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Intro to Euro

Chapter 1
Periodization

Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000


•Formation of Europe

High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250


•Secular Civilization

Late Middle Ages: 1250 – 1500


•The Church
Charlemagne: 742 to 814
Charlemagne’s Empire
Feudalism after
1000

A) What is it?

C) How does it work?


1. Players
2. Investitures

E) Feudal Pyramid
Feudalism
A political, economic, and social
system based on loyalty and
military service.
Feudalism (cont)

A. Potential problems?
B. Vassal service
1. Weapons
2. Training
3. Women
4. Church (?)
5. War/Peace
Manors and the Economics of
Feudalism

A) The manor—what is it?


B) Peasant duties
1. Tithe
E) Manor life
Life on the Medieval
Manor

Serfs at work
The Medieval Manor
Evolution of Town Life

A) Farming
1. 3-Field System

B) Towns
1. Middle-class

C) Fairs
A. Guilds

C. New worker training


1. Apprentice
2. Journeyman
3. Member
4. Master

D. Rights
Medieval Catholic
Church
A) Reforms and Abuses
1. The Pope
2. Simony
3. Lay Investiture
4. Concordat of Worms
B) Power of the Pope
1. Excommunication
2. Interdiction
3. Cannon law
Major Events:
Crusades & Hundred Years’ War
The Crusades: 1095-
1270
A. 8 official
papal
crusades
to
recapture
Jerusalem
B. CAUSES
1. Bring
Turks
back into
“the fold”
2. Claim
leadership
C. Other purposes…

1. Travel
2. Dispose of bad knights
3. Young sons: earn fiefs
D. Other Crusades…

1. Arabs out of Sicily (1100)


2. Iberian reconquista : Moors expelled
by 1250
3. Knights Templar expel pagans in
Baltics
E. Effects

1. Eastern culture and knowledge


2. Religious bitterness (Muslim, Jew,
Christian)
3. Italian business spreads
The Road to Worst Jobs in History –
Knighthood Middle Ages
The Road to Knighthood

KNIGHT

SQUIRE

PAGE
The Hundred Years War:
1337-1453
CAUSES
 Acquitaine and Gascony
 Flanders
 Edward III of England has
claim to French throne
English winning 1337 –
1430s
 Longbows
 Fighting
weakens the
French
 French
aristocracy
divided
(Brittany,
Burgundy)
The French Strike Back…

 1429 Joan of Arc, 1431 burned at


stake
 King Henry VI of England is
insane
 English lose Burgundy
 French take Bordeaux 1453
ending the war
Effects

FRANCE ENGLAND
National Strengthen
taxes nat’l identitiy
Standing with French
army hatred
Stronger
monarchy
A Fiasco
The Church of the
14 th
th
and 15 Centuries
1302: Unum Sanctum

 Pope Boniface VIII’s


“bull”
 Every human
creature is subject to
the Roman pontiff
 Implication:
This
is not a
 Spiritual over temporal
leaders papal bull.
 Clergy pays no taxes
Outcome: The Babylonian
Captivity 1302-1378

 
 King Philip the Fair
(IV) of France
 Boniface VIII dies
of fright
 College of
Cardinals; new                                                                                              

Pope @ Avignon
                                  
Bring on the fiasco…The
Great Schism of the West
1378: Factionalized College of
Cardinals
2 popes: The Schism of the
West
French pope (very lavish)
 Roman pope: England, most
of Germany
Reformers fed up with
this fiasco:
 William Langland writes Piers
Plowman.Church corrupted and
hypocritical. Followers called
Lollards
 John Wyclif: a Lollard.
Translates Bible. Says don’t
need church for
salvation.(1380s)
 John Huss: Czech. Similar to
1409 begins the Conciliar
Movement
 Council of Pisa (1409): depose
both popes elect another.
Now…we have THREE.
 Council of Constance (1414)
 Crush heretics (kill Huss and
Wyclif)
 End Schism: Martin V (who
begins the fight between
popes and councils)
 Reform the church…
Corruption goes on…

 Schism, of course
 Simony: buy or sell church offices
 Mistresses
 Nepotism
 Indulgences: an excusal from
purgatory if you have confessed
and repented that you buy from
the church
1438: Pragmatic Sanction
of Bourges and the
Gallican Church
 French church
independent of
Pope.
 No annates to
Rome
 French can
appoint own
clergy
A swanky home for
popes
Roman Pope prevails over
Councils
1449: Council of Basel ends
1450: Jubilee year
The Plague--1347

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