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Educational Methods

Unit 5

What instructional methods have you been exposed to??

in high school? in college? in non-formal settings?

Analogies

Teaching is like fishing

You use different lures for different fish You use different methods for different learners.
Where, instructional methods are the instruments When played alone they make sound When played together in tune, rhythm, and feeling, they become amazing music!

Teaching is like beautiful music

Analogies

Toolbox

What is in your toolbox?

Selecting and Using a Variety of Instructional Methods

Instructional objectives:
Define method of Instruction Discuss factors to consider when selecting a method of instruction Distinguish between methods of instruction and instructional aids Identify & discuss a variety of teaching methods

What is a Method?

a procedure or process for attaining an object: as

a (1) : a systematic procedure, technique, or mode of inquiry employed by or proper to a particular discipline or art (2) : a systematic plan followed in presenting material for instruction b (1) : a way, technique, or process of or for doing something (2) : a body of skills or techniques

Teaching Method

Objective oriented activities and flow of information between teachers and students

Methods, Strategy, Aid, Approach

Teaching Method tend to be synonymous with technique according to Webster Teaching Strategy careful plan that serves an important function in achieving a specific outcome. Instructional aids includes: Chalkboard, Flip chart, PowerPoint Overheads, VCR, Real Objects, etc. Teaching Approach is a holistic process Includes the teaching steps, problemsolving strategies, and teaching methods.

Teaching Methods

Lecture-Explaining Resource People Case Study Group Discussion Brainstorming & Buzz Groups Field-trip (tour)

Additional Methods/Strategies

Others

Directed (supervised) study Role-Play Socratic Dialogue Jigsaw Concept Map/Sketch Debate Cooperative Learning Panel of Experts

What Factors do we consider when selecting an instructional method? The intended specific outcome or purpose Size of group Learners preference for learning The content sometimes dictates the method Required preparation

Instructional/Teaching Methods vs. Instructional Aids?

Assist the teacher in the teaching/learning process


White board Handouts Props Pictures/Video Audio Computer based simulation Models Others?

Lets Try Some


Tools for your teaching tool box

Incorporating Problemsolving (Decision-making) Techniques Into Instruction

P-S (Decision-Making) Techniques

Forked-Road Possibilities Factors Situation to be Improved Effect, Find the Cause

Forked-Road DecisionMaking Technique

Essential Elements of a Forked-Road Technique are:

A problem where a learner must decide between two possible choices of action Must have factors to consider Must make a decision based upon the factors considered

Before engaging in a problem-solving (decisionmaking)

The problem (opportunity) must be defined!

Need to ask yourself, What is the problem?

Usually proposed in question form

Often, the problem is derived from a situation, or scenario.


case study May be real or contrived

Class Exercise

Scenario

You have been hired in a new position and your supervisor tells you that the company will purchase you a new computer.

Your supervisor explains that you can spend up to $2150.00 on a new desktop computer and software. Furthermore, because of existing purchasing agreements you must select between Dell and Gateway.

The choice is yours, however your supervisor has requested a decision in two days.

What is the decision you need to make?

Should I purchase Dell computer or a Gateway computer?

Forked Road Template


Forked-Road Problem-Solving Technique Define the Problem / Decision to be Made:

Choice One

Choice Two

Factors to Consider

Decision / Recommendation:

What if we have more than two choices?

Possibilities-Factors!

Possibilities-Factors Template
Possibilities-Factors Problem-Solving Technique Define the Problem / Decision to be Made:

Possibilities (Possible Solutions)

Factors to Consider

Decision / Recommendation:

Forked Road or Possibilities Factors?


1. 2. 3.

4.
5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10.

Selecting between turf grass and natural grass. Choosing a greenhouse covering. Determining whether to attend the National Convention. Selecting from among seed varieties. Determining best pest control. Selecting a career choice. Promoting a management practice. Determining whether to invest in new equipment. Selecting lumber types. Choosing a path of action.

Instructional Tips
1. 2. 3.

Get learners to define the problem (best)

Or, you define the problem

Record for all to see Use the template to facilitate the problemsolving (decision-making) effort

Complete the template yourself

4.
5.

6.
7.

Assist students in identifying the factors to consider Provide the resources for seeking out information on the possibilities Have students identify a solution Allow students to share their solution with rationale for their choice

Integrating reading, speaking, listening and writing skills

Jigsaw

Is a teaching technique invented by social psychologist Elliot Aronson in 1971. Students of a normal-sized class (26 to 33 students) are divided into competency groups of four to six students, each of which is given a list of subtopics to research. Individual members of each group then break off to work with the "experts" from other groups, researching a part of the material being studied, after which they return to their starting body in the role of instructor for their subcategory. The strategy is an efficient teaching method that encourages listening, engagement, interaction, peer teaching, and cooperation by giving each member of the group an essential part to play in the academic activity. Both individual and group accountability are built into the process. Jigsaws are a four-skills approach, integrating reading, speaking, listening and writing.

Team 1

Team 2

Team 3

Team 4

Each team provides one expert to form a panel

Expert Panels A A1+A2+A3+A4


Expert Panels B B1+B2+B3+B4

Expert Panels C C1+C2+C3+C4


Expert Panels D D1+D2+D3+D4

Teams regroup for peer teaching and report writing

Team 1

Team 2

Team 3

Team 4

Lets Try it

You have each been given a First, all the #s get into teams 1 Second, you will be experts on the events of the Olympic Games and meet by color (blue, orange, purple, yellow) Third, get back together in # Teams and share 4 facts about your event with the others in your team

Closure

Select the right tool for the right job Variety is valued Method is determined by many factors Include instructional aids to add variety & clarity