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6-Statements


Statement- a particular kind of sentence that
brings a message which can be either true or
false.

Ex) George Washington was the first president
of the United States.

Ex) Silvio Berlusconi was the first president of
the United States.

Look for “truth value” True or false
6-Statements

If there is no truth value then there is no
statement

Questions

Ex) Who wrote the book The Davinci Code?

Commands

Ex) Go get me an apple.

Nonsense

Ex) The round square sweetly kicked the green
yesterday.

Ex) This statement is false.
7-Self Supporting Statements

Self-supporting statement – a statement whose truth
value can be determined from the statement itself
1. Self-reports- a statement by a person concerning his or
her own desires, beliefs, or feelings
− Ex) I believe Nutella is delicious.
2a. Tautology - Statements which are true by logical
structure- Covers all the possibilities.
− Ex) This apple is red or it is not red.
2b. Self- contradiction-Statements which are false by
logical structure
− Ex) This apple is red and is not red.
7-Self Supporting Statements
3) Statements which are true or false by definition.
− Ex) All triangles are three-sided figures
− Ex) This triangle is an octagon
8-Supported Statements

Supported statement a statement whose truth value
depends on evidence or information from outside itself
1) Authority (look at recorded history)
− Ex) George Washinton rode a white horse.

2) Experience (trust our senses)
− Ex) It is raining outside

3) Deduction (reason based on other statements)
− Ex) The leaning tower will fall down.
8-Supported Statements
Statement

Self-Supporting Supported

Authority Experience Deduction

Self- report Logical Structure Defintion

Tautology Self-Contradiction
9-Relationships between
Statements
1) Consistency- When two statements are true at the same
time

Ex) George Washington was the first President.

George Washington was never in Egypt.

Inconsistent- Conflict between two statements

Ex) George Washington was never in Egypt.

George Washington spent his life in Egypt.
2) Implication- When the truth of the first statement requires the
truth of the other

Ex) All animals are made of cells.

Some animals are made of cells.

In logic “some” does not mean “others don't”
9-Relationships between
Statements
3) Logical equivalence- the first implies the second and the
second implies the first

Ex) No native born Italians are native born Chinese.

No native born Chines are native born Italians.

Ex) Some mammals are egg-layers

Some egg-layers are mammals


No S is P / Some S is P.
S is subject and P is predicate.
9-Relationships between
Statements
4) Independence- If the truth or falsity of one statement has
nothing to do with the truth or falsity of another statement
− Neither statement can imply the other
− The statements must be consistent

Ex) All tricycles have three wheels

George Washington was the first president of the U.S.
9-Relationships between
Statements
Relationships between Statements

Consistency Inconsistency

Implication Independence

Equivalence
10-Consistency and Disagreement

Disagreement- The appearance of inconsistency
1) Real disagreement- actual inconsistency between two
statements (they cannot be both true at the same time)
ex) I am Mr. Schvaneveldt.

I am not Mr. Schvaneveldt
2) Apparent disagreement- (OPINION OR PERCEPTION)

ex) Billy: I think logic is easy

Willy: I think logic is the hardest course I have ever
taken.
10-Consistency and Disagreement

3) Verbal disagreement- from different defintions of


the same word.
ex) Billy: One fifth of all high school graduates are illiterate

Willy: One third of all high school graduates are
illiterate


Famous ex) If a tree falls down in a forest, and nobody
hears it, does it make a sound?
11-The One Basic Verb

Verb of being is key to understand

Ex) No cows eat meat

No cows are meat-eaters

Be careful the same!!
− God is love.
− Love is blind.
− Ray Charles is blind.
− Therefore Ray Charles is God?

Is does not always mean =
11-The One Basic Verb

My little brother thows rocks.
1) Identify and write down the entire subject.

Ex) My little brother
2) Choose the proper “to be” verb.

Ex) My little brother is
3) Rewrite the entire predicate as a predicate nominative
Ex) My little brother is a rock-thrower

Mr. S rebuked Billy in class.

Mr. S is a Billy-in-class-rebuker.