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Fsica III

Campo Elctrico
MSc. Ing. Manolo Taquire De la Cruz
Divisin Metales Inkalloys Per S.A.

FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA


UTP - 2013 Fsica III

The Electric Field


Definition of the electric field. Whenever charges are present and if I bring up another charge, it will feel a net Coulomb force from all the others. It is convenient to say that there is field there equal to the force per unit positive charge. E=F/q0. The direction of the electric field is along r and points in the direction a positive test charge would move. This idea was proposed by Michael Faraday in the 1830s. The idea of the field replaces the charges as defining the situation. Consider two point charges: r q1 q0

UTP - 2013

Fsica III

r q1 The Coulomb force is F= kq1q0/r2 The force per unit charge is E = F/q0 and then the electric field at r is E = kq1/r2 due to the point charge q1 . The units are Newton/Coulomb. The electric field has direction and is a vector. How do we find the direction.? The direction is the direction a unit positive test charge would move. r E If q1 were positive + q0

q1

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Fsica III

q1
r

Point negative charge

q1

E= kq1/r2

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Fsica III

Like charges (++)

Electric Field Lines Opposite charges (+ -)

This is called an electric dipole.


UTP - 2013 Fsica III

Electric Field Lines: a graphic concept used to draw pictures as an aid to develop intuition about its behavior.
The text shows a few examples. Here are the drawing rules.

E-field lines begin on + charges and end on - charges. (or infinity). They enter or leave charge symmetrically. The number of lines entering or leaving a charge is proportional to the charge The density of lines indicates the strength of E at that point. At large distances from a system of charges, the lines become isotropic and radial as from a single point charge equal to the net charge of the system. No two field lines can cross.

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Fsica III

Find electric field due to a line of uniform + charge of length L with linear charge density equal to l
y
dE dEy dEx y 0 q x dq r dE = k dq /r2 dEy= dE cos q

Ex

L /2

L / 2

dE

-x -L/2

+x L/2

dq = ldx

dEy= k l dx cos q /r2

Ey= k l q cos q /r2 for a point charge dx/r2 = dq/y x= y tanq r =y sec q dx = y sec2 q dq r2 y2sec2 q

E y kl L / 2cosq dx / r 2
L /2

E y kl / y

q0

cosq dq

2 kl Ey sin q 0 y
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sinq 0

L /2 y 2 L2 /4
Fsica III

Field due to arc of charge


Ey
L /2 L / 2

dE

dEx= k dq cos q /r2 dEx= k l ds cos q /r2


q0

E x kl
Ex

L /2

L / 2

2 rd q cos q / r kl / r

q 0

dq cosq

s=r q ds=r dq

2kl sin q0 r

What is the field at the center of a circle of charge? Ans. 0


UTP - 2013 Fsica III

Find the electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring with linear charge density l Q/2pR.

Ez

dE cosq
ds

dq lds dE k 2 k 2 r r

kl cosq Ez r2

ds Rdq R dq 2pR
0 0

2p

2p

dq = lds

kl cosq Ez 2pR 2 r

s Rq
r2 =z2+R2 cos q z/r =0 at z=0 =0 at z=infinity =max at z=0.7R

kQz Ez 2 (z R 2 ) 3 / 2

UTP - 2013

Fsica III