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Taljsten, B.; Hejll, A.; and James, G.

(2007), Carbon Fibrereinforced Polymer Strengthening And Monitoring Of The Grondal Bridge In Sweden, Journal Of Composites For Construction, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 1-9.

Background: The importance of research and development into repairing, strengthening and restoration of existing structures is understood If capital is given the top most priority is no always economically viable to demolish and rebuild a deficient structure But there are difficulties in assessing the most suitable method for repair Hence to obtain a better understanding of the behaviour of existing structures, monitoring can be used

The Grondal bridge


Built in the year 2000, the main span is 120m with the two adjacent span of 70m each Carries two railway tracks placed symmetrically about the cross section The bridge developed extensive cracking in the webs of its concrete hollow box girder

Causes of cracking
Due to slender webs high tensile stresses are developed The principal stresses, due to high permanent loads, are the main cause of cracking The location of the cracks is in accordance with the highest principal stresses The cross sections are under-reinforced due to inadequate web-shear reinforcement

The SHM system design


Requirements Rough diagnosis in the form of simple calculations, on site visual inspections or minor measurements

Decision on what parameters to measure and its purpose


Acquisition, sensors, communication, evaluation systems are established with needed hardware and software

The SHM system design


The system was to be set up with the aim to measure crack developments and strains on the CFRP plates Decision on strategies: Choice of monitoring systems Long term: continuous, periodic, automatically triggered and manual triggered Global or local For this bridge a manual triggered long term monitoring method with local monitoring were used for the FOS

The monitoring system


A total of 32 FOS were installed They were of type Bragg grating and at most 7 sensors in one cable. The sensor length was 20mm In addition to this LVDTs were installed along with temperature sensors in the form of thermocouples and for comparison with the FOS system

Results
Traditional system FOS system

Results
Conclusion Both the systems gave similar results FOS system was more sensitive Traditional system was cheaper to use in particular for continuous monitoring Reduced sampling rate reduced the sensitivity Monitoring was done after strengthening so it was not possible to check for any design theory and experimental results

Huth O.; Hejll A.; Feltrin G. and Motavalli M., Effects Of Prestress Force Loss On Natural Frequencies Of A Concrete Girder, pp.1-10

Aim: To check whether the change in natural frequencies of vibration can be correlated to the detection of loss of prestressing force. Cracks can alter the mass and stiffness of the bridge, which will lead to change in global behaviour of the entire structure.

Results
The observed patterns were difficult to interpret and may have caused due to several influences like temperature Standard deviations are compared to natural frequencies and are complicating interpretation

References
Hejll A., (2007), Civil structural health monitoring strategies, methods and applications, Lulea University Taljsten, B.; Hejll, A.; and James, G.(2007), Carbon Fibre-reinforced Polymer Strengthening And Monitoring Of The Grondal Bridge In Sweden, Journal Of Composites For Construction, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 1-9. Huth O.; Hejll A.; Feltrin G. and Motavalli M., Effects Of Prestress Force Loss On Natural Frequencies Of A Concrete Girder, pp.1-10