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CONSUMER RESEARCH

HISTORY
POSITIVISM /MODERNISM EXPERIMENTATION/EXPERIMENTALIS ATION

DEVELOPMENT OF MOTIVATION RESEARCH


Earnest Ditcher . 1950

Consumer Research process


Specify research objectives Collect and evaluate secondary sources Design primary research Analysis Interpretation , findings and conclusions

Consumer Research Methods


Methods of consumer research Primary research methods : qualitative or quantitative Secondary research methods

Secondary: use of existing research already done


Government Consulting firms Newspaper and magazine articles

Primary: creation of specific studies to answer specific questions

Primary research

Qualitiative Primary Research / Motivational Research


Depth Interviews Focus Groups Projective Techniques Laddering

Focus Groups
Focus Groups Defined
Consists of 8 to 12 participants Led by moderator In-depth discussion on one topic

Goal: To learn and understand what people have to say

The Popularity of Focus Groups About 25 percent of all research expenditures is spent on focus groups. Conducting Focus Groups Preparing for a Focus Group The Setting: focus group facility often in a conference style room

Recruiting Participants: mall intercept, telephone

Steps in Conducting a Focus Group

Prepare for the group. Select a focus group facility and recruit the participants.

Prepare the focus group report..

Select a moderator. Create a discussion guide.

Conduct the group.

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Selecting the Moderator 1. Genuine interest in people 2. Acceptance and appreciation for the differences in people 3. Good listening skills 4. Good observation skills 5. Interest in a wide range of topics

6. Good oral and written skills


7. Objectivity

8. Knowledge of research and marketing 9. Flexibility 10. Attention to detail

Client-focused skills:
1. Understand clients business 2. Provide strategic leadership 3. Provide feedback to the client 4. Reliable, responsive, trustworthy 5. A comfortable match with the client

Developing a Discussion Guide An outline of the topics to be covered

Three stages: Rapport is established Provoke intense discussion Summarize significant conclusions
Preparing a Focus Group Report Advantages and Disadvantages of Focus Groups

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REST STOP

FOCUS GROUP EXERCISE

PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES
From Psychology projective techniques like ; a) Word association test b) Sentence Completion test c) Story Completion Test d) Cartoon / Picture Test e) Role play Test f) Third Person Test g) Thematic Apperception Test

A) WORD ASSOCIATION
Researcher

gives word, term, brand-name or product Respondent gives immediately top-of-the mind thought Presented as a random list with neutral items Analyzed in terms of responses, non-responses, time elapsed Frequently used

Essentia ls of Marketi ng Researc h Kumar, Aaker, Day

FREE WORD ASSOCIATION

In this technique, a list of carefully selected stimulus words or phrases related to the topic of research are read out, one at a time, to a respondent. The respondent is asked to respond with the first word or phrase that comes to his/her mind. The list of words should contain a mixture of test words and neutral words.
In the example shown here, the researchers seems to be interested in studying high-tech banking (words with *). However, analyzing and interpreting test results are rather difficult.
Stimulus Word Response

Postman Bank Teller* Networking Automatic teller machine* Persian Carpet Driver Bank by Phone*

___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _________

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SENTENCE COMPLETION
This technique is an extension of the free-word association test. In this technique, the respondent is presented with some sentences containing incomplete stimuli and is asked to complete them. Like the free-word association method, interpreting and analysing data obtained from this technique is also difficult.
Automatic teller machine users are ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Automatic teller machines may be convenient, but they ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ My major concern about automatic teller machines is ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
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UNFINISHED SCENARIO COMPLETION


This technique is similar to the sentence completion test. However, in this technique, the respondent is presented with a specific scenario containing incomplete stimuli [see example below] and is asked to complete the scenario. Interpreting and analysing data obtained from this technique is also difficult.

Since Mr. Albert Lee had received a large commission by check just before leaving home for a holiday trip, he wanted to deposit it in an automatic teller machine, because ___________, but his friend Mr. Wong told him that he should _____________, because _____________.

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CARTOON COMPLETION TEST


In the cartoon technique, the respondent is shown a comic-strip like cartoon with two characters in a conversation. While the speech of one character is shown in his/her balloon,the other balloon is empty. The respondent is asked to assume the role of the other person and fill the empty baloon with a speech.

Deposit this cheque nearest ATM in the

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ROLE PLAYING
Respondent takes on role of another person, e.g. salesperson Respondent reveals insight in his own thoughts and feelings of a product in the interaction with buyer

Essentia ls of Marketi ng Researc h Kumar, Aaker, Day

THIRD-PERSON TECHNIQUES
Do

not ask people how they would respond but ask how another person would react or respond Used for embarrassing issues
Example:

Why dont many people provide their families nutritionally balanced breakfasts?
Essentia ls of Marketi ng Researc h Kumar, Aaker, Day

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST

OPINIONS GATHERED

That makes me think of the garden. It is the city in the country, very much so. It looks like New York, with the Empire State Building right there. Calming, relaxing. Theres a tree there so you can see the country-side and youve got the background with the city and the buildings, so its a regional focus.

SUITABILITY IN ASIA-PACIFIC REGION


Theoretically, qualitative research techniques should be suitable in the Asia-Pacific countries. However, in reality conducting qualitative research in Asia does not seem to be easy. In most Asian countries techniques such as focus group research constitutes about 10% of all research works carried out by companies mainly due to cultural reasons.

People feel more confident with numbers than with mere opinions. In some Asian societies, people hesitate to express opinion on sensitive issues. Groups in Singapore are less willingly to talk than those in Hong Kong. While expressing views, Hong Kongers are more impatient, while Thais and Filipinos have an in-built courtesy bias.

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Physiological Measures

Devices attached to the consumer to measure


Arousal Eye movement

Consumer feedback

LADDERING

Laddering is a behavioral interviewing technique used to achieve analytical insight into people's decision-making process. It is structured upon a theory formulated by Dennis Hinkle in 1965 for use in clinical psychology. It is now widely used in many fields including consumer marketing, organizational research and corporate management.

As an example, consider this snippet of an interview between a marketer and a consumer about to purchase a new computer. Marketer: You're interested in purchasing a new computer. Can you tell me why? Consumer: So I can do my tasks faster and without getting frustrated at my slow computer. Marketer: Why do you think you get frustrated at your slow computer? Consumer: Because I value efficiency and I like to make the most of my limited work day. Marketer: Why do you value efficiency? Consumer: I like to take on as many projects as possible and being efficient allows me to do so. Marketer: Why do you feel like taking on multiple projects? Consumer: I just do. It's in my nature.

Read more: http://www.ehow.com/way_5191640_laddering-interview-techniques.html#ixzz2di2LKQ00

ZALTMAN METAPHOR - ELICITATION TECHNIQUE (ZMET)

Surveys

Planned questions

Forms

Open-ended Closed-ended

Sample size and inferences

Mail Telephone Mall Intercept Computer/Internet

Biases

Wording Response Interviewer

In-depth interviews

Structured vs. unstructured interviews Generalizing to other consumers Biases

Observation

Consumer is observed--preferably unobtrusively--while:

Examining products prior to making a purchase Using a product Engaging in behavior where the product may be useful

Issues in Primary Research


Social

desirability/ willingness to stand out ---> need to adjust data Willingness to criticize products Familiarity with being surveyed

Reachability

of respondents Selection of appropriate respondent