Você está na página 1de 65

# WAVES

disturbance

## Carriers of energy; a disturbance that propagates through a medium.

The act of moving to a given direction and then returning it to its equilibrium position.

medium
a substance or material that carries the wave

MECHANICAL WAVES

SOUND WAVES

EARTHQUAKE WAVES

LIGHT WAVES

WAVES
ELECTROMAGNTIC WAVES

WATER WAVES

Waves are categorized on the basis of the direction of movement of the particles of the medium relative to the direction which the waves travel.

## Transverse waves Longitudinal waves Surface waves

TRANSVERSE WAVES

TRANSVERSE WAVES
Is a wave in which particles of the medium move in a direction perpendicular to the direction which the wave moves. Example: S waves (also known as secondary, or shear waves. Dont travel through fluids.)

LONGITUDINAL WAVES

LONGITUDINAL WAVES
Is a wave in which particles of the medium move in a direction parallel to the direction which the wave moves. Example: P waves (also know as primary, compressional or acoustic waves. Fastes kind of wave.

SURFACE WAVES

SURFACE WAVES
Is a wave in which particles of the medium undergo a circular motion. It is neither longitudinal nor transverse. Example: Rayleigh waves (Rolls along surface like a water wave. Large amplitude)

DIRECTION: Write the letter of the correct answer on the space provided. 1. A wave in which particles of the medium move in a direction parallel to the direction which wave moves. A. Electromagnetic wave C. Sound wave B. Longitudinal wave D. Transverse wave 2. A wave in which particles of the medium moves in a direction perpendicular to the direction which the wave moves. A. Electromagnetic wave C. Longitudinal wave B. Light wave D. Transverse wave 3. Surface wave is a wave in which particles of the medium undergo a motion. A. Circular C. Perpendicular B. Parallel D. Up and Down

DIRECTION: Write the letter of the correct answer on the space provided. 4. Carrier of energy; a disturbance that propagates through a medium. A. Pulse C. Wave B. Vibration D. Wave length 5. How do we know that waves carry energy? A. Due to its up and down movement. B. Due to its vibration. C. Particles vibrate alternately. D. Waves can set object into motion.

1. A wave in which particles of the medium move in a direction parallel to the direction which wave moves. A. Electromagnetic wave C. Sound wave B. Longitudinal wave D. Transverse wave 2. A wave in which particles of the medium moves in a direction perpendicular to the direction which the wave moves. A. Electromagnetic wave C. Longitudinal wave B. Light wave D. Transverse wave 3. Surface wave is a wave in which particles of the medium undergo a motion. A. Circular C. Perpendicular B. Parallel D. Up and Down

4. Carrier of energy; a disturbance that propagates through a medium. A. Pulse C. Wave B. Vibration D. Wave length 5. How do we know that waves carry energy? A. Due to its up and down movement. B. Due to its vibration. C. Particles vibrate alternately. D. Waves can set object into motion.

ASSIGNMENT
1. Define the following terms:
a. Wave length b. Amplitude c. Frequency 2. Draw and label the different parts of wave. (write it in short bond paper)

## Identify the parts of the wave

CRESTS
WAVE LENGTH

AMPLITUDE

INTERVAL

TROUGH

LONGITUDINAL WAVE

SURFACE WAVE

The length of one complete wave cycle. Can be measured as the distance from crest to crest or from trough to trough. refers to the maximum amount of displacement of a particle on the medium from its rest position. distance from rest to crest; rest to trough

WAVE LENGTH

AMPLITUDE

AMPLITUDE

is the point on the medium that exhibits the maximum amount of positive or upward displacement from the rest position

is the point on the medium that exhibits the maximum amount of negative or downward displacement from the rest position.

CRESTS

TROUGH

a point on a medium through which a longitudinal wave is traveling that has the maximum density. a point on a medium through which a longitudinal wave is traveling that has the minimum density.

refers to the number of waves that pass a particular point for every one seconds. The unit of frequency is the hertz(Hz); 1Hz= 1cycles/second

f =

A tennis coach paces back and forth along the sideline 10 times in 2 minutes. The frequency of her pacing is ________ Hz.

## Given: N cycles= 10 times

N seconds = 2 minutes (120 seconds)

Frequency

Frequency= 0.083 Hz

is the time required for one complete wave to pass a given point.

T=

## time such as seconds, hours, days or years.)

A tennis coach paces back and forth along the sideline 10 times in 2 minutes. The frequency of her pacing is 0.083 Hz. Find the period? Given: f= 0.083Hz T =
= . /

T = 12.048seconds

Is the distance traveled by the wave per second. Wave speed = (frequency) * (wavelength) Unit of measurement is meter/second (m/s)

F= you observed an anchored Supposed boat rise and fall once every 5.0 seconds F= .

## as0.2 waves F= Hz crests are 30 meters apart pass

by it. What the speed of the waves?

speed (Frequency) ( wave length) Wave Given: N=cycle= 1; N*seconds= 5.0 wave speedwave = (0.2 Hz) * (30 meters) seconds; crests= 30 meters wave speed = 6 m/s

## Wave speed = (frequency)*(wave length)

L

1. The wavelength of the wave in the diagram above is given by letter ______. 2. The amplitude of the wave in the diagram above is given by letter _____.

3. A period of 5.0 seconds corresponds to a frequency of ________ Hertz. 4. The period of the sound wave produced by a 40 Hertz tuning fork is ___________. 5. What are the two parts of longitudinal wave?

L

1. The wavelength of the wave in the diagram above is given by letter ______. A 2. The amplitude of the wave in the diagram D above is given by letter _____.

3. A period of 5.0 seconds corresponds 0.2 Hertz. to a frequency of ________ 4. The period of the sound wave produced by a 40 Hertz tuning fork is 0.025seconds ___________. 5. What are the two parts of longitudinal wave?

Compression; rarefaction

1. What is electromagnetic wave? 2. What is mechanical wave? 3. Differentiate electromagnetic wave from mechanical wave. 4. Give example of electromagnetic wave.

a wave that is not capable of transmitting its energy through a vacuum. It requires a medium in order to transport their energy from one location to another. Examples: Sound wave, slinky wave, water waves, stadium waves, jump rope waves, earthquake waves

A wave that is capable of transmitting its energy through a vacuum (empty space) Doesnt require a medium for their passage. Example: radio waves, visible light, gamma rays, x-ray, ultraviolet rays

is a wave that is created by vibrating objects and propagated through a medium from one location to another. sound wave is transported from one location to another by means of particleto-particle interaction. Sound wave is an example of longitudinal wave (mechanical wave)

## Sound travel FASTEST in SOLIDS.

Sound travel SLOWEST in GASES. LIQUIDS are better transmitter of sound than gases.

The highness and lowness of sound. A high pitch sound corresponds to a high frequency sound wave. A low pitch sound corresponds to a low frequency sound wave.

1. Sound waves are Mechanical waves that needs a medium for sound to propagate. 2. Vibration of the medium creates a series of compression and rarefaction which result to 3. Longitudinal wave . 4. Sound can travel in all media but not in a vacuum . 5. Sound is fastest in matter that is closely pack (solid) and slowest in gas.

Explain how does the following affects the sound speed. a. Atmospheric temperature b. Humidity c. Atmospheric pressure

## SPEE Sound speed is dependent on several factors such as:

a. Atmospheric pressure b. Relative humidity c. Atmospheric temperature

High values of these elements leads to faster moving sound except humidity.

## Speed of sound basically depends on: a. Elastic property b. Inertial property.

Is concerned with the ability of the material to retain/maintain its shape and not to deform when a forced is applied on it. Solids as compared to liquids and gases have the highest elastic property. The greater the elastic property, the faster the sound waves travel.

Is the tendency of the material to maintain its state of motion. More inertial property means the more inert (more massive or greater mass density) the individual particles of the medium, the less responsive they will be to interact between neighboring particles and the slower that the sound wave will be.

HUMAN EAR

The ear is part of the peripheral auditory system. Divided into 3 major parts:
outer ear middle ear inner ear

The folds of cartilage surrounding the ear canal are called the pinna. Pinna collects the sound waves and focuses them into the ear canal. Ear canal amplifies the sound and transmits the sound wave to the eardrum (tympanic membrane)

Sound waves traveling through the ear canal will hit the tympanic membrane, or eardrum. Air vibrations set the eardrum in motion that causes the three smallest bone to move:
malleus (hammer), incus (anvil) and stapes (stirrup)

These three bones convert the smallamplitude vibration of the eardrum into large-amplitude oscillations. These oscillations are transferred to the inner ear through the oval window

Behind the oval window is a snail-shell shaped liquid-filled organ called the cochlea. The large-amplitude oscillations create waves that travel in liquid. These sound are converted into electrical impulses which are sent to the brain by auditory nerve. The brain interprets these signals as words, music or noise.

Human ear can only sense within the frequency range of about 20Hz- 20, 000Hz

High-frequency sound waves, usually greater than 20, 000 Hz. Ultrasonic waves are used to help physicians see our internal organ by means of ultrasonic technology. Bats use ultrasonic ranging techniques to detect their pray (100k Hz ).

Extremely low-frequency sound waves, usually less than 20 Hz down to 0.001 Hz. This frequency range is utilized by seismograph for earthquake monitoring.

Is a psychological sensation that differs from different people. Loudness is subjective but still related to the intensity of sound. A logarithmic scale is used to describe sound intensity. The unit of intensity level for sound is decibel (dB), which was named after Alexander Graham Bell. On the decibel scale, an increase of 1 dB means that sound intensity is increased by a factor of 10.

1. Identify the 3 major parts of ear outer, middle and inner ear 2. What are the three smallest bones in human Malleus (hammer), incus (anvil) and ear? stapes (stirrup) 3. Match column A to column B A B A. outer ear A 1. pinna B. middle ear C 2. oval window C. inner ear A 3. ear canal C 4. cochlea B 5. incus (anvil)