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Action Research

Definition
Action research is conducted by one or more individuals or groups for the purpose of solving a problem or obtaining information in order to

inform local practice.

Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~serkany/baglantilar/How_to_Design_and_Evaluate_Research_in_Education.pdf

Action Research In Education


Action research in education is an enquiry which is

carried out in order to understand, evaluate and then


to change, in order to improve some educational practices. When applied to teaching, action research involves gathering and interpreting data to better understand

an aspect of teaching and learning and applying the


outcomes to improve practice.
Singh, D. (2009). Action Research. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from schoolofeducators.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/ppt-action.ppt

To assess how effective the new approaches were To explore and test new ideas, methods, and materials

To share feedback with fellow team members

AR gives educators new opportunities to reflect on and assess their teaching

Why use action research?

To make decisions about which new approaches to include in the practice.

Chebbi, T. (2008). Action Research in Education. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from www2.fiu.edu/~chebbit/Action%20Research-Spring2008.ppt

5 To solve an educational problem

When teachers want to improve their practices

When do you use action research?

To help educators reflect on their own practices

To address schoolwide problems


Chebbi, T. (2008). Action Research in Education. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from www2.fiu.edu/~chebbit/Action%20Research-Spring2008.ppt

State of NSW, Department of Education and Training. Professional Learning and Leadership Development Directorate. (2010). Action Research in Education. Retrieved from https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/proflearn/docs/pdf/actreguide.pdf

Hendrickss Action Research Process

Introduction to Action Research. (n.d.).Retrieved October 26, 2013 from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/38973_1.pdf

Features of Action Research (Koshy, 2005)


Action research is a method used for improving practice. It involves action, evaluation, and critical reflection and based on the evidence gathered changes in practice are then implemented It is situation-based and context specific. Action research is participative and collaborative; it is undertaken by individuals with a common purpose.

Koshy, V. (2005). Action Research for Improving Practice. London: Paul Chapman Publishing. Retrieve from http://www.actionlearning.com.au/Classes/ActionResearch/Books/BookActionResearchForImprovingPractice.pdf

Features of Action Research (Koshy, 2005)


It develops reflection based on interpretations made by the participants. Knowledge is created through action and at the point of application. Action research can involve problem solving, if the solution to the problem leads to the

improvement of practice.
In action research findings will emerge as action develops,

but these are not conclusive or


absolute.
Koshy, V. (2005). Action Research for Improving Practice. London: Paul Chapman Publishing. Retrieve from http://www.actionlearning.com.au/Classes/ActionResearch/Books/BookActionResearchForImprovingPractice.pdf

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Types of Action Research

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Addresses a specific problem within a classroom, school, or other community. Involves variety of settings. Example : educational, social service, or business locations.

Results in an action plan

Practical Action Research

Carried out by individuals, teams, or larger groups.

Primary purpose: to improve practice in the short term as well as to inform larger issues.

Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~serkany/baglantilar/How_to_Design_and_Evaluate_Research_in_Education.pdf

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Examples of Practical Action Research


An elementary teacher studies the disruptive behavior of a child in her classroom. A college instructor studies his professional development using technology in teaching.

Singh, D. (2009). Action Research. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from schoolofeducators.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/ppt-action.ppt

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Participatory Action Research

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A collaborative approach

provides people with the means to take

systematic action in an effort to resolve specific


problems.

consensual, democratic, and participatory


strategies to encourage people to examine reflectively problems affecting them. Formulate accounts and explanations of their situation and develop plans that may resolve

these problems.
Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~serkany/baglantilar/How_to_Design_and_Evaluate_Research_in_Education.pdf

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Focuses on a specific local issue and using the findings to implement action. Two additional purposes: to empower individuals and groups to improve their lives to bring about social change at some levelschool, community, or society.

To have intensive involvement of all these stakeholders who function as equal partners.

Participatory Action Research

Involves a sizable group of people representing diverse experiences and viewpoints focusing on the same problem.

Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~serkany/baglantilar/How_to_Design_and_Evaluate_Research_in_Education.pdf

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Examples of Participatory Action Research


Curricula that deny students enrolment. Assessments that serve to confirm student failure rather than learning.

Inequitable distribution of college faculty salaries that


favour men over women.

Singh, D. (2009). Action Research. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from schoolofeducators.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/ppt-action.ppt

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Action research designs


Action Research

Practical
Studying local practices Involving individual or teambased inquiry Focusing on teacher development and student learning Implementing a plan of action Leading to the teacher-as-researcher

Participatory
Studying social issues that constrain individual lives Emphasizing equal collaboration Focusing on life-enhancing changes Resulting in the emancipated researcher

Singh, D. (2009). Action Research. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from schoolofeducators.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/ppt-action.ppt

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Leela Chakrabarty. (2009). Action Research Part 1. [Pdf].

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Leela Chakrabarty. (2009). Action Research Part 1. [Pdf].

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Comparison Between Action Research and Traditional Research

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SIMILARITIES
ACTION RESEARCH TRADITIONAL RESEARCH

Types of data

Quantitative or

Quantitative or

gathered Inquiry

qualitative Systematic inquiry

qualitative Systematic inquiry

Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~serkany/baglantilar/How_to_Design_and_Evaluate_Research_in_Education.pdf

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DIFFERENCES
ACTION RESEARCH Led by Teachers or other TRADITIONAL RESEARCH Researcher who is

local education
professionals

not usually involved


in local situation.

Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~serkany/baglantilar/How_to_Design_and_Evaluate_Research_in_Education.pdf

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ACTION RESEARCH

TRADITIONAL RESEARCH

Purpose

Solve practical
problem, improve practice

Develop new
knowledge

Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~serkany/baglantilar/How_to_Design_and_Evaluate_Research_in_Education.pdf

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ACTION RESEARCH

TRADITIONAL RESEARCH

Instrument

Uses primarily
teacher-developed instruments.

Uses primarily
professionally developed instruments.

Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~serkany/baglantilar/How_to_Design_and_Evaluate_Research_in_Education.pdf

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ACTION RESEARCH

TRADITIONAL RESEARCH

Training

Little formal
training required to conduct such studies.

Considerable
training required to conduct such studies.

Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~serkany/baglantilar/How_to_Design_and_Evaluate_Research_in_Education.pdf

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ACTION RESEARCH Primary Members of the

TRADITIONAL RESEARCH Other researchers,

audience

school community

government or
private agencies

Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~serkany/baglantilar/How_to_Design_and_Evaluate_Research_in_Education.pdf

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ACTION RESEARCH Standard The research results

TRADITIONAL RESEARCH Peer review of

for
Quality Research

in desired change

methods
and results

Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~serkany/baglantilar/How_to_Design_and_Evaluate_Research_in_Education.pdf

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ACTION RESEARCH Purpose of Explore practical

TRADITIONAL RESEARCH Gain better

gathering and
analyzing data

problem
Guide action planning Evaluate results

understanding
of phenomenon, Develop or test hypotheses

Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~serkany/baglantilar/How_to_Design_and_Evaluate_Research_in_Education.pdf

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ACTION RESEARCH Generalizability Generalizability is very limited.

TRADITIONAL RESEARCH Generalizability often appropriate.

Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~serkany/baglantilar/How_to_Design_and_Evaluate_Research_in_Education.pdf

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Tentative

Practical

Empowering

Why Action research is a valuable form of inquiry for educators

Participative

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Action research is a valuable form of inquiry for educators because it is...


Practical
Focuses on practical improvements

Participative
teachers, administrators, students and parents can
all be involved in meaningful ways.

Empowering
all participants can contribute to and benefit from the process.
Introduction to Action Research. (n.d.).Retrieved October 26, 2013 from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/38973_1.pdf

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Tentative
there are not always right or wrong answers; rather, there are possible solutions based on multiple view points

Introduction to Action Research. (n.d.).Retrieved October 26, 2013 from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/38973_1.pdf

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Example of Action Research

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Setting :Matthews Elementary School serves students from various cultural background. Problem : Large number of students were reading

Goal

below grade level.


: To improve the schools balanced reading program

Action Plan: The action plan called for


- acquisition of additional resources for the reading program, - professional development for teachers - more effective monitoring of the program.
The Alberta Teachers Association. (2000). Action research guide for Alberta teachers. Alberta: Public Education Works.

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Action Plan

Acquisition of additional resources for the reading program

Professional Development

Monitoring of the reading program

- new nonfiction and fiction books - books on tape - a variety of new instructional materials

- monthly meetings of support groups - A supervisor was assigned as a mentor for

new teachers

- Supervisors and reading specialists observing classrooms - Teachers assessed student progress daily

The Alberta Teachers Association. (2000). Action research guide for Alberta teachers. Alberta: Public Education Works.

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Instruments: - Teacher surveys - Interviews - Pre-post comparisons of student reading levels

Discussion : - Teachers reported a high commitment to balanced


reading, understanding of the reading program, and confidence in their ability to implement the program.

- An increases in the percentage of students reading on


or above grade level. By the end of the school year 85 percent of all students were reading on or above

grade level.
The Alberta Teachers Association. (2000). Action research guide for Alberta teachers. Alberta: Public Education Works.

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Reference
Chebbi, T. (2008). Action Research in Education. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from www2.fiu.edu/~chebbit/Action%20ResearchSpring2008.ppt Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., & Hyun, H.H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~serkany/baglantilar/Ho w_to_Design_and_Evaluate_Research_in_Education. pdf Introduction to Action Research. (n.d.).Retrieved October 26, 2013 from http://www.sagepub.com/upmdata/38973_1.pdf

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Koshy, V. (2005). Action Research for Improving Practice. London: Paul Chapman Publishing. Retrieve from http://www.actionlearning.com.au/Classes/ActionResea rch/Books/BookActionResearchForImprovingPractice.pdf Mills, G.E. (2003). Action research: A guide for the teacher researcher. New Jersey: Merril Prentice Hall. Singh, D. (2009). Action Research. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from schoolofeducators.com/wpcontent/uploads/2009/12/ppt -action.ppt

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State of NSW, Department of Education and Training. Professional Learning and Leadership Development Directorate. (2010). Action Research in Education. Retrieved from https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/proflearn/docs/pdf/a ctreguide.pdf Stringer, E. (2004). Action research in education. New Jersey: Pearson Merril Prentice hall. The Alberta Teachers Association. (2000). Action research guide for Alberta teachers. Alberta: Public Education Works.