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PROCESS MECHANICAL SEALS

STATIC AND DYNAMIC SEALS

DEFINITIONS

MECHANICAL AND GAS SEAL


IDENTIFYING SEAL PROBLEMS

SEAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL

STATIC SEAL DEFINITION

O-rings

Elastomers

O-rings
Gaskets

Graphite, Teflon, Kalrez...


Flexitallic

Not very effective with relative motion between adjacent surfaces.


More details in O-ring section

SEAL DEFINITION

Used where there is relative motion between adjacent surfaces

Mechanical seals
Lip and labyrinth seals

Circumferential seals

ALL SEALS MUST LEAK

SEAL CAVITY PRESSURE

BETWEEN IMPELLER AND SEAL FACE HIGHER THAN SUCTION AND LOWER THAN DISCHARGE PRESSURE SOMEWHAT HIGHER WITH INDUCER MUCH HIGHER THAN SUCTION ON FULL EMISSION APPROXIMATELY 70% OF DISCHARGE PRESSURE

SEAL CAVITY PRESSURE

PARTIAL EMISSION PUMPS

SEAL CAVITY PRESSURE

PARTIAL EMISSION PUMPS

SEAL CAVITY PRESSURE

FULL EMISSION PUMPS

SEAL CAVITY PRESSURE

FULL EMISSION PUMPS

SEAL CAVITY PRESSURE

SEAL CAVITY PRESSURE IMPORTANT FOR SEAL SELECTION CALCULATED VALUE ON SPECIFICATION SHEET ACTUAL VALUE MAY BE SOMEWHAT DIFFERENT CAVITY PRESSURE CONTROLLED BY SPEED, FLOW, IMPELLER AND INDUCER

EFFECTS OF FLOW AND SPEED ON SEAL CAVITY PRESSURE

SEAL CAVITY PRESSURE RISE

WITH INDUCER

SEAL CAVITY PRESSURE RISE

WITH INDUCER

WITHOUT INDUCER

WITHOUT INDUCER SPEED - RPM

FLOW - GPM TYPICAL CURVE SHAPE FOR SEAL CAVITY PRESSURE RISE vs. FLOWRATE (FOR ILLUSTRATION ONLY)

TYPICAL CURVE SHAPE FOR SEAL CAVITY PRESSURE RISE vs. SPEED (FOR ILLUSTRATION ONLY)

MECHANICAL SEAL CROSS SECTION

Mechanical Seal Cross Section


STATIONARY FACE CARBON ROTATING FACE (TUNGSTEN CARBIDE)
ao

RETAINER SPRINGS
ac

PRIMARY SEAL (SEAL INTERFACE)

SECONDARY SEAL TEFLON WEDGE OR O-RING

PROCESS MECHANICAL SEALS

SEALS ARE BALANCED Mathematical definition b=Ac/Ao

EXTERNALLY PRESSURIZED : HIGHER PRESSURE AT NOSE O.D HARD FACE ROTATES FLEXIBLE ELEMENT IS STATIONARY API 682

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SEAL

PRIMARY RELATES TO INTERFACE OF NOSE AND ROTATING FACE SECONDARY RELATES TO O-RING OR WEDGE RING PRIMARY SEAL INSPECTED WHEN PROBLEMS ARISE SECONDARY SHOULD ALSO BE CAREFULLY INSPECTED

SEAL TYPE AND ARRANGEMENT

ROTATING FACE IN A SUNDYNE IS THE HARD FACE SEAL NOSE IS STATIONARY PART CONTRARY TO PRACTICE IN MOST CENTRIFUGALS SEAL TYPE CATEGORIZED 8AB, 9AB OR BELLOWS 9AB=WEDGE RING 8AB=O-RING

SEAL FACE MATERIALS

CARBON VS TUNGSTEN CARBIDE. BY FAR MOST COMMON OTHER MATERIALS SUCH AS SiC AVAILABLE RA = PURBIDE 658RC OR EQUIV RW = P-75 EXTREME CORROSIVE. ie HF RH = P-87 HOT WATER>300F

ROTATING FACE MATERIALS

RE = TUNGSTEN CARBIDE WITH COBALT- WIDE RANGE USE

RJ = TUNGSTEN CARBIDE WITH NICKEL- WATER, AMMONIA AND OTHERS

DISCLAIMER

THE SEAL ARRANGEMENTS MENTIONED AND DISPLAYED WITHIN THIS SECTION ARE CONSIDERED TO BE STANDARD THERE ARE VARIATIONS TO THESE ARRANGEMENTS WHICH MAY BE APPLICABLE, BUT NOT MENTIONED
SUNDSTRAND IS CONTINUALLY ENGINEERING NEW SEAL TECHNOLOGY

ARRANGEMENTS

SINGLE TANDEM - DUAL UNPRESSURIZED DOUBLE EASILY CHANGED ACCOMMODATE CHANGE OF OPERATING CONDITIONS OR SERVICE

SINGLE SEAL

MOST SIMPLE OPTION , LEAST EXPENSIVE OPTION CLEAN PROCESS, CLEAN FLUSH OR SEPARATOR NEEDED THROTTLE BUSHING STANDARD - DIRECTS LEAKAGE TO DRAIN PORTS, NEEDED WHEN QUENCH OR PURGE IS USED

SINGLE SEAL GEARBOX MATING RING

GEARBOX SEAL THROTTLE BUSHING

PROCESS SEAL

PROCESS SEAL MATING RING

SINGLE SEAL

SINGLE SEAL
THROTTLE BUSHING SLINGER SLEEVE ASSEMBLY

SPRING STATIONARY FACE WEDGE RING ROTATING FACE

TANDEM SEALS - DUAL UNPRESSURIZED USE WHEN PRESSURE EXCEEDS SINGLE CAPABILITY, OR TO MEET EMISSION STANDARDS

PROVIDE SHUTDOWN SIGNAL OR A BACK-UP SEAL


API PLAN 52 OR 53 BUFFER SYSTEM WITH LIQUID SEAL (except if upper seal is gas seal in case of volatile components) OPTIONAL UPPER GAS SEAL ARRANGEMENT ELIMINATES NEED FOR API 52 BUFFER SYSTEM

PRESSURIZE WET END (PUMP) FIRST, THEN SEAL

TANDEM SEALS - DUAL UNPRESSURIZED GEARBOX SEAL GEARBOX MATING RING

UPPER SEAL MATING RING UPPER SEAL

LOWER SEAL

LOWER SEAL

MATING RING

TANDEM SEALS - DUAL UNPRESSURIZED -

TANDEM SEAL
UPPER SHAFT SLEEVE

ROTATING FACE STATIONARY FACE

LOWER SHAFT SLEEVE

ROTATING FACE

TANDEM SEALS On site case

DOUBLE SEALS - DUAL PRESSURIZED CLEAN FLUSH NOT AVAILABLE, PROCESS FLUID CONTAMINATED HAZARDOUS/TOXIC PROCESS - NO OVERBOARD LEAKAGE TOLERATED MINUTE BUFFER LEAKAGE INTO PROCESS COMMON ROTATING FACE API PLAN 53 PRESSURIZED BARRIER SYSTEM.(2-3BAR>SCP)

PRESSURIZE BUFFER FIRST, THEN WET END (PUMP)

DOUBLE SEALS - DUAL PRESSURIZED GEARBOX SEAL GEARBOX MATING RING

UPPER SEAL PROCESS SEALS MATING RING

LOWER SEAL

DOUBLE SEALS - DUAL PRESSURIZED -

DOUBLE SEAL
UPPER SHAFT SLEEVE

STATIONARY FACE

ROTATING FACE

LOWER SHAFT SLEEVE SPACER

DOUBLE SEALS ON SITE CASE

API 53B PROVIDED CUSTOMER SUCTION PRESSURE = 10 Barg BUFFER RECOMMANDED PRESSURE = 40 Barg PROCESS LINED UP FIRST IN THE PUMP CASING AND THEN PRESSURIZING BUFFER POT SEALS ARE NOT ABLE TO RETAIN BUFFER LIQUID. WHY?

SHAFT SLEEVES

ALL SUNDYNE UNITS FEATURE DRY SHAFT DESIGN TORQUING OF IMPELLER IS MOST IMPORTANT SLEEVES- CORROSION RESISTANT MATERIAL. SEALED AT BOTH ENDS WITH O-RINGS. NO PROCESS FLUID ON SHAFT AXIAL COMPRESSION OF SLEEVES, MATING RINGS AND IMPELLER SLEEVE ENDS MUST BE PARALLEL AND FLAT

SHAFT SLEEVES

DIAL INDICATOR AND BASE


PARALLEL WITHIN 0.005 MM.

SURFACE PLATE

WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS PICTURE?

ROTATING FACE G.BOX OIL SEAL

SHAFT

HIGH-SPEED SHAFT ASSEMBLY

SLEEVE ROTATING FACE (OUTBOARD) ROTATING FACE (INBOARD)

IMPELLER

INDUCER

WHAT IS RIGHT ?

NO O-RING BETWEEN HSS AND GEARBOX SEAL ROTATING FACE YES, O-RINGS ARE INSTALLED BETWEEN ALL OTHERS HS ASSEMBLY STACK UP PARTS

GAS SEALS

SIMILAR TO PUMP SEALS- FIT THE SAME ENVELOPE BALANCED SEALS DIVIDED INTO LOW AND HIGH PRESSURE TYPES SPRINGS MAY BE NESTED COIL OR GARTER SPRING FORCE IS 25% OF WHAT IT IS IN PUMP SEALS

GAS SEALS

ALL HAVE SOME FORM OF LIFT-OFF PAD OR SCROLL TO PROVIDE GAS FILM LUBRICATION

ACTUALLY A CONTROLLED LEAKAGE DEVICE. MUST LEAK IN ORDER TO PERFORM SATISFACTORILY

SPIRAL GROOVE GAS SEAL

GAS SEALS

NEVER APPLY LUBRICANT TO GAS SEALS KEEP FINGERS OFF THE SEAL FACES! MAKE SURE SLEEVES ARE PARALLEL AND FLAT CHECK FREEDOM OF SEAL NOSE IN RETAINER. SPRING LOAD IS VERY LOW. NOSE MUST BE FREE

IDENTIFYING SEAL PROBLEMS

THERMAL DISTORTION
(Positive Rotation)

Buffer Cavity

HSS

Leak Paths
Seal Cavity

FLATNESS

POINT OF CONTACT*
1" 1"

POINT OF CONTACT*

The light bands are curved. The curve is one whole light band in one inch so the flatness is in error 11.6 millionths of an inch (.295mm) in one inch (25m) length. Since the lines curve toward the point of contact the surface is concave.

The light band curve shows two light bands between the end of the arc and the crown which means this part is out of flat 23.2 millionths of an inch (.589 m). Since the lines curve away from the point of contact the surface is convex two light bands in one inch or four light bands in two inches, six light bands in six inches, etc. In other words the error of the light band is directly proportional to the length.

FULL CONTACT PATTERN


Secondary seal leak?

CONTACT PATTERN MATING RING PRIMARY RING

CONING

POSSIBLE EDGE CHIPPING

NO CONTACT

HEAVY TO MODERATE CONTACT

SIMILAR PATTERN ON PRIMARY RING

DEFLECTION OF PRIMARY RING DUE TO PRESSURE

THERMAL DISTORTION
(Positive Rotation)

POSSIBLE EDGE CHIPPING

NO CONTACT

HEAVY TO MODERATE CONTACT SIMILAR PATTERN ON PRIMARY RING

DEFLECTION OF MATING OR PRIMARY RING DUE TO TEMPERATURE

MECHANICAL DISTORTION

HIGH SPOTS

EXCELLENT CONDITION AFTER SHORT STATIC AND DYNAMIC TESTS

NO CONTACT
POSSIBLE EROSION OF THE PRIMARY RING (WIRE DRAWING) IF ALLOWED TO REMAIN STATIONARY POSSIBLE EROSION OF THE PRIMARY RING (WIRE BRUSHING) IF ALLOWED TO ROTATE. OUT-OF-FLAT MATING SURFACE WILL CAUSE DIRT TO ENTER THE SEAL AREA

HIGH WEAR OR THERMALLY DISTRESSED SURFACE

SURFACE CRACKS REFERRED TO AS HEAT CHECKING

POSSIBLE EDGE CHIPPING ON OD AND ID

POSSIBLE WEAR AT DRIVE NOTCHES

PATCHES OF THERMALLY DISTRESSED SURFACES

GOOD CONTACT PATTERN DISTRESSED SURFACE OR HOT SPOT POSSIBLE WEAR AT DRIVE NOTCHES

HIGH WEAR AND GROOVING


POSSIBLE WEAR AT DRIVE NOTCHES

DEPTH OF GROOVE POSSIBLE EDGE CHIPPING OF SOFT CARBON PRIMARY RINGS. EDGES WILL BE ROUNDED FOR HARD MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION LIKE TUNGSTEN CARBIDE

FULL CONTACT PATTERN

OUT OF SQUARE MATING RING

HIGHLY POLISHED AREA POSSIBLE.

SLIGHTLY WIDER CONTACT AREA ON MATING RING

WEAR AT DRIVE NOTCHES

WIDE CONTACT PATTERN

WIDER THAN WIDTH OF PRIMARY RING FACE

WEAR AT DRIVE NOTCHES

SEAL RETAINER INSPECTION

CHECK ANTI-ROTATION PIN FOR WEAR SPRINGS SECONDARY SEAL BACKUP DISC

INSPECT FOR WEAR

INSPECT FOR RUBS

CHECK SEAL RETAINER CAREFULLY. CENTER POST, SECONDARY CONTACT AREA, RETAINER I.D., SPRINGS AND ETC.

WORKING HEIGHT

Working height

SEAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL

VERY IMPORTANT PART OF SEALING SYSTEM

ALL SEALS MUST LEAK !!!

PRESSURE DROP OVER MECHANICAL SEAL

PSC

PB

API PLANS

IMPORTANT TO CREATE A SEAL ENVIRONMENT THAT IS:


COOL CLEAN LUBRICATING

WITHIN PRESSURE CAPABILITY OF SEAL


PROCESS COMPATIBLE

API PLANS

Insure seal system is properly installed and functioning See API Plan Schematics in The SEAL BULLETIN API flush, buffer, cooling plans should be properly handled at manufacturing and installation

GEARBOX GEARBOX SEAL


PORT 1

DRAIN CAVITY
UPPER SEAL

PORT 2

BUFFER CAVITY PROCESS SEAL

PORT 7

PORT 6

SEAL CAVITY

PORT 5

PUMP DISCHARGE

PUMP SUCTION

PORT DESIGNATION

311 / 331
1: DRAIN 2: BUFFER OUT 3: COOLING MANTEL IN 4: COOLING MANTEL OUT 5: SEAL CAVITY (IN) 6: SEAL CAVITY (OUT) 7: BUFFER IN

322
1: DRAIN 2: BUFFER IN 3: N/A 4: N/A 5: SEAL CAVITY (IN) 6: SEAL CAVITY (OUT) 7: BUFFER OUT

API PLAN 11

GEARBOX

API PLAN 11

GEARBOX SEAL

DRAIN CAVITY FLUSH INTO PORT 5 OR 6

UPPERSEAL

7 BUFFER CAVITY 2
PROCESS SEAL

SEAL CAVITY

6
DISCHARGE

SUCTION

API PLAN 21

GEARBOX

API PLAN 21

GEARBOX SEAL
DRAIN CAVITY

7 BUFFER CAVITY 2
PROCESS SEAL

UPPERSEAL

COOLED FLUSH INTO PORT 5 OR 6

SEAL CAVITY

6
DISCHARGE

SUCTION

API PLAN 13

GEARBOX

API PLAN 13

GEARBOX SEAL

1 7 5

DRAIN CAVITY

UPPER SEAL
BUFFER CAVITY

2 6
DISCHARGE

PROCESS SEAL
SEAL CAVITY

SUCTION

API PLAN 31
GEARBOX

API PLAN 31

GEARBOX SEAL

DRAIN CAVITY UPPER SEAL

7 BUFFER CAVITY 2
PROCESS SEAL

SEAL CAVITY

6
DISCHARGE

SUCTION

API PLAN 31
RECIRCULATION FROM PUMP CASING (INTERNAL CYCLONE SEPARATOR)

LMV 801, 311, 331

API PLAN 41
GEARBOX

API PLAN 41

GEARBOX SEAL

1 7

DRAIN CAVITY UPPER SEAL BUFFER CAVITY PROCESS SEAL

SEAL CAVITY

6
DISCHARGE

SUCTION

API PLAN 52

GEARBOX GEARBOX SEAL

API PLAN 52

1 DRAIN CAVITY
2 BUFFER CAVITY 7
PROCESS SEAL
SEAL CAVITY UPPER SEAL

ADDITIONAL COOLING IMPROVES THERMOSYPHON EFFECT (OPTIONAL)

6
DISCHARGE

SUCTION

API PLAN 53

GEARBOX

API PLAN 53

GEARBOX SEAL 1
DRAIN CAVITY

ADDITIONAL COOLING IMPROVES THERMOSYPHON EFFECT (OPTIONAL)

2 BUFFER CAVITY 7 PROCESS SEAL 5 SEAL CAVITY 6


DISCHARGE

UPPER SEAL

SUCTION

API PLANS 52 & 53

RECIRCULATION FROM PRESSURIZED OR UNPRESSURIZED RESERVOIR TO SEAL HOUSING WITH PROCESS COMPATIBLE BUFFER FLUID (THERMOSYPHON/FORCED CIRCULATION WITH ROTATING SEAL FACE)

API PLAN 52/53 REQUIREMENTS

SLOPING LINES AVOID ELBOWS LIQUID TO ENTER BUFFER VESSEL IN LIQUID SIDE PROPERLY SIZED LINES SELECT PROPER PUMP CONNECTION PORTS

TO FLARE
GEARBOX

DRAIN PORT CONNECTIONS

GEARBOX SEAL

1
2 7

DRAIN CAVITY

UPPER SEAL
BUFFER CAVITY

OIL DRAIN

PROCESS SEAL

SEAL CAVITY

6
Discharge

Suction

COMBINATION OF PLANS

TO FLARE
GEARBOX
GEARBOX SEAL 1 DRAIN CAVITY

UPPER SEAL
2 7 BUFFER CAVITY PROCESS SEAL 5 SEAL CAVITY 6 DISCHARGE

OIL DRAIN

SUCTION

TYPICAL SEALS CONFIGURATIONS

List of pumps / compressor


TAKREER -- Technip Italy Seal configuration O-ring material Serial number Item number Duty Model Lower seal Upper seal API plans

PUMP
D-870217-1-A/B D-870217-3-A/B D-870217-4-A/B D-870217-6-A/B D-870217-8-A/B D-870217-10-A/B D-870217-12-A/B D-870217-14-A/B D-870217-16-A/B D-870217-18-A/B D-870217-20-A/B 14-G-022/S 15-G-020/S 15-G-021/S 402-G-004_A/B 409-G-004_A/B 413-G-003_A/B 415-G-004_A/B 415-G-005_A/B 415-G-009_A/B 415-G-010_A/B 418-G-107_A/B Wash water Lean Amine Slop oil Wash water Wash water Hydrocarbon Wash water Lean Amine Hydrocarbon Condensate Butane LMV-311 LMV-311 LMV-322 LMV-322 LMV-322 LMV-322 LMV-311 LMV-311 LMV-322 LMV-802 LMV-322 Single SE04AA47R Dual Pressurized SE04AA47R Dual Pressurized SE04AA12T Single SE04AA12A Single SE04AA12A Dual UnpressurizedSE04AA10A Single SE04AA12A Dual Pressurized SE04AA47R Single SE04AA12A Single SE044AA47M Dual UnpressurizedSE04AA10A SE04AA48P SE04AA18S 11 53 53 11 11 13 11 53 11 11 13 61 UD UD UC UC UC UC UC UD UC UD UC

61 61 61 61 61

SE04AD08F SE04AA48P

SE04AD08F

COMPRESSOR
Serial number C-240021-1-A Item number 413-K-102 Duty Blower Model Seal configuration Lower seal SE04AA07F Upper seal API plans O-ring material UC

LMC-311P Single

TO REMEMBER

What are the 3 seals configurations ? What is the working height of the mechanical seal? How to measure it? TRUE OR FALSE:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The seal cavity pressure rise is higher on a full emission pump. The seal selection is not related to the seal cavity pressure. The stationnary face of the seal is the hard face. It is necessary to change the seal housing to modify the seal configuration. All Sundyne seals can handle reverse pressure.

6.

Port 1 must be always opened.