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Presented by: Melvinraj C R MKALCTS006 S4 M.Tech MESCE,Kuttippuram

Guided by: Mr. S Gavudhama Karunanidhi Asst.Professor MESCE,Kuttippuram

Advanced technology of using ethanol as a fuel using an additional injector Ethanol is an attractive fuel due to its renewable origin and its oxygen content.

Study of combustion using a additional injector for injecting ethanol using CFD.

2.Literature review
Nehmer and Reitz experimentally proved that in multiple injections, air utilization can be improved Results in decrease in rate of pressure rise Reduces engine noise Reduces the NOx emission

Ethanol diesel blends helps in reducing the emission and economy of the fuel

Fig.2.1.NOx emission for different ethanol blend[6]

3.Problem statement
Model, analyse and compare the combustion in an internal combustion engine using CFD tool With and without multiple injectors. 3 cases - Single injection (Diesel) - Double injection (Both diesel) - Double injection (Diesel and ethanol) Comparing the results Optimizing and checking the viability of ethanol as an alternate fuel

4.Multiple injection
Generally used to decrease the rate of pressure rise which lead to reduced combustion noise With up to 5 to10 crank angle (CA) degrees separation from the main injection Combustion event is also extended into the power stroke without increasing soot levels. Actual engine cycle with multiple injection processes is no longer that simple to analyse Actual amount of fuel injected, the injection timings and their duration are difficult to establish.

5.Why CFD studies?

Traditional process of design and development was time-consuming Difficult to build physical prototypes Finite Volume Method (FVM). Using FLUENT , ANSYS 14.5 package, CFD tool. In this case implementation and experimentation is difficult

6.Combustion simulation
Multidimensional CFD modelling for combustion. Standard k model of turbulence. Semi- empirical model based on turbulent K.E.(k) and its dissipation rate () Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine.

7.Steps involved
Geometry definition and mesh generation (GAMBIT 2.4.6). Describing physical and chemical phenomenon. Define material properties. Solving(Solver-FLUENT, ANSYS 14.5 package). Post-processing.

7.1Geometry and Meshing

Geometry creation. Meshing- Quadrilateral mesh Dynamic layering. 21403 faces and 10804 nodes. Boundary and zone definition.

Table 7.1 Engine specifications[1]

Bore dia. 80 mm

Stroke No. of strokes

No. of cylinders Rated speed Piston cavity diameter Compression ratio Connecting rod length

110 mm 4
1 1500 rpm 45 mm 17:1 140 mm

Table 7.2 Co-ordinate for cylinder geometry

Points X co-ordinate Y co-ordinate

2 3

22.5 -22.5

0 0

5 6

40 -15.9

0 -15.9

8 9

40 -40

115.68 115.68

Fig. 7.1 Meshed geometry with boundary conditions and face definition

Defining various models Turbulence k- model Activation energy = 82955.65 j/mol Cetane No. = 51 Species definition. Injection details. Material properties. Dynamic meshing Solving

11.1. Boundary conditions

Injection details for case-1(single injection)
Y-Position (mm) Y-Velocity(m/s) Diameter (mm) Temperature (k) Flow Rate (kg/s) Start Crank Angle(deg) Stop Crank Angle(deg)

113.68 -468 .286


(150 btdc)
(50 atdc)

Injection details for case-2 (Double injection)

Variables Values (Injector-1 Values (Injector-2 Diesel) Diesel)

Y-Position (mm) Y-Velocity(m/s)



.286 341

.286 341

Diameter (mm)
Temperature (k) Flow Rate (kg/s) Start Crank Angle(deg) Stop Crank Angle(deg)

(150 btdc) (50 atdc)

(100 btdc) (100 atdc)

Injection details for case-3 (Double injection)

Variables Values (Injector-1 Values (Injector-2 Diesel) Ethanol)

Y-Position (mm) Y-Velocity(m/s)



.286 341

.286 341

Diameter (mm)
Temperature (k) Flow Rate (kg/s) Start Crank Angle(deg) Stop Crank Angle(deg)

(150 btdc) (50 atdc)

(100 btdc) (100 atdc)

Contours of pressure, temperature and NOx were plotted. Convergence history of Pressure and temperature were plotted. Compare the results of each cases

Fig.12.2.Contour of static temperature

Fig.12.3.Contour of mass fraction of pollutant NOx

Fig.12.5.Contour of static temperature

Fig.12.6.Contour of mass fraction of pollutant NOx

Fig.12.8.Contours of static temperature

Fig.12.9.Contour of mass fraction of pollutant NOx

12.1. Mass fraction of NOx

Cases Case-1 (single injection) 5.49 x 10-7 Case-2 (double injection, Mass fraction of NOx

Case-3(double injection, diesel-ethanol)

4.8 x 18-8

1.8 x 10-7

12.2.Convergence history

Fig.12.10.Convergence history of static pressure for case 1

Fig.12.11.Convergence history of static temperature for case 1

Fig.12.12.Convergence history of static pressure for case 2

Fig.12.13.Converegence history of static temperature for case 2

Fig.12.14.Convergence history of static pressure for case 3

Fig.12.15.Convergence history of static temperature for case 3

12.3.Peak pressure and temperature

Cases Peak pressure(Pa) Peak temperature (K) Case-1 (single injection) Case-2 (double injection, diesel) 5.24 x 106 1610 5.69 x 106 1740

injection, dieselethanol)

5.22 x 106


Peak pressure and temperature in the case of single injection is nearly equal to the theoretical value. Multiple injector, injecting diesel the peak pressure is less The peak temperature is also less compared to single injection system. This results in less emission of pollutant NOx

On optimizing, the expected result similar to that of diesel is obtained when the percentage of ethanol lies between 20-25% . NOx emission in this case is less when compared with diesel combustion. Similar to the results obtained when diesel ethanol blend was used.

Paper publication

[1] P.A. Lakshminarayanan ,Yogesh V. Aghav," Modelling Diesel Combustion" ,Springer publications, June 2009 , 09-281 [2] Sudhakar Das*, "CFD Study of Multiple Injections in a Diesel" Engine" ILASS Americas, 25th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Pittsburgh, PA, May 2013 [3]Aakko, P. & Nylund, N-O. (1997) Characterization of new fuel qualities. Final restricted report of Annex X within IEA Advanced Motor Fuels. Report ENE24/21/97.3-20

[4] Xiaoyan Shi et al Emmission reduction potential of using ethanol bio-diesel-diesel blend on heavy-duty diesel engine,2006,2567-2574 [5] Gurav Mital et al, CFD modelling of two-stage combustion machine,assesment of zero dimensional approach,2010,1316-1324 [6]Alcohol as Fuel, Chemical Business, Jan. 1, 1997 [7]M. Fadaei et.al, New thermo-mechanical analysis of cylinder heads using a multi-field approach, Scientia Iranica,2011, vol18, pp:66-74 [8]Heywood, John B , Internal combustion engines fundementals,