Você está na página 1de 37

Psikologi Sukan

SPKK Tahap 1 Tajuk: 1. Motivasi 2. Konsep Kendiri

Sport Psychology
SPKK Level 1 Topic: Motivation

DEFINITION
Sport Psychology is the study of thoughts (attitudes), feelings (emotions), and reactions (actions) of athletes in a competitive setting. Performance = Psychological readiness + Physical preparation + Technical skill + Tactical awareness

MOTIVATION
OBJECTIVES
1. Define motivation and its components, 2. Differentiate between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, 3. Know how to use direct and indirect methods of motivation, 4. Identify other methods of motivating the athletes.

CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION
Motivation can be defined simply as the direction and intensity of ones effort (Sage, 1977). Motivation is to start, to energise and maintain a behaviour

CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION
1.1 Direction of Effort 1.2 Intensity of Effort 1.3 The Relationship between Direction and Intensity
The burning question is how badly do you want to succeed? Geoff Boycott.

Quotation
IF I BELIEVE I CAN DO OR BE SOMETHING / SOMEBODY, CHANCES ARE I WILL. IF I DONT, I WONT, IT IS AS SIMPLE AND AS IMPORTANT AS THAT

Quotation
Most people give up just

when theyre about to


achieve success. They quit on the one yard line.

They give up at last


minute of the game, one foot from a winning touchdown.

SOURCES OF MOTIVATION
Intrinsic Motivation Athletes who are intrinsically motivated have an inner striving to be competent and self-determining, to master the task, and to be successful.

SOURCES OF MOTIVATION
Extrinsic motivation Motivation that comes from other sources through positive and negative reinforcement.
Tangible: trophies, medals or money Intangible: praise, public recognition and punishment.

Key Components for Success


1. 2. 3. Desire Discipline Determination S - Strive U - Unique C - Courage C - Change E - Efficient S - Strength S - Survival

TYPES OF MOTIVATION
Direct methods of motivation
Identification Compliance Internalization

Indirect methods of motivation


Change the physical situation Change the psychological situation

Quotation
YOUR STATE OF MIND DIRECTLY AFFECTS HOW YOU PERFORM. YOUR BODY RESPONDS TO YOUR THOUGHTS. IF YOU ARE AIMING FOR PEAK PERFORMANCES YOU WANT TO BE IN A STATE OF READINESS : PSYCHOLOGICALLY AND PHYSICALLY Hemery (1990)

METHODS OF MOTIVATING ATHLETES


Athletes needs and motives Understand athletes needs 3 prominent motives
To play for fun (sensation) To be with other people (affiliation) To demonstrate competence in order to feel worthy (achievement)

Use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards

Food for Thought


If an athlete is coached with criticism, she learns to condemn If an athlete is coached with hostility, he learns to fight If an athlete is coached with ridicule, she learns to hate If an athlete is coached with shame, he learns to feel guilty If an athlete is coached with tolerance, she learns to be patient If an athlete is coached with fairness, he learns justice If an athlete is coached with consistency, she learns to trust If an athlete is coached with respect, he learns to respect himself If an athlete is coached with encouragement, she learns to be confident If an athlete is coached with praise, he learns to appreciate

How do you coach your athletes?

DISCUSSION
1. Discuss direct and indirect methods of motivation by sharing specific examples related to you as a coach. 2. Discuss the following with specific situations in your sport:
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Athletes needs and motivation

Sport Psychology
SPKK Level 1 Topic: Self-concept

INTRODUCTION
Athletes with a positive self-concept will have a positive self-image, self belief and high self-esteem. They feel good about themselves, selfworthy, and confident.

OBJECTIVES
Identify the components of self-concept in sport Explain the self-image cycle specifically how self-image affects our attitudes, expectations, behaviours, and performance in all areas of our lives Detail some strategies to help athletes enhance their positive self-image

DEFINITION
Self-concept is defined as a persons selfperception, which is formed through experiences with, and through interpretations of his or her environment. These perceptions are influenced by the evaluation of significant others, reinforcements, and the way people interpret their own behaviours to themselves (i.e. their attributions or reasons for their behaviours).

Conceptualization of Self

Influences of a Positive Self-Concept


Motivation i.e. drive to pursue goals. Learning i.e. acquisition of new knowledge or skills. Athletic performance i.e. achieve personal best. Personal relationship i.e. liking for others and acceptance by others. Life satisfaction i.e. how a person feels satisfied with personal accomplishment. Performance in other areas i.e. his/her own individual areas and pursuing life goals

Acquiring Positive Self-Concept


Show Acceptance Offer Specific Praise Give Personal Attention Emphasize Self Responsibility

SELF-IMAGE
Self-image affects our attitudes, expectations, behaviors, and performances in all areas of our lives

The Success Cycle

The Failure Cycle

Reprogramme for Success


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
CRAFT PROCESS Cancel memories of your old, negative beliefs. Replace them with new, positive beliefs. Affirm your new concept of yourself. Focus on specific images of success. Train yourself to accept your new beliefs.

Positive Self-Image Athletes


Athletes with positive self-image have positive feelings about themselves, about their capabilities and clear about the roles that they play. It is important that athletes develop a more positive self-image for this leads to greater self-confidence. A self-confident athlete is sure of himself, his ability, and less prone to worry.

SELF-ESTEEM
Self-esteem is defined as the evaluation of self with respect to an ideal vision of self along a dimension (characteristics) used to describe self. Athletes who feel good about themselves are said to have a high self-esteem. They recognize their own strengths and weaknesses and accept their selves for what they are.

Factors that Influence Self-esteem in Sports


Self-image Relationships Social environments The media Personal achievements

Improving Self-esteem in Sport


Increase self-knowledge Be more self-accepting Set goals

SELF-BELIEF / SELF-CONFIDENCE
Self-belief can be regarded synonymously with confidence. Sport psychologists define self-confidence as the belief that you can successfully perform a desired behavior.
I always know I would do it one day. I always believed Mike Powell, after breaking the world long jump record.

SELF-VULNERABILITY
Self-vulnerability is the perception of change in self, occurring under stressful circumstances When the going gets tough, the tough gets going

DISCUSSION
1. Discuss the 4 ways a coach could use to facilitate positive self-concept of players. 2. Describe the characteristics of athletes with positive self-image.

Food for Thought


An estimation of my own ability is far more important than that of any selector Stuart Barnes

Of all the judgments that we pass in life, none is as important as the one we pass on ourselves, for that judgment touches the very centre of our existence. How we relate to ourselves affects how we relate to others, and to the world around us Nathaniel Branden