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Largest gland in the body (1.

5 Kg) Under the diaphragm, within the rib cage in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen

Lobes Major: left and right Minor: caudate and quadrate Ducts Common hepatic Cystic Common bile Choledochus
From gallbladder

Joins pancreatic duct at hepatopancreatic ampulla

Liver lobules hexagonal structures consisting of hepatocytes Hepatocytes radiate outward from a central vein At each of the six corners of a lobule is a portal triad Liver sinusoids

Hepatocytes produce bile

Bile flows through canals called bile canaliculi to a bile duct

Bile ducts leave the liver via the common hepatic duct

BILE bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, neutral fats, phospholipids and electrolytes

Liver produces 0.5-1 l of bile daily


Bile salts emulsify fats

LIVER

GALL BLADDER

Metabolic Synthesis Breakdown Other functions storage of vitamin A,D,B12,F Excretion of waste products from bloodstream into bile Vascular storage of blood

Protein metabolism Synthesis of amino acids Carbohydrate metabolism Gluconeogenesis Glycogenolysis Glycogenesis Lipid metabolism Cholesterol synthesis Lipogenesis Production of coagulation factors I, II, V, VII, IX, X and XI, and protein C, protein S and antithrombin Main site of red blood cell production Produces insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a polypeptide protein anabolic effects Production of trombopoetin

Breaks down insulin and other hormones Breaks down hemoglobin Breaks down or modifies toxic substances (methylation) sometimes results in toxication Converts ammonia to urea

Produces albumin, the major osmolar component of blood serum Synthesizes angiotensinogen, the hormone responsible for raising blood pressure when activated by renin (enzyme released when the kidney senses low blood pressure)

Hepatic tumors maybe benign or malignant.


Benign liver tumors were uncommon until oral contraceptives were in wide spread

Now benign liver tumors occur most frequently in women in their reproductive years who are taking oral contraceptives

Primary liver tumors usually are associated with:


Chornic liver disease Hepatitis B and C infections Cirrhosis

is the most common type of primary liver cancer with more than half million cases diagnosed each year on a worldwide basis. HCC is the leading cause of cancer related to mortality worldwide.

1. LUNG CANCER 2. BREAST CANCER 3. LIVER CANCER 4. CERVICAL CANCER 5. COLORECTAL CANCER 6. THYROID CANCER 7. LEUKEMIA 8. GASTRIC CANCER 9. OVARIAN CANCER 10. PROSTATE CANCER

This cancer is more common among men than women and that the average age when liver cancer is diagnosed are between 50-60 years old. The common risk factors associated with this disease are chronic infection with hepatitis B and C, heavy alcohol use and cirrhosis or scarring of the liver, diabetes and obesity. STATISTICS: Most causes of liver cancer is secondary or metastatic, meaning it started elsewhere in the body. Primary liver cancer, which starts in the liver, accounts for about 2% of cancers in the U.S but up to 50% of all cancers in many undeveloped countries including the Philippines because of the predominance on infectious diseases. liver cancer accounts for 5,102 deaths (in every 100,000), according to the 2011 Phil Cancer Facts and Estimates.

Cirrhosis Chronic infection with Hepatitis B and C Exposure to some chemical toxins ( Vinyl Chloride, Arsenic) Cigarette Smoking especially when combined with alcohol

Cirrhosis

Exposure to some chemical toxins ( Vinyl Chloride, Arsenic)

A metabolite of the fungus Aspergillus flavus

Cholangiocellular carcinoma
Cholangiocellular carcinoma is a form of liver cancer that is composed of mutated epithelial cells (or cells showing characteristics of epithelial differentiation) that originate in the bile ducts which drain bile from the liver into the small intestine.

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