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POWER SEMICONDUCTOR

SWITCHES
POWER ELECTRONICS
BETI3413
Classification of the power semiconductors
Schottky-Diode
Epitaxial-Diode
(PIN)
Double Diffused Diode
(PIN)
Diodes
NPN
PNP
Bipolar Junction
Transistor
N-Channel
P-Channel
MOSFET
IGBT
Transistors
Thyristors for
Phase Control
Fast Thyristor
GTO
IGCT
MCT
MTO
Thyristor
Silicon
Schottky-Diode
JBS-Diode
PIN-Diode
Diodes
MOSFET
Transistors
Silicon Carbide
Power Semiconductors
POWER SEMICONDUCTOR SWITCH
Power switches
Uncontrolled
Fully
controlled
Semi
controlled
Diode Thyristor
Power
Transistor
POWER SEMICONDUCTOR SWITCH
Diode
IGBT
Mosfet
UNCONTROLLED POWER
SWITCH
POWER SEMICONDUCTOR SWITCH
DIODE
Power diode is considered as an uncontrolled
semiconductor power switches
forward-biased (on) - current I is positive and reversed
biased (off) - voltage across the diode V is negative.
forward biased state - conduct current with a small
forward voltage (Vf) across it (0.2 3 V).
reversed (blocking state), a negligibly small leakage
current (uA to mA) flow until the reverse breakdown
occurred
DIODE
DIODE REVERSE RECOVERY
When a diode turns off, the
current in it decreases and
momentarily becomes
negatives before becoming
zero.
The diode continues to conduct
due to minority carries that
remain stored in the pn-junction
The minority carriers require a
certain time (t
rr
) to recombine
with opposite charges and to be
neutralized.
The time t
rr
is the reverse
recovery time, which usually
less than 1 s.
DIODE REVERSE RECOVERY
Effect of rev.
recovery
Switching
losses
increase
Voltage rating
increase
Over voltage
(spikes) in
inductive loads
DIODE REVERSE RECOVERY
t
4
due to charge storage in
depletion region of the junction
t
4
: time from I
f
= 0 to I
f
= I
RR


t
5
due to charged stored in the
bulk semiconductor material
t
5
: time from I
f
= I
RR
to I
f
= 0.25I
RR
5 4
t t t
rr
+ =
dt
di
t I
f
rr
=
4
DIODE REVERSE RECOVERY
rr
rr
rr
rr rr rr rr rr
t
Q
I
t I t I t I Q
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
5 4
~
= + ~
Q
rr
reverse recovery
charge which is the area
enclosed by the path of the
recovery current
DIODE REVERSE RECOVERY
rr
rr
rr
t
Q
I
2
~
dt
di
t I
f
a rr
=
By considering
and
dt
di
Q
t t
dt
di
t
t
Q
f
rr
a rr
f
a
rr
rr
2
2
=
=
If t
4
>>t
5
,
trrt
4
dt
di
Q I
dt
di
Q
t
f
rr rr
f
rr
rr
2 &
2
= =
COMPARISON OF POWER DIODES TYPES
Diodes types
Standard
Diode
Fast Recovery
Diode
Schottky Diode
Recovery time Relatively high
Typically 25s
Low
Normally less than
5 s
Almost zero
Rating Voltage : 50V 5kV
Current : from < 1A
to several
thousand
s of Amp
Voltage : 50V 3kV
Current : from < 1A to
few
hundreds of
Amp
Voltage : Limited to
100V
Current : 1A 300A
Applications For low input
frequency up to 1
kHz applications:
-rectifier
-converter
-line commutated
converter
Used where the speed
of recovery is critical
important (high
frequency):
-DC to DC converter
-DC to AC converter
Mostly used in low
voltage, high current
dc power supplies.
-also in low current
power supplies for
increase efficiency.
DIODE
SEMICONTROLLED POWER
SWITCH : THYRISTOR
POWER SEMICONDUCTOR SWITCH
INTRODUCTION
The thyristor family of semiconductors can be considered
as semi controlled switches.
They are pulse-triggered devices, used as bistable
switches and considered as nearly the ideal switches.
They are latching devices.
Semi controlled = can be control for one state.
Thyristor can be turn on by appropriate signal.
They are mainly designed for power control applications.
SCRS (THYRISTOR)
Four layer, three electrode mode semiconductor.




Semi controlled = can be control for one state.
Thyristor can be turn on by appropriate signal.
They are mainly designed for power control applications.
SCRS (THYRISTOR)
When forward biased and turned on, SCR operates as
ordinary diode as conducted current remains above
holding current I
H
.
SCRs turned on by gate current I
G
(gate and cathode).
A high forward voltage between the anode and cathode,
and even a rapid change , dv/dt of such voltage can also
cause a turn-on, albeit an unwanted one.
SCRS (THYRISTOR)
SCRS (THYRISTOR)
(a) (b) (c)
a symbol
b structure
c - characteristic
SCRS (THYRISTOR)
SCR is turned on by giving Ig Current, however the SCR
cannot be turned off by giving negative current to the
DCR. It can only be turned off if the current flowing
across the thyristor is negative in value.
two condition for off state to occurred, first - SCR is in the
negative portion of the sine-wave input signals , second -
using an additional circuitry where the anode current is
diverted to this circuit (force commutation method).
SCRS (THYRISTOR)
SCRS (THYRISTOR)
TRIACS (THYRISTOR)
semiconductor device that electrically equivalent to two
SCRs connected in antiparallel although the internal
structure of a triacs is no exactly the same as that of two
SCRs.
Because of the resultant capability of bidirectional current
condition, the power electrodes are simply called
terminal1 (T1) and terminal2 (T2), instead of anode and
cathode.
TRIACS (THYRISTOR)
The gate signal is applied between the gate and terminal
1 - turned on by a positive or negative gate current and
the direction of conducted current depends on the
polarity of supply voltage.
FULLY CONTROLLED POWER
SWITCH : POWER TRANSISTOR
POWER SEMICONDUCTOR SWITCH
POWER TRANSISTOR
Power Transistor
GTO IGBT MOSFET
BJTs MCTs
IGCT
The GTO is the short form for the gate turn-off thyristor


GTOS (THYRISTOR)
GTO is a thyristor type semiconductor switch that is
turned on like a SCR by a low positive gate current
Turned on by a short-duration gate current if the anode-
to-cathode voltage is positive.
Contrast to SCRs, the GTO can also be turned off, using
a large negative pulse gate current.
Suitable for some applications where control of both turn-
on and turn-off of a switch is required

GTOS (THYRISTOR)
GTOs are able to withstand forward voltages but not
reverse blocking voltages
GTOs are high-power switches, some of which can
handle currents of several thousand amperes at voltages
up to 4000V.
The process turning off the GTO is difficult as the process
will require a very large reverse gate current usually in
value of 1/5 of anode current and it also require longer off
time due to tail current

GTOS (THYRISTOR)
For an example a 2500V/100A GTO will required a peak
negative gate current of 250A for it to be turn off.

This condition also limit the design as it will required a
very large reverse gate current at the turn off state.
GTOS (THYRISTOR)
The n-p-n bipolar junction transistor (BJT).
Having three legs-
The collector (C) to emitter (E) path serves as the switch,
conducting or interrupting the main current, while the base (B)
is the control electrode. In contrast to thyristor, the collector
current I
C
can be continuously controlled by the base current
I
B
, as
Contrast to thyristor, the collector current I
C
can be
continuously controlled by the base current I
B.
POWER TRANSISTOR - BJT
POWER TRANSISTOR - BJT
Junction
Collector base
junction (CBJ)
Base emitter
junction (BEJ)
POWER TRANSISTOR - BJT
POWER TRANSISTOR - BJT
POWER TRANSISTOR - BJT
( )
BE CE CB
BE CB CE
BE B
B
C
CC C C CC CE C
B
BE B
B
V V V
V V V
V V
R
R
V R I V V V
R
V V
I
=
+ =
= = =

=
|
CBJ is rev bias (V
CB
>0) if V
CE
>V
BE

transistor is in active region
POWER TRANSISTOR - BJT
|
CM
BM
C
BE CC
C
CE CC
CM
I
I
R
V V
R
V V
I
=

=
Max. collector current of transistor in
active region achieve when V
CB
=0;
V
CE
=V
BE
If I
B
is increase greater than I
BM
, transistor
will be in saturation region

POWER TRANSISTOR - BJT
Transistor saturation when I
B
but I
C
remain unchanged

( )
C
SAT
CE CC
BS CS
R
V V
I I

= = |
Overdrive factor (ODF); forced beta (
force
)

BS
B
I
I
ODF =
C CE B BE T
I V I V P + =
Power loss in the junction (CBJ & BEJ)

B
CS
force
I
I
= |
POWER TRANSISTOR - BJT
POWER TRANSISTOR - MOSFET
BJT
Current
driven
device
Control
state of
switch
using
base
current
Driven cct
expensive
and
complicated
MOSFET
Voltage
driven
device
Control
state of
switch
using
gate
voltage
Driven cct
simple and
cheaper
The power MOSFET is short for metal oxide
semiconductor field effect transistor.
MOSFET is a semiconductor power switch characterized
by the highest switching speed.
Three electrodes of the MOSFET, the drain (D), source
(S), and gate (G) correspond to the collector, emitter and
base of the BJT respectively.
However in contrast to BJT, the power MOSFET is
voltage controlled,
POWER TRANSISTOR - MOSFET
POWER TRANSISTOR - MOSFET
POWER TRANSISTOR - MOSFET
Adv MOSFET
Switching speed high
Switching frequency high
Little power to control
Simple driver circuit
Low switching losses
Disadv MOSFET
Electrostatic
discharge
Req. special
care
handling
POWER TRANSISTOR - MOSFET
POWER TRANSISTOR - MOSFET
Power MOSFET
POWER TRANSISTOR - MOSFET
POWER TRANSISTOR - MOSFET
Divided into 3 region
1. Cut off V
GS
V
T
2. Saturation region - V
DS
V
GS

- V
T

3. Linear region - V
DS
V
GS
- V
T

Pinch off - V
DS
= V
GS
- V
T

POWER TRANSISTOR - MOSFET
1. Cut off MOSFET off

2. Saturation region I
D

V
DS
, useful for
amplification ops.
3. Linear region high I
D

and low V
DS
, appropriate
for switching ops
POWER TRANSISTOR - MOSFET
Sample of MOSFET datasheet
(IRF640)
IGBT or known as the insulated-gate bipolar transistor,
are hybrid semiconductor devices which combines the
advantages of MOSFETs and BJTs.
The IGBT are voltage controlled power switches like
MOSFETs, but with lower conduction losses and higher
voltage and current ratings
The majority of the IGBTs available on the market are so
called punch-through or asymmetric type.
POWER TRANSISTOR - IGBT
POWER TRANSISTOR - IGBT
Adv of BJT
Low on-state conduction losses
High power handling capability
Adv of MOSFET
High input impedance
Simple driving circuit
IGBT
- Near to ideal
characteristics
for high voltage
(> 100V)
medium frequency
(< 20 kHZ)
applications
POWER TRANSISTOR - IGBT
POWER TRANSISTOR - IGBT
POWER TRANSISTOR - IGBT
POWER TRANSISTOR - IGBT
MOS-controlled thyristor (MCT) is a new semiconductor
device that combines the MOS and thyristor technologies
and properties.
MCTs is a Thyristor with two MOSFETs built into the gate
structure (ON-FET turns ON MCT and OFF-FET turns
OFF MCT)
The MCTs operates similarly to the GTO, but it is turned
on and off by short pulses of the gate-anode voltage
instead of the gate current.
MCTS
Advantages of MCTs as fully controlled, trigged switches
include high switching frequencies and low conduction
losses.
To turn an MCT on, a negative voltage pulse is applied
between the gate and anode, while a positive pulse turns
the MCT off
MCTS
MCTS
Insulated Gate-Commutated Thyristor (IGCT) is among
the latest power switches within the market.
The IGCTs conducts like normal thyristor (latching), but
can be turned off using gate signal, similar to IGBT turn
off.
The value of VGT of 20 V is sufficient (fast rising turn-off
pulse with very short duration) in order to turn off the
IGCTs.
IGCTS
The advantages of the IGCTs are that the gate drive
requirement decrease by a factor of 5 compared to GTO
and the power switch is integrated with the gate-drive
unit.
The IGCTs ratings voltage: Vak< 6.5 kV, current: Ia < 4
kA, Frequency <1 kHz. Currently 10 kV devices are being
developed. The IGCTs has very low on state voltage: 2.7
V for 4 kA device.
IGCTS
POWER TRANSISTOR -
COMPARISON
POWER TRANSISTOR -
COMPARISON
POWER SWITCHES: POWER & FREQ RATING
POWER SWITCHES: APPLICATIONS

Device Applications
GATE AND BASE DRIVE
CIRCUIT
POWER SEMICONDUCTOR SWITCH
GATE AND BASE DRIVE CIRCUIT
GATE & BASE DRIVE CCT -
MOSFET
Turn-on time of MOSFET depends on the
charging time of the gate capacitance.
It can be reduce by connecting an RC cct to
charge the gate capacitance faster.
GATE & BASE DRIVE CCT -
MOSFET
When V
G
is turn on;

Steady state gate voltage;
S
G
G
R
V
I =
1
R R R
V R
V
S G
G G
GS
+ +
=
GATE & BASE DRIVE CCT -
MOSFET
Turn
MOSFET
on
Logic set
high
Q
3
off, Q
1

on
Gate
resistanc
e;
1
1
+
+ =
|
R
R
G
GATE & BASE DRIVE CCT -
MOSFET
Turn
MOSFET
off
Logic set
low
Q
3
and
Q
2
on, Q
1

off
Gate
resistanc
e;
G
R =
Speed of switching is adjust by adjusting the R
G
.

Lower R
G
will increase the switching speed.
GATE & BASE DRIVE CCT - BJT
Switching speed can be increased by
decreasing the t
on
and t
off
.

t
on
is decreased by allowing base current peaking during turn
on low forced beta (
forced
). After that, beta will be
increased to maintain the BJT in saturated region.

t
off
is decreased reversing base current and allowing base
current peaking during turn off.
GATE & BASE DRIVE CCT - BJT
GATE & BASE DRIVE CCT - BJT
GATE & BASE DRIVE CCT - BJT
Turn-on control
Turn-off control
Proportional base
control
Antisaturation control
GATE & BASE DRIVE CCT - BJT
Purpose to minimize t
on
.
When i/p voltage is turned
on, the base current is
limited by the R
1
. The initial
base current is;
1
1
R
V V
I
BE in
B

=
GATE & BASE DRIVE CCT - BJT
The final value of base
current is (once the C is fully
charged);
2 1
2
R R
V V
I
BE in
B
+

=
GATE & BASE DRIVE CCT - BJT
The C will charge up to a
final value of;
2 1
2
R R
R
V V
in C
+
~
GATE & BASE DRIVE CCT - BJT
Charging time constant of
C;
2 1
1 2 1
1
R R
C R R
+
= t
GATE & BASE DRIVE CCT - BJT
When V
in
= 0V, C will be
discharged through R
2
with
time constant of;
1 2 2
C R = t
GATE & BASE DRIVE CCT - BJT
To allow sufficient
charging and discharging
time;
2 2
1 1
5
5
t
t
>
>
t
t
GATE & BASE DRIVE CCT - BJT
Thus, maximum switching
frequency is;
( ) ( )
2 1 2 1
1
2 . 0 1 1
t t +
=
+
= =
t t T
f
GATE & BASE DRIVE CCT - BJT
If the V
in
changed to V
2
, V
C
is
added to V
2
as reverse voltage
across BJT.

Create the base current peaking
during turn off.
EXAMPLE
Design a BJT base drive circuit with the configuration of
Figure 1 that has a initial base current of 3A at turn-on
which reduces to 0.6A to maintains the collector current in
the on state. The voltage V
i
is a pulse of 0 to 20V with a 30
percent duty ratio, and the switching frequency is 120kHZ.
Assume that V
BE
is 1V when the transistor is on.

POWER SWITCH LOSSES
POWER SEMICONDUCTOR SWITCH
POWER SWITCH LOSSES
POWER SWITCH LOSSES
POWER SWITCH LOSSES
Power Switch
Losses
FWD
conduction
Switching
losses
Blocking
state
POWER SWITCH LOSSES
FWD CONDUCTION LOSSES
POWER SWITCH LOSSES
BLOCKING STATE LOSSES
POWER SWITCH LOSSES
SWITCHING POWER LOSSES
POWER SWITCH LOSSES
COOLING AND HEAT SINKS
POWER SEMICONDUCTOR SWITCH
COOLING AND HEAT SINKS
Due to state and blocking losses, heat is generated
within the power device.
The heat must be removed to maintain the optimum
operating condition.
Heat must flow from device to case to heat sink.
If P is average power losses in device, thermal
representative in electrical analogy is as below;

COOLING AND HEAT SINKS
This circuit could be expressed as below;
( )
sa cs jc j
R R R P T
u u u
+ + =
Where;
T
j
junction temperature of device (
O
C)
P
jc
thermal resistance from junction to case (
O
C/W)
P
cs
thermal resistance from case to sink (
O
C/W)
P
sa
thermal resistance from sink to ambient (
O
C/W)
Normally specify by manufacturer
COOLING AND HEAT SINKS
The step response of a first-order system can be applied to
express the transient thermal impedance.
If Z
0
is the steady-state junction case thermal impedance,
the instantaneous thermal impedance can be expressed as;



Where
th
is thermal time constant of the device. If the power
loss is P
d
, the instantaneous junction temperature is;
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

th
t
e Z t Z
t
1
0
( ) t Z P T
d j
=
COOLING AND HEAT SINKS
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
m m
t t Z Z
t t Z Z
t t Z Z
t t Z Z
t Z Z
= =
= =
= =
= =
= = =
.
.
.
0 0
3 3
2 2
1 1
0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1
,... 3 , 1
0
6 5 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 0
.....
+
=
+ =
+ + + + =
n n
m
n
n j
j j
Z Z P T
Z Z P Z Z P Z Z P T t T
HINT TO SOLVE QUESTIONS ON
HEATSINKS
Consider V=Temperature
Power=Current
Example
A transistor of thermal resistance 1.8
0
C/W is mounted on a
heatsink of thermal resistance 2.5
0
C/W . Calculate the
maximum power loss of transistor if the junction temperature is
not to exceed 125
0
C in an ambient of 40
0
C
A resistor of resistance 1.8V/A(ohm) is joined to a resistor of
electrical resistance 2.5V/A(ohm). Calculate the maximum
current through the first resistor if the voltage of the first end of
the network is not to exceed 125V while the other end of the
network is connected to a potential of 40V.
EXAMPLE
A MOSFET with no heat sink absorbs a
thermal power of 2.0W. The thermal
resistance from junction to ambient is
40
0
C/W , if the ambient temperature is
30
0
C. Determine the junction temperature
and if the maximum junction temperature is
150
0
C, how much power can be absorbed
without requiring a heat sink.