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Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain's electrical system. Abnormal electrical impulses cause brief changes in movement, behavior, sensation, or awareness.

*seizure a brief, temporary disturbance in the electrial activity of the brain

The brain is the source

S all brain functions included feeling, seeing, thinking,

moving muscles
S overload of electrical activity S temporary disturbance in the messaging systems
S "mixed up brain


S idiopathic (unknown reason)

S genetic factors (mutations in several genes/ineffective

S brain injuries

S chemical imbalances in the brain

brain injuries

chemical imbalances in the brain


types of injuries agedependent


drugs, alcohol low blood sugar, low oxygen, low blood sodium or low blood calcium kidney or liver failure

childhood - birth traumas, infections (meningitis), congenital abnormalities adulthood - head injuries, infections, alcohol, stimulant drugs or medication side effects older adults - brain tumors, strokes


S recurrent seizures

S bitten tongue
S decreased level of consciousness S periods of blackout or confused memory S episodes of blinking or chewing

S more than 30 different types of seizures

two major categories - focal seizures and generalized seizures

many different types of seizures in each of these categories

Focal seizures

S partial seizures S

occur in one part of the brain

S about 60 percent of people with epilepsy have focal seizures S frequently described by the area of the brain in which they

S experience of unusual feelings S may or may not include loss of consciousness

Generalized seizures

S abnormal neuronal activity on both sides of the brain

loss of consciousness, falls, massive muscle spasms

muscles, stiffening of muscles twitching

S petit mal seizures - staring into space,

S grand mal seizures (tonic-clonic) - mixture of

symptoms; stiffening of the body, repeated jerks of the arms and/or legs, loss of consciousness

Seizure triggers

S missed medication

S stress/anxiety
S hormonal changes S lack of sleep S photosensitivity


*presence of recurrent, unprovoked seizures

S clinical assessment S patient history S tests (blood, EEG, CT, MRI or PET scans) S neurologic exam
S ID of seizure type S clinical evaluation to look for causes


S medication - "anticonvulsant" or "antiepileptic" drugs S side effects S surgery (e.g., brain tumor/abnormality must be removed) S non-pharmacological treatment S ketogenic diet S vagus nerve stimulation S lifestyle modifications

Famous people that suffered from this disorder

S Roman Emperor Caligula, Julius Caesar, Socrates,

S many saints and other religious figures (Muhammad,

Joan of Arc)
S artist, musicians ( Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Ian Curtis, Susan



S en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilepsy

S www.epilepsy.com