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BASIC SCHOOLS OF MANAGEMENT:

Behavioral School
Made by: Caldari Sorina , Hornet Ionel , Popa Daniela

The formal study of management is largely a twentieth-century phenomenon. Disagreement exists as to the exact number of management schools,different writers have identified as few as three and as many as twelve types of managerial thought..

BASIC SCHOOLS OF MANAGEMENT ARE:


The classical school; The behavioral school; The quantitative or management science school; The systems school; The contingency school;

BEHAVIORAL

data collected from observations of human behaviour

Behavioral science and the study of organizational behavior emerged in the 1950s and 1960s. BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE

HUMAN RESOURCES MOVEMENT

BS focuses on applying conceptual and analytical tools to the problem of understanding and predicting behavior in the workplace. However, the study of behavioral science and organizational behavior was also a result of criticism of the human relations approach as simplistic and manipulative in its assumptions about the relationship between worker attitudes and productivity.

The study of behavioral science in business schools was given increased credence by the 1959 , Gordon and Howell report on higher education, which emphasized the importance to management practitioners of understanding human behavior.

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE focuses on: Personality; Attitudes; Values; Motivation; Group behavior; Leadership; Communication; Conflict;

MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS: Douglas McGregor; Chris Argyris; Frederick Herzberg; Renais Likert; Ralph Stogdill;

MAIN PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIORISM:


People are the key to productivity; Technology, work rules, and standards do not guarantee good job performance; Success depends on motivated and skilled individuals who are committed to organizational objectives; Only a managers sensitivity to individual concerns can foster the cooperation necessary for high productivity;

Organizational behavior, as a scientific extension of human relations, promises to fill in some of the gaps left by human relationists while at the same time retaining an emphasis on people. Today, organizational behaviorists are trying to piece together the multiple determinants of effective job performance in various work situations and across cultures.

On the negative side, traditional human relations doctrine has been criticized as vague and simplistic. According to these critics, relatively primitive on-thejob behavioral research does not justify such broad conclusions. For instance, critics do not believe that supportive supervision and good human relations will lead automatically to higher morale and hence to better job performance. Also, recent analyses of the Hawthorne studies, using modern statistical techniques, have generated debate about the validity of the original conclusions.