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Research Methodology

Introduction to Research

Prepared by: Ida Lopez First Prepared on: 12-03-07 Last Modified on: 22-05-07

Topic & Structure of lesson


What is Research? Importance of Research in Degree studies Purposes of Research Types of Research Paper Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research The Research Process Research and Business Business Managers and Research

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Learning Outcomes
Student will be able to: explain the meaning of research understand the importance of research in degree study know the types of research papers available identify purposes of research Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative research outline research processes Understand business research
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Are these Research?


Robert has Developed Protein-based Computer Memories. Many agree that any kind of Malaria Vaccine is not perfect. Government (Malaysian) will amend the Companies Act soon to enhance Corporate Governance. US FDI shifts to service-Based Business (in Malaysia). Global Oil Production Up 185000 bpd in November 2002

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Research Is Not
information gathering:
Gathering information from resources such books or magazines isnt research.

the transportation of facts:


Merely transporting facts from one resource to another doesnt constitute research. No contribution to new knowledge although this might make existing knowledge more accessible.

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What is Research?
Research can be described as a systematic and organized effort to investigate a specific problem that needs a solution (Sekaran 1992, p.4). Keywords: 1. Systematic and organized 2. It encompasses the processes of inquiring / investigating end result would help to solve problems or suggest ways to solve problems.
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Research is ..
the way of thinking, examining critically the various aspects of your profession, understanding and formulating guiding principles that govern a particular procedure and developing and testing new theories for the enhancement of your profession. It is a habit of questioning about what you do and empirical examination to find answers, with a view to instituting appropriate changes for a more effective professional services.
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What does Research in Degree studies involve?


Doing secondary research i.e. familiarising yourself with the work of experts this process is known as a Literature Review. Doing a primary research to build upon what you have already found out about a subject. Comparing the findings and drawing your own conclusions.

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Types/Classifications of Research
The research can be classified from three perspectives: Application Basic and applied research Objectives Exploratory, Descriptive, or explanatory (causal, hypothesis testing) Type of information Qualitative and quantitative

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Purposes of Research
Two purposes: 1. To generate more knowledge and understanding of the phenomena of interest and to build theories based on the research results. - Basic Research Example: The Malaysian publics perception of the effectiveness of its Police Department in tracking people released on bail.

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Purposes of Research

2. To solve a current problem faced by the manager in the work setting, demanding a timely solution. - Applied Research Example: The Police Department has asked a research company to come up with a new system of tracking people released on bail.

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Basic Research
Generating scientific knowledge for future use (Common use) Undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice May lead to discovery of new theory or refinement of an existing theory Attempts to expand the limits of knowledge Not directly involved in the solution to a practical problem Commonly conducted at a University

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Basic Research Examples


Is executive success correlated with high need for achievement? Coupons versus rebates as demand stimulation tactics Compensation Systems and Labour Productivity Factors determining share prices

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Applied Research
Carried on to find solution to a real life problem and action oriented Seeks an immediate and practical results May indirectly contribute to the development of theoretical knowledge by leading to a discovery of new facts or testing of a theory or to conceptual clarity Conducted when a decision must be made about a specific real-life problem

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Applied Research Examples


Should McDonalds add Italian pasta dinners to its menu?
Business research told McDonalds it should not?

Should Procter & Gamble add a high-priced home teeth bleaching kit to its product line?
Research showed Crest White strips would sell well at a retail price of RM44

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Basic Differences Between Basic and Applied Research


Basic Research
Problem based on the researcher interest to explain and understanding of the subject Selection of the problem is totally the choice of the researcher Some value judgment may be made, action is not recommended

Applied Research
what is the problem is an important step in resolving that problem. What problems to analysis may be outside the individual researcher domain Researcher role is examine analytically and a course of action recommended

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Exploratory Studies
To clarify ambiguous problems To get better understanding of an issue To provide information for further analysis To identify information/data required As a preliminary research To exhaust inexpensive & time saving resources

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Descriptive Studies
To describe a characteristic of a population or phenomenon Seeks answers to who, what, when, where and how questions To gather accurate info It is based on previous understanding of the problem

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Causal Studies
To identify cause-and-effect relationship among variables To explain a relationship between variables/factors Specific problem based

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Quantitative vs. Qualitative research


Quantitative Objective Approach Sample size Represent. Interv. Skill Basis Analysis
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Qualitative
In-depth under. Unstructured Small No High Words Comparative

Quantification Structured Large Yes (if random) Moderate to low Numbers Statistics
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Data and Information


Data
Facts Recorded measures of certain phenomena

Information
A body of facts that are in a format suitable for decision making Defines relationship between pieces of data

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Deductive and Inductive reasoning


Deductive
Deriving a conclusion about a specific instances based on a known general premise

Inductive
A logical process of establishing a general proposition on the basis of observation of particular facts

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Business Research Defined


is defined as the systematic and objective process of generating information for solving a problem or finding solution to a complex issue (aid in making business decisions).

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Objectives of Business Research


To extends knowledge To discovered new information To theory building To verify and test existing facts and theory To analyze inter-relationships between variables To find solution to current problem In total, to make more effective professional services

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Examples of Business Research Outcomes


Nestl's Regional Revamp. Debt-restructuring exercise helps put watermeter Manufacturer Back on its feet. Inproser Bhd claims its product can help poultry farmers slash cost. Celcom TM Touch Merges.

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Internal Researcher
Advantages:
Better acceptance from the staff Knowledge about the organization Would be integral part of implementation and evaluation of the research recommendations

Limitations:
Less fresh ideas Power Politics May not be valued as experts by staff

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External Researcher
Advantages:
Divergent and convergent thinking Experience from several situations Better technical training Limitations: Time to understand the organizational system Cooperation from the staffs is not easy Leakage of business secretes Not available for evaluation after implementation cost
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Research Process
Selection of research area (Defining a problem) Preliminary information gathering (Informal Secondary Research) Literature Review (formal secondary research) Hypothesising Further data collection (Primary Research) Data analysis Deduction (conclusion)

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Tutorial (Week 1)

The tutors will provide article(s) and you are require to identify
the need for the research Research objective Findings & conclusion Recommended future research scopes

Identify a research area (that you have an interest on) and present the
Problem statement Objective of this research Target population
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Quick Review Question


What is Research? Name the TWO (2) purposes of research. What are the two main types of research papers? Outline in-detail the 7-steps involved in the research process. Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative research. Distinguish between exploratory, descriptive and causal research approaches.
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Independent Learning Activities


Read Sekaran (2000), pp. 1-9 to enhance knowledge and understanding. Make own notes.

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Question and Answer Session

Q&A
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