UNIT 7

AID & DEVELOPMENT

INTRODUCTION

More Economically Developed Countries (MEDCs) have high levels of economic development compared with Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs). Many MEDCs make allowance in their domestic budgets to provide aid to LEDCs. Many charities also exist to provide aid to LEDCs.

TYPES OF AID  Emergency or short-term aid needed after sudden disasters such as the 2013 Philippines or the Japan tsunami (Fukushima power station disaster). Conditional or tied aid .funded by donations from the public through organisations such as   . This involves giving out food . Charitable aid .when one country donates money or resources to another (bilateral aid) but with conditions attached.shelter and medical assistance.

 Long-term or development aid - involves providing local communities with education and skills for sustainable development.  Multilateral aid . .given through international organisations such as the World Bank rather than by one specific country. usually through organisations such as Practical Action.

Below are some of the arguments for and against the provision of aid to LEDCs. aid can bring long-term problems as well as advantages to the recipient country. .ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF AID Sometimes.

medicines and equipment can improve health and standards of living.ARGUMENTS FOR GIVING AID Emergency aid in times of disaster saves lives.  Aid helps rebuild livelihoods and housing after a disaster  Provision of medical training.  .

 .  Encouraging aid industrial development can create jobs and improve transport infrastructure.  Aid can support countries in developing their natural resources and power supplies.Aid for agriculture can help increase food production and so improve the quality and quantity of food available.

 Projects that develop clean water and sanitation can lead to improved health and living standards. Sometimes projects do not benefit smaller farmers and projects are often large scale. The country may end up owing a donor country or organisation a favour.   . Aid can be used to put political or economic pressure on the receiving country.

Corruption may lead to local politicians using aid for their own means or for political gain. but a loan.ARGUMENTS AGAINST GIVING AID  Aid can increase the dependency of LEDCs on donor countries. and poor countries may struggle to repay. Aid may not reach the people who need it most.  . Sometimes aid is not a gift.

Some development projects may lead to food and water costing more.   It may be a condition of the investment that the projects are run by foreign companies or that a proportion of the resources or profits will be sent abroad.  .Infrastructure projects may end up benefiting employers more than employees.

These are often built on land not fit for development such as steep slopes or marshland which is vulnerable to floods and . mainly in LEDCs. Homeless people in LEDCs often build makeshift shelters in shanty towns.Case study: Practical Action shelter project One fifth of the world's population are either homeless or live in poor housing.

Practical Action is a charity which helps communities to learn the skills they need to build better quality housing using their own labour. . Practical Action has succeeded in changing government policy on housing in Kenya. local authorities recognise houses that have been made from inexpensive materials as proper dwellings. Now. local resources and traditional techniques.

.Practical Action also aim to improve basic services and infrastructure. Their involvement has also given them a sense of ownership and responsibility. they can apply their skills in continuing to improve their surroundings. As local people have been consulted from the outset.

Their work is an example of sustainable development .a development which minimises damage to the environment or local resources. .

PRACTICE 1. Which one of the following is a key question that should be asked when evaluating development projects? a) b) c) d) e) What are the environmental impacts? What are the economic impacts? What are the social impacts? What are the political impacts? All of the above .

2. If you are studying how a project will change people's lives and if people will need to move house or job .what sort of impacts are you examining? a) b) c) d) Environmental Economic Social Political .

3. If you are trying to decide whether a project will make a country richer or more industrialised .what sort of impacts are you examining? Environmental Economic Social Political a) b) c) d) .

4. What do we call the approach to development that attempts to minimise the negative impacts of development? a) b) c) d) Essential development Industrial development Sustainable development Renewable development .

Which of these will NOT improve the quality of life for people in LEDCs? a) b) c) d) Exploitation of natural resources Development through industrialisation Aid from MEDCs Increasing the national debt .5.

What do we call aid that is given from one country to another.6. in the form of money. goods or services? a) b) c) d) e) Non-governmental aid Multilateral aid Bilateral aid Unilateral aid Tied aid .

What do we call aid that comes from several different countries. often channelled through agencies such as the World Bank? a) b) c) d) e) Non-governmental aid Multilateral aid Bilateral aid Unilateral aid Long-term aid .7.

All of the above. Sometimes aid comes with conditions attached. The money can only be spent on goods and services from the donor country. . The donor may insist that economic reforms are introduced.8. Companies from the donor country have to be allowed to set up in or sell goods in the LEDC. Which of the following is an example of a possible condition attached to tied aid? a) b) c) d) e) The donor may specify how the money is spent.

9. Non-governmental aid comes from what sort of organisation? Government Charities Farmers Fair trade a) b) c) d) .

Can you spot the one that isn't an advantage? a) b) c) d) e) Emergency aid in times of disaster saves people's lives. Aid helps to rebuild housing and livelihoods after a disaster. Provision of medical training. . Corruption may lead to local politicians stealing aid. Aid for agriculture can help to increase food production and so improve quality and quantity of food. medicines and equipment can improve health and standards of living. Four of the statements below are advantages of giving aid.10.

Aid may not reach the people who need it most. There can also be disadvantages when giving aid. Aid may end up benefiting employers more than employees. Which of the statements below is NOT a disadvantage? a) b) c) d) e) Aid can increase dependency of LEDCs on donor countries.11. . Projects can lead to improved health and living standards. Inappropriate projects may lead to food and water costing more.

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