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BIOLOGY 8.

4 Biodiversity

Introduction
Biodiversity refers to the various forms of living things on the Earth interacting with each other. (animals and plants)

Classification of Organisms
Taxonomy is used to identify, name and classify organisms.

Organisms with the same characteristics are gathered in the same class.
Organisms are classified into 5 major kingdoms:

a) b)

Monera Protista

d) Plantae e) Animalia

c)

Fungi

1. Monera
Prokaryotic organisms with no distinct membrane-bound nuclei and organelles. Unicellular and have cell wall. They can be non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic. Examples of monera are bacteria and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).
Bacteria

Bacteria: 3 typical shapes- rod, round or spiral.

Cyanobacteria

2. Protista
Eukaryotes includes unicellular or multicellular organisms. have nucleus and organelles that are surrounded by membranes. Some have cell wall and some do not. Can be either heterotrophic or autotrophic. 2 types: a) Algae- Spirogyra sp. (green algae) b) Protozoa- Amoeba sp., Paramecium sp., Trypanasoma

sp.

Examples of protists (protozoa and algae):

Protozoa
Amoeba sp.

Algae
Chlamydomonas sp.

Paramecium sp.

Spirogyra sp.

3. Fungi
unicellular or multicellular eukaryotes organisms. The cell wall of fungi contain a material called chitin. Body consists of a network of thread-like hyphae called mycelium. Saprophytic

They do not possess chlorophyll and obtain energy by absorbing nutrients from decaying organic matter. Examples of fungi are moulds (Mucor sp.), mushrooms and yeasts.

Moulds (Mucor sp.)

Mushrooms

Yeasts

4. Plantae
Plants are multicellular eukaryotes that are immobile, contains chlorophyll and produce their own food by photosynthesis. Each plant cell has a nucleus, cellulose cell wall and other organelles. Examples: palm trees, conifers, flowering plants and more.

5. Animalia
Animals are multicellular heterotrophic organisms and are mobile. Their cells do not have any cell walls. Do not possess chlorophyll. Examples: mammals, reptiles, fishes, amphibians and birds.

The Hierarchy in the Classification of Organisms


Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

Living organisms are classified into 7 hierarchical levels. The number of organisms in each unit decreases from kingdom to species. Therefore, each higher unit covers a greater range of organisms. Biological nomenclature Linnaeus binomial system

Linnaeus Binomial System of Classification


This type of classification uses 2 words to name every species or organisms found:

a) The first word in the name refers to genus. b) The second word is the species name.

Both names are in Latin.

Both names are in italics if typed or underlined if written.


Example: Human homo sapiens or homo sapiens

Classification Kingdom

Tiger Animalia

Human Animalia

Hibiscus Plantae

Genus

Panthera

Homo

Hibiscus

Species

tigris

sapiens

rosasinensis

a) Tiger: Panthera tigris b) Human: Homo sapiens c) Hibiscus: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

The Importance of Biodiversity


Maintaining a balanced nature

Source of food
Source of medicine Clean air

Shelter
Economic resources (eco-tourism) Clean drinking water Preserve all living organisms from become extinct