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MECHANICS OF

MATERIALS
Fourth Edition
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
John T. DeWolf

Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Texas Tech University
CHAPTER
2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
6
Shearing Stresses in
Beams and Thin-
Walled Members
2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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6 - 2
Shearing Stresses in Beams and
Thin-Walled Members
Introduction
Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element
Example 6.01
Determination of the Shearing Stress in a Beam
Shearing Stresses t
xy
in Common Types of Beams
Further Discussion of the Distribution of Stresses in a ...
Sample Problem 6.2
Longitudinal Shear on a Beam Element of Arbitrary Shape
Example 6.04
Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members
Plastic Deformations
Sample Problem 6.3
Unsymmetric Loading of Thin-Walled Members
Example 6.05
Example 6.06
2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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6 - 3
Introduction
( )
( ) M y M dA F
dA z M V dA F
dA z y M dA F
x z xz z
x y xy y
xy xz x x x
= = = =
= = = =
= = = =
} }
} }
} }
o t
o t
t t o
0
0
0 0
Distribution of normal and shearing
stresses satisfies
Transverse loading applied to a beam
results in normal and shearing stresses in
transverse sections.
When shearing stresses are exerted on the
vertical faces of an element, equal stresses
must be exerted on the horizontal faces
Longitudinal shearing stresses must exist
in any member subjected to transverse
loading.
2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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6 - 4
Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element
Consider prismatic beam
For equilibrium of beam element
( )
}

=
+ = =
A
C D
A
C D x
dA y
I
M M
H
dA H F
A
o o A 0
x V x
dx
dM
M M
dA y Q
C D
A
A = A =
}
=
Note,
flow shear
I
VQ
x
H
q
x
I
VQ
H
= =
A
A
=
A = A
Substituting,
2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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6 - 5
Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element
flow shear
I
VQ
x
H
q = =
A
A
=
Shear flow,
where
section cross full of moment second
above area of moment first
'
2
1
=
}
=
=
}
=
+A A
A
dA y I
y
dA y Q
Same result found for lower area
H H
Q Q
q
I
Q V
x
H
q
A = ' A
=
= ' +
' =
'
=
A
' A
= '
axis neutral to
respect h moment wit first
0
2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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6 - 6
Example 6.01
A beam is made of three planks,
nailed together. Knowing that the
spacing between nails is 25 mm and
that the vertical shear in the beam is
V = 500 N, determine the shear force
in each nail.
SOLUTION:
Determine the horizontal force per
unit length or shear flow q on the
lower surface of the upper plank.
Calculate the corresponding shear
force in each nail.
2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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6 - 7
Example 6.01
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
4 6
2
3
12
1
3
12
1
3 6
m 10 20 . 16
] m 060 . 0 m 100 . 0 m 020 . 0
m 020 . 0 m 100 . 0 [ 2
m 100 . 0 m 020 . 0
m 10 120
m 060 . 0 m 100 . 0 m 020 . 0

=
+
+
=
=
=
=
I
y A Q
SOLUTION:
Determine the horizontal force per
unit length or shear flow q on the
lower surface of the upper plank.
m
N
3704
m 10 16.20
) m 10 120 )( N 500 (
4 6 -
3 6
=


= =

I
VQ
q
Calculate the corresponding shear
force in each nail for a nail spacing of
25 mm.
m N q F 3704 )( m 025 . 0 ( ) m 025 . 0 ( = =
N 6 . 92 = F
2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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6 - 8
Determination of the Shearing Stress in a Beam
The average shearing stress on the horizontal
face of the element is obtained by dividing the
shearing force on the element by the area of
the face.
It
VQ
x t
x
I
VQ
A
x q
A
H
ave
=
A
A
=
A
A
=
A
A
= t
On the upper and lower surfaces of the beam,
t
yx
= 0. It follows that t
xy
= 0 on the upper and
lower edges of the transverse sections.
If the width of the beam is comparable or large
relative to its depth, the shearing stresses at D
1

and D
2
are significantly higher than at D.
2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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6 - 9
Shearing Stresses t
xy
in Common Types of Beams
For a narrow rectangular beam,
A
V
c
y
A
V
Ib
VQ
xy
2
3
1
2
3
max
2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
t
t
For American Standard (S-beam)
and wide-flange (W-beam) beams
web
ave
A
V
It
VQ
=
=
max
t
t
2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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6 - 10
Further Discussion of the Distribution of
Stresses in a Narrow Rectangular Beam
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
1
2
3
c
y
A
P
xy
t
I
Pxy
x
+ = o
Consider a narrow rectangular cantilever beam
subjected to load P at its free end:
Shearing stresses are independent of the distance
from the point of application of the load.
Normal strains and normal stresses are unaffected by
the shearing stresses.
From Saint-Venants principle, effects of the load
application mode are negligible except in immediate
vicinity of load application points.
Stress/strain deviations for distributed loads are
negligible for typical beam sections of interest.
2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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6 - 11
Sample Problem 6.2
A timber beam is to support the three
concentrated loads shown. Knowing
that for the grade of timber used,
psi 120 psi 1800 = =
all all
t o
determine the minimum required depth
d of the beam.
SOLUTION:
Develop shear and bending moment
diagrams. Identify the maximums.
Determine the beam depth based on
allowable normal stress.
Determine the beam depth based on
allowable shear stress.
Required beam depth is equal to the
larger of the two depths found.
2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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Beer Johnston DeWolf
6 - 12
Sample Problem 6.2
SOLUTION:
Develop shear and bending moment
diagrams. Identify the maximums.
in kip 90 ft kip 5 . 7
kips 3
max
max
= =
=
M
V
2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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6 - 13
Sample Problem 6.2
( )
( )
2
2
6
1
2
6
1
3
12
1
in. 5833 . 0
in. 5 . 3
d
d
d b
c
I
S
d b I
=
=
= =
=
Determine the beam depth based on allowable
normal stress.
( )
in. 26 . 9
in. 5833 . 0
in. lb 10 90
psi 1800
2
3
max
=

=
=
d
d
S
M
all
o
Determine the beam depth based on allowable
shear stress.
( )
in. 71 . 10
in. 3.5
lb 3000
2
3
psi 120
2
3
max
=
=
=
d
d
A
V
all
t
Required beam depth is equal to the larger of the two.
in. 71 . 10 = d
2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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6 - 14
Longitudinal Shear on a Beam Element
of Arbitrary Shape
We have examined the distribution of
the vertical components t
xy
on a
transverse section of a beam. We now
wish to consider the horizontal
components t
xz
of the stresses.

Consider prismatic beam with an
element defined by the curved surface
CDDC.
( )

}
+ A = =
a
dA H F
C D x
o o 0
Except for the differences in
integration areas, this is the same
result obtained before which led to
I
VQ
x
H
q x
I
VQ
H =
A
A
= A = A
2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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6 - 15
Example 6.04
A square box beam is constructed from
four planks as shown. Knowing that the
spacing between nails is 1.5 in. and the
beam is subjected to a vertical shear of
magnitude V = 600 lb, determine the
shearing force in each nail.
SOLUTION:
Determine the shear force per unit
length along each edge of the upper
plank.
Based on the spacing between nails,
determine the shear force in each
nail.