframes.
 Speed:-
 A distributed system may have more total
computing power than a mainframe.
 Inherent distribution of applications:-
 Some applications are inherently distributed. E.g.,
an ATM-banking application.
 Reliability:-
 If one machine crashes, the system as a whole
can still survive if you have multiple server
machines and multiple storage devices
(redundancy).
 Extensibility and Incremental Growth:-
 Possible to gradually scale up (in terms of
processing power and functionality) by adding more
sources (both hardware and software). This can be
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done without disruption to the rest of the system.
Disadvantages:-
Lack of experience in designing, and implementing a
distributed system. E.g. which platform (hardware and OS) to
use, which language to use etc. But this is changing now.

If the network underlying a distributed system saturates or


goes down, then the distributed system will be effectively
disabled thus negating most of the advantages of the
distributed system.

Security is a major hazard since easy access to data means


easy access to secret data as well.

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Conclusion:-
In this world of optimization everybody is trying to get the
optimized output from their limited resources. The concept of
distributed computing is the most efficient way to achieve the
optimization. In case of distributed computing the actual task is
modularized and is distributed among various computer systems. It not
only increases the efficiency of the task but also reduces the total time
required to complete the task. Now the advanced concept of this
distributed computing , that is distributed computing through mobile
agent is setting a new landmark in this technology. A mobile agent is a
process that can transport it’s state from one environment to another,
with it’s data intact, and can be capable of performing appropriately in
the new environment.

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Reference:-
Andrews, Gregory R. (2000), Foundations of Multithreaded,
Parallel, and Distributed Programming, Addison–Wesley,
ISBN 0-201-35752-6.

Arora, Sanjeev; Barak, Boaz (2009), Computational


Complexity – A Modern Approach, Cambridge,
ISBN 978-0-521-42426-4.

Cormen, Thomas H.; Leiserson, Charles E.; Rivest, Ronald L.


(1990), Introduction to Algorithms (1st ed.), MIT Press,
ISBN 0-262-03141-8.

Dolev, Shlomi (2000), Self-Stabilization, MIT Press,


ISBN 0-262-04178-2

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