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TEKNIK SUNGAI

SLOPE AREA METHOD

The slope-area method


is a technique commonly used to determine peak discharges indirectly from surveyed crosssections and highwater marks. The method is based on onedimensional, gradually-varied, steady flow equations. In reality, natural flows rarely achieve true steady flow.

Flood flows especially are spatially and temporally varied. However, these variations are usually considered to be small enough, and can be controlled by appropiate crosssection spacing, so that flows can be approximated by the gradually-varied steady flow equations with sufficient accuracy for most purposes.

The slope-area equation for multiple subreaches is as follows:

where,

One or more of the following criteria should be met in determining the reach length:
The length should be greater than or equal to 75 times the mean depth of flow, The fall of the water surface should be equal to or greater than the velocity head (If velocity = 1 m/s, = 5 m and if the velocity = 2 m/s, = 20 m) The fall should be equal to or greater than 0.15 m.

When the reach is contracting(Vu < Vd ), k=1.0 . When the reach is expanding (Vu > Vd ), k=0.5 . The 50% decrease in the value of k for an expanding reach is customarily assumed for the recovery of the velocity head due to the expansion of the flow.

The requirements of the site are mostly similar to those for area velocity method. The cross-sectional area is measured adopting the procedure as in case of area velocity method. The velocity formula used is that of Manning's, the slope entering the formula being the energy slope which allows for slight non-uniformity of flow.

The roughness coefficient value to be used is related to bed material size and condition of the channel.

Using the slope area method compute the flood discharge through a river reach of 150m apart, having a fall in the water surface of 150mm. Water areas, conveyances and energy coefficients of upstream and downstream end sections are given below:

The method uses the conservation of energy (Bernoulli equation) and mass (continuity equation) and the normal flow equation (Manning's equation) to determine discharge. For a presentation of the method's hydraulic principles and computations, see Dalrymple and Benson (1967). An error analysis of the method is presented by Kirby (1985).

Further discussion of the principles on which the slopearea technique is based can be found in texts by French (1985), Henderson (1966), and Peterson (1986).

List Program
C C C C C C *************************************************************** PROGRAM TO ESTIMATE THE MAXIMUM FLOOD WITH SLOPE AREA METHOD FOR ACUMULATING OF SURVEY PROFIL DATA *************************************************************** MAIN PROGRAM *************************************************************** DIMENSION A(50),B(50),MAXa(50),MAN(50),STAT(50),ALFA(50),LBR(50) DIMENSION DEBIT(50) REAL A,B,MAXA,MAXI,AB,BB,ALF,ALFA,STAT,MAN,KM,STA,DEBIT,LBR,LB INTEGER D CALL INPUT(D) DO 10 I=1,D CALL AREA(AB,BB,MAXI,KM,STA,ALF,LB) A(I)=AB B(I)=BB MAXa(I)=MAXI MAN(I)=KM

List Program
STAT(I)=STA ALFA(I)=ALF LBR(I)=LB 10 CONTINUE CALL SLOPE(A,B,MAXA,D,MAN,STAT,ALFA,DEBIT) CALL HASIL(A,B,MAXA,D,STAT,DEBIT,LBR) END C *************************************************************** C SUBROUTINE INPUT C *************************************************************** SUBROUTINE INPUT(A) INTEGER A LOGICAL ADA CHARACTER FIDA*12,FILA*12,HURUF*1 50 WRITE(*,'(1X,A,\)')'NAME OF DATA FILE : ' READ(*,'(A)')FIDA INQUIRE(FILE=FIDA,EXIST=ADA) IF (ADA)THEN GOTO 60

List Program
ELSE WRITE (*,1) 1 FORMAT(/,2X,'**** FILE NOT FOUND IN DIRECTORY *****') GOTO 50 ENDIF 60 WRITE(*,'(1X,A,\)')'NAME OF OUTPUT FILE : ' READ(*,'(A)')FILA INQUIRE(FILE=FILA,EXIST=ADA) IF (ADA)THEN 70 WRITE (*,2) 2 FORMAT(/,12X,'***** OUTPUT FILE ALREADY EXIST IN DIRECTORY *****') WRITE (*,'(20X,A,\)')'DO YOU WIST TO OVERWRITE (Y/N) ?: ' READ (*,'(A1)')HURUF IF ((HURUF.EQ.'N').OR.(HURUF.EQ.'n'))GOTO 60 IF ((HURUF.NE.'Y').AND.(HURUF.NE.'y'))GOTO 70 ENDIF OPEN(5,FILE=FIDA) OPEN(6,FILE=FILA) READ(5,*)A END

List Program
C C C *************************************************************** SUBROUTINE AREA *************************************************************** SUBROUTINE AREA(LUAS,PJ,MAX,KM,STA,ALFA,LEBAR) DIMENSION X(50),Y(50),AD(50),DA(50),PJG(50) REAL X,Y,LUAS,AD1,DA1,PJ,PJG,MAX,ALFA,STA,KM,T1,T2,T3,LEBAR INTEGER AN,D,E READ(5,*)MAX READ(5,*)KM READ(5,*)STA READ(5,*)ALFA DO 10 I=1,100 READ(5,*)X(I),Y(I) IF(X(I).EQ.1234)GOTO 1 AN=I 10 CONTINUE 1 DO 15 I=1,AN-1

List Program
IF(Y(I).LT.MAX.AND.Y(I+1).GE.MAX)THEN T1=(MAX-Y(I)) T2=(X(I)-X(I+1)) T3=(Y(I+1)-Y(I)) D=I X(I+1)=X(I)-T1*T2/T3 Y(I+1)=MAX ELSE IF(Y(I).GE.MAX.AND.MAX.GT.Y(I+1))THEN T1=MAX-Y(I+1) T2=(X(I+1)-X(I)) T3=(Y(I)-Y(I+1)) E=I X(E)=X(I+1)-T1*T2/T3 Y(E)=MAX ENDIF ENDIF 15 CONTINUE

List Program
X(D+2)=X(E) Y(D+2)=Y(E) AD1=0 DA1=0 DO 20,I=E,D+1 AD(I)=X(I)*Y(I+1) DA(I)=X(I+1)*Y(I) AD1=AD1+AD(I) DA1=DA1+DA(I) 20 CONTINUE LUAS=0.5*(AD1-DA1) PJ=0 DO 30 I=E,D PJG(I)=((X(I+1)-X(I))**2+(Y(I+1)-Y(I))**2)**0.5 PJ=PJ+PJG(I) 30 CONTINUE LEBAR=X(D+1)-X(1) END

List Program
C C C *************************************************************** SUBROUTINE SLOPE *************************************************************** SUBROUTINE SLOPE(LUAS,PJG,MAXa,JMLTAM,MAN,STA,ALFA,QAWAL) DIMENSION MAXa(50),STA(50),PJG(50),MAN(50),LUAS(50),QAKHIR(50) DIMENSION ALFA(50),RHU(50),QAWAL(50) REAL LUAS,PJG,MAXA,MAN,STA,JAR,ALFA,SLOP,FALL,RHU,ERR,ER REAL CONFACHU,CONFACHI,CONFAC,SFAWAL,QAWAL,QAKHIR,HVHU,HVHI,KA INTEGER JMLTAM DO 5 I=1,JMLTAM RHU(I)=(LUAS(I)/PJG(I))**(2./3.) 5 CONTINUE DO 10 I=1,JMLTAM-1 FALL=ABS(MAXa(I)-MAXa(I+1)) JAR=STA(I+1)-STA(I) IF(LUAS(I).GE.LUAS(I+1))KA=1. IF(LUAS(I).LT.LUAS(I+1))KA=0.5 CONFACHU=(1/MAN(I))*LUAS(I)*RHU(I)

List Program
CONFACHI=(1/MAN(I+1))*LUAS(I+1)*RHU(I+1) CONFAC=(CONFACHU*CONFACHI)**0.5 SFAWAL=FALL/JAR QAWAL(1)=CONFAC*SFAWAL**0.5 ERR=0.00001 DO 20 J=2,300 HVHU=ALFA(I)*(QAWAL(J-1)/LUAS(I))**2./(2.*9.81) HVHI=ALFA(I+1)*(QAWAL(J-1)/LUAS(I+1))**2./(2*9.81) SLOP=(FALL+KA*(HVHU-HVHI))/JAR QAKHIR(I)=CONFAC*SLOP**0.5 ER=ABS(QAKHIR(I)-QAWAL(J-1)) QAWAL(J)=QAKHIR(I) IF(ER.LT.ERR)GOTO 10 20 CONTINUE 10 CONTINUE END

List Program
C C C *************************************************************** SUBROUTINE HASIL *************************************************************** SUBROUTINE HASIL(A,B,MAXa,D,STA,DEBIT,LB) DIMENSION A(50),B(50),MAXa(50),STA(50),DEBIT(50),LB(50) REAL MAXA,STA,DEBIT,A,B,LB INTEGER D DO 10 I=1,D WRITE(6,2)I,A(I),I,B(I),I,MAXa(I),I,LB(I),I,STA(I) 2 FORMAT(1X,'AREA OF WET PARAMETER (',I3,') = ',F12.4,' M^2',/,1X, ''LENGHT OF WET PARAMETER(',I3,') = ',F12.4,' M',/,1X,'HEIGHT OF ' ''MAX FLOOD (',I3,') = 'F12.4,' M',/,1X,'WIDHT OF WATER SUR' ''FACE (',I3,') = ',F12.4,' M',/,1X,'SHAPE STATIONING (',I3, '') = ',F12.4,' M',/) 10 CONTINUE WRITE(6,3)(I,DEBIT(I),I=1,D-1) 3 FORMAT(1X,'MAX DISCHARGE OF SHAPE (',I3,') = ',F12.4,' M^3/SEC') END C ***************************************************************