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EXAMINATION

Examination in 5 (or 8) Parts


(Each part has a 70% pass mark)
1. Technical Paper (1h 15min)
6 Questions given (4 answers required) Question #1 must be answered Answer 3 other questions from the remaining 5 questions

2.

Interpretation of Welding Symbols (1h)


Engineering drawing has welding symbols for 12 joints Interpret the symbols & comment on any errors or inconsistencies

3.

Fracture Face Examination (1h)


Examine fracture faces of 2 specimens & interpret modes of failure

4.
5.

NDT Reports (1h)


Scrutinise 3 NDT Reports & list all errors and all omissions

Oral (~ 10 to 15 min) 1 Question: - subject will be related to supervision of welding inspectors or to safety matters
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EXAMINATION
Examination in 5 (or 8) Parts
(Each part has a 70% pass mark)
If a candidate for the Senior Welding Inspector Examination does not hold a recognised qualification in Radiographic Interpretation (a CSWIP or PCN Certificate) he is required to sit 3 additional examination parts, namely: 6. Radiographic Interpretation (1h 30min)
6 dense metal welds - steel

7.

Multi-Choice Radiographic Theory Paper (30min)


30 questions

8.

Radiographic Density & Sensitivity (1h)


Densitometer calibration using a Density Strip Sensitivity calculations for 5 welds

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THE SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR


A Senior Welding Inspector may be Senior through being put in charge of a team of Welding Inspectors. In this role he may have a predominantly managerial role that requires organising and supervising their work and so may have title of Team Leader or Supervisor. In other circumstances he may have a more technically demanding role that requires detailed knowledge of particular activities. The CSWIP Senior Welding Inspector Course is intended to cover aspects of both these roles.

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THE SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR


TYPICAL REQUIREMENTS - TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE
Welding Technology

(Welding Inspector . plus)


NDT Techniques

( ability to carry out / interpret)


Codes/Application Standards

(ability to interpret)
Planning Systems

(ability to understand and also supply inspection scheduling to project schedule)


Quality Assurance

(ability to plan & carry out some auditing) World Centre for Materials Joining Technology

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THE SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR


LEADERSHIP / SUPERVISION
A Supervisor is a person who has been given authority and responsibility for: planning the work of others controlling this work A Supervisor is a man in the middle between operators and management and subject to pressures from both directions

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THE SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR


LEADERSHIP
Is leadership an ability that a person is born with or can it be acquired !!!!!! ????? Personality is very influential - hence leadership sometimes considered to be in the genes and a person referred to as a born leader Ability to be a good leader can be improved by experience & from knowledge of management techniques through training

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THE SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR


TYPICAL REQUIREMENTS - LEADERSHIP SKILLS / ABILITY
Complex mixture of skills & attitudes - such as
being prepared to accept responsibility willing to direct the work of others willing, and able, to delegate tasks to others having a commitment to ones staff able to solve / overcome problems (from greater & wider experience) able to do all (or most of) the work done by ones staff able to communicate - downwards & upwards within the Company

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THE SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR


What Makes a Good Leader / Supervisor ?
Qualities that are associated with a Good Supervisor are: has good technical skill & knowledge and good at solving problems
has ability to quickly determine priorities
is intelligent and confident shows good judgement has enthusiasm for work and is usually cheerful & optimistic

sets a good example at work - high standards - leads by example


has no favourites and able to apply discipline fairly is approachable - good listener - and prepared to consult staff informs staff of important decisions affecting them and backs his team

is able to identify needs of team and obtain equipment and training


good at planning and delegation
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THE SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR


Morale & Motivation of Staff What are the signs of low morale in the work place ? Compile a List How can morale be raised ? Apply good leadership qualities - list actions

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PRODUCTION PLANNING
T = Tier

PRESSURE VESSEL FABRICATION N3

H = Head
N = Nozzle

T1 N1 H1 W1

T2

T3 W2 H2

S1
W = Wrapper plate S = Saddle
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N2

S2

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PRODUCTION PLANNING
PRESSURE VESSEL: Typical Production Sequence
1. Prepare drawings & material list 2. Order materials - plate 3. 4. 5. - fittings - heads - welding consumables 11. Fit & weld - N1 + H1

12. Mark out, cut & roll wrapper plates 13. Weld W1 & W2 to shell plates 14. Fit & weld nozzles N2 & N3 15. Cut, assemble & weld saddles S1 & S2 16. Fit & weld S1 & S2 to W1 & W2 17. Carry out all final inspection 18. Pressure test 19. Blast & paint 20. Deliver

6. Mark out, cut & roll shell plates 7. Weld longitudinal seams
8. Fit & weld 9. - T3 to H2 - T2 to (T3 H2)

10.

- N1 + H1

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PRODUCTION PLANNING
PRESSURE VESSEL: Typical Production Sequence Bar Chart or Gantt Chart
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Drawings Material procurement - plate - fittings - heads - welding consumables Mark, cut & roll shell plates Weld longitudinal seams Fit & weld T3 to H Fit & weld T2 to T3H2 Fit & weld N1 to H1 Fit & weld N1H1 to T2T3H2 Cut & roll W1 & W2 Weld W1 & W2 to shell Fit & weld N2 & N3 Cut, assemble & weld S1 & S2 Fit & weld S1 & S2 to W1 & W2 Complete final Inspection Pressure test Shot blast & paint Deliver

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Can use forward or reverse-schedule planning


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OPERATION

Welding Procedure Qualification


A Preliminary Welding Procedure Specification (pWPS) is written for each test weld required

Welder makes a test weld in accordance with the pWPS Welding Inspector records all welding details used for making the test weld (as-run details)

(EN standard states that an Independent Examiner or Examining Body or a Third Party Inspector may be required to monitor the qualification process)
Finished test weld is subjected to NDT by the specified methods

(EN Standard requires visual, MT or PT & RT or UT)

Test weld subjected to destructive testing according to specified methods Application Standard or Client may require additional tests such as impact tests, hardness tests (for some materials - corrosion tests) Welding Procedure Qualification Record (WPQR) prepared giving range of qualification allowed by the Welding Standard (EN or ASME IX) WPQR package submitted to Independent Examiner for endorsement (& usually to Client)

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Welder Qualification
A WPS is written for a each test weld required

Welder makes a test weld in accordance with the WPS Welding Inspector checks that weld is made according to the WPS requirements

(EN standard states that an Independent Examiner or Examining Body or a Third Party Inspector may be required to monitor the qualification process)
Finished test weld is subjected to NDT by the specified methods

(EN Standard requires visual, MT or PT & RT or UT)

Test weld may need to be destructive tested for certain materials or welding processes

A Welder Qualification Certificate is prepared giving range of qualification allowed by the Welding Standard (EN or ASME IX) The Welder Qualification certificate is submitted to Independent Examiner for endorsement

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Destructive Testing
WELD PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION TESTING (example)
1 2 3 4 5 SPECIMEN TYPE 6 7 8 macro + hardness transverse tensile Charpy weld metal Charpy fusion line POSITIONS 1, 9, 11 2, 8, 10, 12 3, 5, 6 4, 7

12 11

pipe diameters > 323.9mm

10 9

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Destructive Testing
QUANTITATIVE TESTS & QUALITATIVE TESTS
QUANTITATIVE TESTS

for measuring a quantity ( quantity = a mechanical property )


typical mechanical tests - tensile test - hardness test - Charpy V-notch test (& CTOD) QUALITATIVE TESTS for assessing joint quality (quality = good fusion & free from defects) typical qualitative tests - bend tests

- macro examination
(micro examination for some metals)

- fillet fracture & nick-break tests


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Destructive Testing
Tensile Testing - Transverse Tensile Test
gauge length

weld

Position of failure not usually in weld metal but in base material or HAZ

TEST OBJECTIVE To measure the Tensile Strength of the welded joint


RESULTS Satisfactory if Tensile Strength greater than min. specified for base metal

(Some standards accept 95% of base material Tensile Strength) World Centre for Materials Joining Technology

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Destructive Testing
Tensile Testing: All-Weld Tensile Test

from WPQ test piece

electrode classification test piece

gauge length: all weld metal

TEST OBJECTIVE To measure Yield Strength & Tensile Strength of weld metal
(% Elongation also measured & usually also % Reduction of Area)

RESULTS Satisfactory if all values are not less than minimum specified for base metal (or required by desig) at ambient or at elevated temperature
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Destructive Testing
MECHANICAL TESTING: Charpy V-notch Test Positions
For each notch position 3 specimens are tested . May need to take test pieces from weld metal, fusion line, fusion line + 2, fusion line + 5 from both weld faces and from root - total of 36 tests weld metal (surface)

weld metal (root)

fusion line + 5mm

fusion line

fusion line + 2mm

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Destructive Testing
MECHANICAL TESTING: Charpy V-notch Impact Testing TEST OBJECTIVE
To measure the impact toughness of each region of the weld joint (weld metal, HAZ & base metal) at a specified temperature that is related to the service conditions RESULTS Satisfactory if all values are not less the minimum specified by the Application Standard
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Welding Technology
HAZ TOUGHNESS
Toughness
Charpy V-notch energy (Joules)

unwelded fine grained steel


no significant change in HAZ toughness if moderate heat input used

degraded HAZ

good toughness in steel at design temp. low toughness in HAZ at design temp. design temperature

HAZ toughness transition temp. has shifted to a higher temperature

(caused by high heat input welding)

Impact Test Temperature

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Welding Technology
THE HEAT AFFECTED ZONE (HAZ)
Maximum Temperature
solid weld metal solid-liquid transition zone

grain growth zone


recrystallised zone

partially transformed zone


tempered zone unaffected base material

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Destructive Testing
MECHANICAL TESTING: Hardness Testing
usually the hardest region ~1.5 to 3mm fusion line (fusion boundary) HAZ

HAZ

HARDNESS TEST METHODS


Vickers Rockwell Brinell example 248 HV10 example Rc 22 example 220 BHN-W (not usually used on macro sections)

TEST OBJECTIVE
RESULTS

To measure the max. hardness in the weld joint


(always in HAZ for steels)

Satisfactory if no values are above the max. specified by the Application Standard

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Welding Technology
HAZ Hardness of Carbon-Manganese Steels

HAZ Hardness
low heat-input welding tends to give a high HAZ hardness

intermediate heat-input will give satisfactory hardness

high heat-input welding tends to give a softer HAZ

fast
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Rate of Cooling of HAZ


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slow

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Welding Technology
HAZ Hardness of Low-Alloy Steels
(such as the higher Cr-Mo grades)

HAZ Hardness

low heat-input welding

high heat-input welding

HAZ hardness always high (> ~ 400 HV)

fast cooling

Time to Cool

slow cooling

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Destructive Testing
QUALITATIVE TESTS: Bend Tests for joint thicknesses < ~ 12mm

face in tension = face bend

root in tension = root bend

for joint thicknesses > ~ 12mm


full thickness of joint in tension = side bend
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Destructive Testing
QUALITATIVE TESTS: Fillet Fracture & Nick Break Tests Tests are used instead of radiography or ultrasonic examination to show

that satisfactory fusion has been achieve


that the weld is has no defects FILLET FRACTURE NICK-BREAK
machined slot

force

machined slot

fracture from root


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PWHT
Steels are given a PWHT to reduce residual stresses caused by welding [and also to temper (soften) the hardest regions of the HAZ] The main benefit of reducing residual stresses is to improve resistance to brittle fracture - explained as follows: Residual stresses can be higher than the max. allowed design stress and are powerful driving forces for propagating flaws (usually cracks) In the as-welded condition, the steel joint has a lower tolerance to flaws that may become initiation points for brittle cracks A crack that could cause brittle fracture is called a critical crack The size of a critical crack depends on the material toughness and total stress that the crack experiences in the joint (design + residual)

An as-welded joint may only be able to tolerate a small critical crack - possibly so small that it could be missed by RT or UT
When residual stresses are removed, a critical crack should be so big that it could not be missed during NDT and so would be repaired
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PWHT
Removal of Residual Stress

Yield Strength (N/mm2 )

500 400 300 200 100

Cr-Mo steel - typical

C-Mn steel - typical

At PWHT temp. the yield strength of steel reduced so that it it is not strong enough to give restraint. Residual stress reduced to very low level by straining

(typically < ~ 0.5% strain)

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Temperature (C)
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PWHT
Other Benefits of PWHT The toughness of the HAZ may be improved - particularly for the more hardenable low alloy steels & improves brittle fracture resistance Removal of residual stress will give steels resistance to stress corrosion cracking in certain media - for example in sour oil/gas, in ammonia or in contact with nitrates and chlorides It enables a welded component to be machined to accurate tolerances that may otherwise be impossible due constant re-balancing of tensile and residual stresses when metal is removed during machining. This may be referred to as a stabilising* PWHT
(* not to be confused with stabilised when referring to stabilising stainless steels by alloying additions of Nb or Ti)

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PWHT
PWHT Procedures - Basic Requirements
A PWHT should specify the following: The max. heating rate
usually from 300 or 400C depending on Code or item to ensure temp.

gradients are not excessive (up to ~ 200C/h max. may be allowed) distortion

large temp. gradients cause high stresses which may give cracking or

The soak temperature


depends on steel type and usually specified by Code (~550 to ~750 C )

The soak time


to ensure full thickness, and whole item, is at soak temp. Codes typically require 1h per 25mm of max. joint thickness

The max. cooling rate


usually to 400 or 300C - same reasons as for heating rate control
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PWHT
PWHT Procedures -Additional Considerations
Before a PWHT commences it is necessary to: Decide the number of thermocouple attachments and their positions
so that the temperature of the whole component is monitored

If the item needs to be given any additional support


to avoid distortion due to self-weight because it is relatively weak at

the soak temp.

For Localised PWHT


Need to also specify: The width of the heated band
to ensure that residual stresses at a distance from the weld are removed

The width of the temp. decay bands beyond the heated zone
to ensure high stresses are not produced by large temperature gradients

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Post Weld Heat Treatment


Localised PWHT
PWHT procedures also need to also specify: The width of the heated band
to ensure that residual stresses at a distance from the weld are removed

should be specified by Code

The width of the temp. decay bands beyond the heated zone
to ensure high stresses are not produced by large temperature gradients should be specified by Code - usually same width as heated band

The position of the thermocouples to monitor the width of heated bands and the temp. gradient in the decay bands
temp. decay heated band temp. decay

pipeline weld
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Cracking in Weld Joints


RE-HEAT CRACKING
Cracking that occurs when weld joints in certain steels when they are being heated to their PWHT temperature or are put into elevated temp. service without PWHT

( this gives this type of cracking the name re-heat )


Susceptible PWHT temp.range ~ 500 to ~ 650C or service 350 - 550 C Cracking occurs in the HAZ - usually in the zone that has the largest grain size (the grain growth zone nearest to the fusion line) grain growth zone

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Cracking Mechanisms
RE-HEAT CRACKING
Re-heat cracking occurs because: some strengthening of the steel occurs during heating to the PWHT temp. (or if in as-welded condition while in service at an elevated temp.) strengthening occurs by carbide formation
- steels with Vanadium, Chromium and Molybdenum are most susceptible because these elements are strong carbide formers

the carbides & nitrides strengthen the grains so that relief of residual stresses takes place by all the strain concentrating at the weaker grain boundaries
if the steel contains certain levels of impurities (such as Tin, Arsenic & Phosphorus) they concentrate at the grain boundaries and reduce their rupture strength the presence of large grains in the HAZ means that the impurities are more concentrated and such regions become the most sensitive to cracking
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Cracking Mechanisms
AVOIDING RE-HEAT CRACKING
The risk of re-heat cracking can be minimised by: using steel that has very low impurity levels various formulas have been developed to relate sensitivity to cracking to levels of impurities for particularly sensitive steels (usually those with higher Vanadium) ensure that: weld bead positions and heat input are controlled to give a fine grained HAZ (temper-beading) avoid stress concentrations - poor fit-up and sharp weld toes heat through the sensitive temperature range quickly during PWHT

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Quenched & Tempered Steels


Q & T STEELS
Steels that are strengthened by rapid cooling from an elevated temperature (quenching) Quenching temperature depends on steel composition but typically ~900C Steels are very strong in the quenched condition but ductility and toughness usually too low for any application Tempering reduces the as-quenched strength and gives usable ductility and toughness

Tempering temperatures typically ~550 to 760C


Strengthening by quenching is achieved by certain alloying additions that allow the stronger phases (martensite & bainite) to form (rather than the ferrite) The % of the alloying elements that allow strengthening must be high enough to allow the stronger phases to form through the full thickness For some steels, the alloying levels need to be higher in thick sections to ensure through- hardening
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Quenched & Tempered Steels


EXAMPLES of Q & T STEELS
Typical Mechanical Properties STEEL TYPE AISI 4130 UNS G41300 W. Nr. 1.7218 ASTM A 505, 646 AISI 8630 UNS G86300 W. Nr. 1.6545 ASTM A 322, 331, 505 AISI 4140 UNS G41400 W. Nr. 1.7225 ASTM A 322, 331, 505, 519, 646 AISI 4340 UNS G43400 W. Nr. 1.6565 ASTM A 332, 505, 519, 547, 646 C Si Mn Cr Mo Ni Nb V
Yield / 0.2%PS (N/mm2) Tensile Strength (N/mm2) Elongation (% on 50mm)

0.04 0.28 0.33

0.40 0.60

0.8 1.1 0.15 0.25

water quenched & tempered at 595 to 480C (100mm round section) 540 to 655 703 to 800 20 to 25 water quenched & tempered at 595 to 480C (100mm round section)

0.15 0.30

0.70 0.90

0.40 0.60

0.40 0.70

495 to 595

660 to 780

21 to 26

0.70 1.00 0.38 0.43 0.15 0.30

0.80 1.10

0.15 0.25

oil quenched & tempered at 650 to 540C (100mm round section) 580 to 685 772 to 883 19 to 23 oil quenched & tempered at 650 to 540C (100mm round section) 786 to 1000 924 to 1138 16 to 20

0.60 0.80

0.70 0.90

0.20 0.30

1.65 2.00

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Quenched & Tempered Steels


EXAMPLES of Q & T STEELS
Other STEEL TYPE A 335-P91 X10CrMoVNb9-1 (steel number 1.4903) 12CrMoV11-1 (steel number 1.4922) A 335-P911 C Si Mn Cr Mo Ni Nb V N
Al 0.040 W 0.90 1.10

Mechanical Properties
Yield / 0.2%PS (N/mm2) Tensile Strength (N/mm2) Elongation (% on 50mm)

0.08 0.12 0.17 0.23 0.10 0.13

0.50

0.30 0.60 0.30 1.0 0.30 0.60

8.00 9.50 10.0 12.5 8.50 9.50

0.85 1.05 0.80 1.20 0.90 1.10

0.40 0.30 0.80 0.20 0.40

0.06 0.10 0.06 0.10

0.18 0.25 0.20 0.35 0.15 0.25

0.030 0.070 0.050 0.080

= 415

585

= 22

= 500

700 -850

= 16

0.40 0.10 0.30

= 440

= 620

= 22

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Quenched & Tempered Steels


EXAMPLES of Q & T STEELS

Typical Chemical Composition STEEL TYPE C


WELDOX 700 WELDOX 900 WELDOX 960 WELDOX 1100 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.21

Typical Mechanical Properties (t=25mm) Al


0.015 0.018 0.018 0.020

Si
0.60 0.50 0.50 0.50

Mn
1.60 1.60 1.60 1.40

Cr
0.70 0.70 0.70 0.80

Mo
0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70

Ni
2.0 2.0 2.0 3.0

Nb
0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04

V
0.09 0.06 0.06 0.08

Ti
0.04 0.04 0.04 0.02

Other
N (min) 0.0015 B (max) 0.005 N (min) 0.0015 B (max) 0.005 N (min) 0.0015 B (max) 0.005 N (min) 0.0015 B (max) 0.005

Yield/0.2%PS (N/mm2)

Tensile Strength (N/mm2)

Elongation (% on 50mm)

= 700 = 900 = 960 = 1100

780 - 930 940 - 1110


980 -1150 1250 - 1550

= 18 = 16 = 16 = 12

WELDOX is a registered Trade Name of SSAB Oxelosund

Chemical compositions and tensile properties of some HSLA steels used for structural applications

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Quenched & Tempered Steels


Welding of Q & T Steels

Alloying additions used to achieve strengthening also will give hardening of the HAZ Higher HAZ hardness give higher risk of cracking and the need to always use low Hydrogen welding processes and also the need to use pre-heat for most grades Higher HAZ hardness usually mean that many of these steels require PWHT to improve resistance to brittle fracture Careful control of heat input - not too high - may be needed for some steel types to avoid softening of the HAZ and loss of strength For the highest strength grades there may be difficulty in achieving matching strength weld metal that has good toughness and ductility

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Pre-Heat & Interpass Temperature


Pre-Heat Temperature
Applied to reduce risk of cracking - helps to allow H to escape from the weld joint and can reduce hardness of HAZ for some steels
Pre-heat temperature should be checked on both sides of the joint at a distance of at least 75mm from joint edge

Pre-heat should be checked on the other side from the pre-heated side - if access allows
If hand held gas pre-heating is used, temp. should be checked a short time after the heating torch has been removed

Interpass Temperature
This is the temp. at the position that the welder will re-start welding in a muti-run weld Temperature should be measured on the steel as close as practical to the re-start position (it can be taken on the weldat that point)
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