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GPS, GAGAN & LBS

M.R.Sivaraman
Retd. Scientist
Space Applications Centre
Ahmedabad
What does GPS Provide ?

• It provides

1. Position – Latitude, Longitude and Height

2. Velocity – Velocity North, East and Up

3. Time – in UTC (Universal Time Coordinated)

• To any user Receiver in Land, air or sea

• This is often abbreviated as PVT


Earth Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) Coordinate System
WGS-84 Parameters
a = 6378137 m,
1/f = 298.257223563
Major Elements of a Satellite Navigation System
Principle of GPS
PRINCIPLE OF GPS
Distance measurement from one satellite
Distance measurements from two satellites
Distance measurements from three satellites
GPS GPS GPS GPS

C∆ TS1 C∆ TS2 C∆ TS3 C∆ TS4

R2 R3
R1 R4

USER C∆
Tu
C∆ TA4 C∆ TA1
C∆ TA3
C∆ TA2

PRINCIPLE OF GPS
Error in GPS Solution

(Error in GPS Solution) = (Geometry Factor) x


(Pseudorange error Factor) = GDOP X σUERE
GPS ERROR BUDGET
Sr. No.Error Source C/A code (1 σ Error in m) P code

1 Space Satellite Clock 3.0 3.0


stability
Selective Availability 0.0 0.0

Others 1.0 1.0


2 Control Ephemeris Error 4.5 4.5
Others 1.0 1.0
3 User Ionospheric Delay 25.0 2.0
Tropospheric Delay 3.0 3.0

Multipath 3.0 3.0


Receiver Noise 0.5 0.5
UERE 26.0 7.5
Horizontal Accuracy (95%) 80 22.5
Vertical Accuracy (95%) 105 30.0
Types of Receiver and Techniques

• Single Frequency SPS Navigation Rx


• Dual Frequency PPS Rx
• DGPS Rx
• WAAS Rx
• Land Survey Rx
• Timing Rx
• Ionospheric Rx
• Occultation Rx
Principle of Differential GPS (DGPS)
• It Can be observed from the Table above that, GPS by itself
cannot provide Cat I Precision Service.
• An alternative is a Technique called Differential GPS (DGPS).
• In DGPS, a Reference GPS Receiver is kept at well surveyed
point, within about 50 kms of the user who may be in Land, Sea
or Air.
• The Reference Receiver Coordinates are determined to an
accuracy better than 1m, in WGS-84 Spheroid.
• The Reference receiver calculates the difference between the
measured Pseudoranges, for all visible GPS satellites and
calculated Pseudorange from the known coordinates and
Navigation Data.
• This difference is the error in Pseudorange measurements, ΔR
which includes all the errors like Ephemeris, clock, Ionopshere
and Troposphere lumped together.
Principle of Differential GPS (DGPS)
Principle of Differential GPS (DGPS)

• This correction, ΔR for all the visible satellites are transmitted


via VHF Link to the user.
• The user carries out Pseudorange measurements to all the
visible GPS satellites.
• It applies correction, ΔR to the pseudorange observations and
then computes its position.
• Since the Reference station and the user are in the
neighbourhood, the pseudorange errors are same for both
receivers
• Thus User Pseudorange observations are free from errors to
some extent and the position computed will be more accurate
Principle of Differential GPS Used IN Land Survey
DGPS for Land Survey
Hand Held Differential GPS Receiver
DGPS ERROR BUDGET
Sr. No. Error Source C/A code (1 σ Error in m)
GPS 40 KM 100 Km 500 Km

1 Space Satellite Clock stability 3.0 0.0 0.0 1.5

Selective Availability 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


Others 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0
2 Control Ephemeris Error 4.5 0.0 1.0 2.0
Others 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0
3 User Ionospheric Delay 25.0 0.0 5.0 20.0
Tropospheric Delay 3.0 0.0 0.0 2.0
Multipath 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Receiver Noise 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
UERE 26.0 1.2 5.2 20.0
Horizontal Accuracy (95%) 80 3.6 15 60
Vertical Accuracy (95%) 105 4.8 20 80
Planned Modernization of GPS Signals

Current frequency Plan Planned Frequency Capabilities


(additional)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Carrier frequencies Additional civilian frequency 6 dB higher power
relative to L1

L1 : 1575.42 MHz L5 : 1176.45 MHz 20 MHz broadcast


bandwidth
L2 : 1227.60 MHz (safety-of-life service frequency Improved signal cross
protection (ARNS-band)) correlation

Code frequencies ME code (L1/L2) M-code designed to


(pseudorandom) enhance system security

P-code: 10.23 MHZ (on L1/L2) to improve anti-jamming

Code frequencies (gold code) Dual freq. ionosphere


C/A-code:1.023MHz(onL1) C/A code on L2(1127.60MHz) correction (improved)
UERE and better
accuracy)
Navigation message
Ephemeris, SV clock parameters On L1, L2 and L5
ionospheric parameters, SV health
On L1 and L2
Basic Details on GPS, Glonass, Galileo
Constellation GPS GLONASS GALILEO
Total Satellites 24+3 24 (4 Opr) 27+3
Orbital Period 12 hrs 11hrs 15min 14Hrs 22min
Orbital planes 6 3 3
Orbital height (km) 20200 19100 23616
Sat. In each plane 4 8 10
Inclination 55 deg 64.8 deg 56 deg
Plane Separation 60 deg 120 deg 120 deg
Frequency 1575.42MHz 1246 - 1257 MHz 1164 - 1300 MHz
1227.6MHz 1602 - 1616 MHz 1559 - 1591 MHz
Modulation CDMA FDMA CDMA
Beidou ( Chinese Satellite Navigation System)

• Beidou system consists of two geo-synchronous satellites in space and a third


used as back up, a control centre located at Beijing and number of monitoring
and calibration stations on ground distributed through out China and the Beidou
positioning receivers.

• Beidou system is fully operational in early 2004.

• Similar to that of the Geostar regional navigation system. - Radio determination


satellite service (RDSS)

• Besides positioning, the system can perform two way data communication.

• Users can determine their position and also transmit messages to each other.

• Accuracy (H – about 100 meters, T accuracy < 100 ns)


Principle of Beidou
COMPASS (Future Chinese Satellite Navigation
System)

• Compass is the Chinese own Satellite Navigation System planned

• 5 GEO + 30 MEO satellites

• Aims to provide two navigation services viz.

1. Open service with 10 m position, 0.2 m/sec velocity and 50 ns timing accuracies

2. Authorised service, which will offer safer better position, velocity and timing accuracy
to authorised users only.

• Already four test satellites in Geo orbits called Beidou launched


Principle of IRNSS

GEOs at
32,83,134

GSOs at GSOs at
55 111

IRNSS User
IRNSS Ranging &
Monitoring Station
IRNSS Ranging &
Monitoring Station

IRNSS MCC
IRNSS Telemetry &
Command stattion
IRNSS Satellite Constellation
IRNSS Error Budget

SYSTEM IRNSS(D)
Error (1 sigma)
EPH 5.0
Clock 2.0
Ionosphere 2.2
Troposphere 0.2
Rx. Noise 0.6
Multipath 1.5
UERE(m) 6.1
HDOP 3.0
VDOP 3.0
Pos. Accu.-H(m) ~18.3

Pos. Accu.-V(m) ~18.3


“GAGAN” – FUTURE
AIRCRAFT
NAVIGATION IN
INDIA
GPS & WAAS ERROR BUDGET FOR C/A
CODE RECEIVERS
Error Source GPS WAAS LAAS EGNOS GAGAN

1 σ Error in m
Total SIS URE (Space 3.0 0.5 0.20 0.65 0.65
& Control segment
Errors
Ionospheric Delay 25 0.2 0.02 0.50 0.50

Tropospheric Delay 3.0 0.2 0.02 0.20 0.20

Receiver Noise + 0.5 0.5 0.50 0.50 0.50


Multipath
UERE 26 0.7 0.50 1.00 1.00

Horizontal Accuracy 80 2.1 1.50 3.00 3.00


(95%)
PRINCIPLE OF WAAS
Present STATUS OF US WAAS
• INMARSAT has launched four INMARSAT III satellites with CXL and CXC
payload for WAAS implementation

• INMARSAT has launched advanced INMARSAT IV satellites, carrying


CxL1 and CxL5 payloads

• US has tested WAAS over US airspace using 2 INMARSAT III satellites


over AOR-E & AOR-W

• The performance meets Cat I Accuracy, Integrity, Availability and


Continuity requirements under magnetically quiet Ionospheric conditions

• It is not yet Operational over US.

• It is used by Civilians for other applications


Present Status of WADGPS in other countries

• Canada is planning to implement CWAAS, on lines similar to US


WAAS, over Canadian Airspace

• In Europe, the European Tripartite Group (ETG), Consisting of


European Space Agency (ESA), Commission of European
Union (CEU) & Eurocontrol is testing WADPGS, known as
EGNOS, over European airspace, using INMARSAT III
satellites AOR-E & IOR.

• It is not yet Operational over Europe

• Japan is testing MTSAT Satellite based Augmentation System


(MSAS), with two GSOs over Japan.
What is GAGAN ?

• GAGAN stands for GPS Aided Geostationary satellite Augmented


Navigation

• It is a Joint program between ISRO and AAI (Airport Authority of India) to


implement WADGPS over Indian Airspace.

• It has two Phases viz.

1. Technology Demonstration System (GAGAN TDS)

2. Final Operational System (GAGAN FOP)


GEO
GEO GEO Ranging
GPS +Integrity message
+WAD correction GPS

L1
C2
C1
L2 L1
L1/L2 L1/C2
L1
(GPS) (GEO) L2
L1 (GEO)

INRES

L
GEO
C1 GEO
C2

INLUS 1
INLUS 2
INMCC
Elements of GAGAN
PRESENT SERVICE COVERAGE FOR WAAS,
EGNOS & PROPOSED MSAS
Present Service Coverage for WAAS, EGNOS,
MSAS
And Proposed INSAT Nav Payload Coverage

INSAT Coverage 74 & 93.5 E

3 Satellite Coverage
CONFIGURATION OF TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION
SYSTEM

• 8 INRES (Indian Reference Stations)

• 1 INMCC (Indian Master Control Centre)

• 1 INLUS (Indian Navigation Land Uplink Station)

• Navigation Payload (L1 & L5) for GEO

• Aircraft WAAS Receivers for demonstration

• Communication links between INRES & INMCC

• TEC Network (18 Stations) for IONO Correction


INRES

• INRES (Indian Reference Station) are GPS Tracking stations, set up at


well surveyed points, whoso coordinates in WGS-84 are well known.

• They have mainly an Atomic Clock and redundant (atleast three) GPS
Dual Frequency Receivers.

• The Receivers collect Pseudorange and Carrier Phase measurements


at Dual frequencies and transmit the data in real time to INMCC
(Indian Master Control Centre)

• Either a Fibre Optic cable or a Vsat terminal is used for Data


Transmission
Bangalore INRES Facility
INMCC

• INMCC collects GPS data transmitted from all the INRES in


the network in real time.
• They process the data to compute

1. GPS Ephemeris and Clock Errors


2. Intergrity
3. Parameters GIVD (Grid Ionospheric Vertical Delay) and GIVE
(Grid Ionospheric Vertical Error) in a 50 by 50 over Indian
region to correct Ionospheric delay

• Sends the data to a Navigation Land Earth Station (NLES)


INLUS

• INLUS received the WADGPS Correction data from INMCC

• It suitable formats the data and transmits to a Geostationary


Satellite (GSAT-4 in GAGAN)

• It transmits the data in C Band and receives back in C Band the


stored data in the Satellite

• It verifies the Data for its validity


11 Mtr Antenna with Prime Focus
Feed
GSAT-4 Satellite

• GSAT-4 Satellite, to be yet launched will be placed at 840 E

• It will carry two CXL and one CXC bent pipe Transponder

• The two CXL Transponders are CXL1 and CXL5


Major Challenge in GAGAN
• The major Challenge in GAGAN is to bring down the error due
to Ionosphere to less than 0.5 m, using Grid Based Models.
Worldwide TEC during Near-Solar
Maximum Conditions
21 August 2001 (from JPL)
Atmospheric Effects on L Band Signals Transmitted from
Navigation Satellites
Ionosphere causes
1. Additional Group Delay or Absolute Range Error
2. Carrier Phase Advance or Relative Range Error
3. Amplitude Scintillations
4. Phase Scintillations
5. Doppler Shift or Range rate Error
6. Faraday Rotation
7. Refraction or Bending
8. Distortion of Pulse waveforms

Troposphere causes
1. Tropospheric Refraction or Absolute Range Error
2. Amplitude Scintillations
Major Features of Equatorial Ionosphere over Indian Region

• India lies in Equatorial Anomaly region

• Ionospheric delay at L band are very high (50-60 m)

• It is highly variable with time and latitude (Dynamic)

• Behaviour is unpredictable

• Ionospheric scintillation is high

• Ionospheric Bubbles occur more frequently over the region

• Ionosphere influences accuracy, integrity, availability &


Continuity of service
IS
C
TE
GPS

ER H
IV IC
CE WH
R E IN
BY PS
D G
RE TO
IONOSPHERIC

SU ON
PIERCE

EA I
M ECT
POINTS

R
DI
T
VERTICAL

AN
DIRECTION IN WHICH

SL
TEC IS FIRST
COMPUTED FROM
SLANT TEC

Km CE
0 RFA
35 SU
’S
RTH USER
EA TEC RECEIVER AIRCRAFT
RECEIVER

50 BY 50 GRID POINT
NODES WHERE 50 BY 50 GRID
SLANT DIRECTION
VERTICAL TEC IS
TO GPS FROM USER
COMPUTED FROM
IN WHICH TEC IS
MEASUREMENTS
REQUIRED BY USER
AIRCRAFT

NOT TO SCALE

PRINCIPLE OF GRID BASED IONOSPHERIC MODEL


Present Status of GAGAN

• TDS has been completed successfully.

• Under benign Ionospheric conditions, the performance of


GAGAN is good enough to meet APV 1 service

• Ionospheric Scintillations that occur after sunset and till two


hours after midnight is still a problem over indian region

• FOP is being planned, to improve the performance of GAGAN


Principle of Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS)
Positioning Accuracy Hierarchy
GPS and Its Augmentations
Carrier Phase Code Phase
Measurements Measurements

SPS (1990 – 2000)


Autonomous

SPS (since 2000)

PPS

WADGPS
Differential

DGPS
Relative
Navigation

Surveying &
Geodesy

1 mm 1 cm 10 cm 1m 10 m 100 m

Position Error
Location Based Services (LBS)

• Location Based Services is a new and emerging service that has gathered
interest over the last few years.

• According to Wikipedia

“Location Based Services (LBS) are information and entertainment services


accessible with mobile devices through the mobile network and utilizing the
ability to make use of the Geographical position of the mobile device”

• A Satellite Navigation System (presently GPS) is used to provide the


geographical position

• The main advantage is that mobile users don't have to manually specify ZIP
codes or other location identifiers to use LBS, when they roam into a
different location.
Location Based Services (LBS)

• Location Based Services are services for providing information that has
been created, compiled, selected or filtered tacking into consideration
the current locations of the users or those of other persons or mobile
objects (*)

• Why are they attractive ?

1. Not have to enter location information manually


2. They are automatically pinpointed and tracked
3. The positioning is the key technology
4. GPS tracking is a major ingredient for making it possible, utilizing access
to mobile web.

• They are an example of Telecommunication Convergence.

(*) Axel Kupper, Location Based Services – Fundamentals and Operation,


John Wiley & Sons
LBS as an intersection of Different technologies
Basic Elements of LBS Terminal

• LBS User Terminal basically contains

1. A mobile Wireless Transmitter and Receiver (A Mobile Phone) that can provide Voice and
Data services

2. A Satellite Navigation Receiver like a GPS Receiver

3. A GIS Data Base available for access on Internet at Base Station nearby through A
Communication Network

4. The Data base will contain a Digital terrain Map, containing locations (positions) of
Restaurents, Hospitals, Police Stations, Petrol Pumps, Residential Addresses etc on the Map
Basic Components of LBS
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Wireless Local Area Network
LBS Terminal delivering a map of the
environment and the position of the hiker.
Basic Functions of LBS Components
1. Mobile Devices :

• A tool for the user to request the needed information.

• The results can be given by speech, using pictures, text and so on. Possible devices are
PDA's, Mobile Phones, Laptops,

• ... but the device can also be a navigation unit of car or a toll box for road pricing in a truck.

2. Communication Network (Gateway) :

• The second component is the mobile network

• which transfers the user data and service request from the mobile terminal to the service
provider

• and then the requested information back to the user.


Basic Functions of LBS Components
3. Positioning Component :

• For the processing of a service, usually the user position has to be determined.

• The user position can be obtained either by using the mobile communication
network

• or by using the Global Positioning System (GPS).

• Further possibilities to determine the position

• are WLAN stations, active badges or radio beacons.

• The latter positioning methods can be especially used for indoor navigation like
in a museum.

• If the position is not determined automatically it can be also specified manually


by the user.
Basic Functions of LBS Components

4. Service and Application Provider :

• The service provider offers a number of different services to


the user and is responsible for the service request processing.

• Such services offer

1. The calculation of the position,

2. Finding a route,

3. Searching yellow pages with respect to position

4. or searching specific information on objects of user interest


(e.g. a bird in wild life park) and so forth.
Basic Functions of LBS Components

5. Data and Content Provider :

• Service providers will usually not store and maintain all the
information which can be requested by users.

• Therefore geographic base data and location information data


will be usually requested from

1. The maintaining authority (e.g. mapping agencies) or

2. Business and industry partners (e.g. yellow pages, traffic


companies)
Typical Data Flow in an LBS
1. User queries his LBS Terminal such as “Where is the nearest shopping Mall ?” in
the User LBS

2. The User LBS computes its present location using GPS

3. The User LBS searches the GIS data Base stored in that for the desired information.

4. If not available, it sends the query along with its position to nearest Base Station
(Gateway) and gets the information from the LBS Server.

5. The User LBS Terminal displays the search results on a Map

6. The User seeks route guidance to the selected Shopping Mall ?

7. The LBS Terminal calculates the possible routes taking into consideration various
factors such as : shortest distance, shortest travel time, one-ways etc.

8. The LBS Terminal provides route guidance through voice prompt such as “ Slow
Down and turn left in the next cross roads, go straight etc” till the destination is
reached.
LBS Components & Information Flow
Question and answer model of the cartographic
information processes
User Activities – Step 1

• Questions : Where am I ? where is {person|object}?


• Action : Orientation & localisation, Locating
• Operations : Positioning, Geocoding,
User Activities – Step 2

• Questions : how do I get to {place name| address| xy} ?


• Action : Navigation, Navigating through space, Planning a route
• Operations : Positioning, Geocoding, Routing
User Activities – Step 3

• Questions : where is the {nearest |most relevant | & {person


| object}?
• Action : Search, Searching for people and objects
• Operations : Positioning, Geocoding, Calculating distance and
area, Finding relationships
User Activities – Step 4

• Questions : what happens {here | there}?


• Action : Event check, Checking for events; Determining
the state of objects
LBS Application Categories
Application Sceanarios

• Turn by turn Navigation to any address

• Enquiry & Information Services : Provide the users with nearby


points of interest such as ATM, Restaurent, Hospital etc.

• Community Services : Enable users that share a common


interest to join together in a closed loop.

• Traffic Telematics : To support Car drivers by providing


Navigation and information

• Fleet Management & Logistics : Control and Management of


entire fleets of vehicles by a central office (Public
Transportation, Emergence Services)
Application Sceanarios

• Mobile marketing & mobile gaming : Application that provides an added value
services like Location Based advertisements

• Toll Systems.

• Enhanced Emergency Services.

• Locating people on a map displayed on the mobile phone

• Receiving alerts such as Traffic Jam, sale of Products etc

• Mobile messaging
Application Sceanarios

• For the carrier, location-based services provide added value by


enabling services such as:

1. Resource tracking with dynamic distribution. Taxis, service people,


rental equipment, doctors, fleet scheduling.
2. Resource tracking. Objects without privacy controls, using passive
sensors or RF tags, such as packages and train boxcars.
3. Finding someone or something. Person by skill (doctor), business
directory, navigation, weather, traffic, room schedules, stolen
phone, emergency calls.
4. Proximity-based notification (push or pull). Targeted advertising,
buddy list, common profile matching (dating), automatic airport
check-in.
5. Proximity-based actuation (push or pull). Payment based upon
proximity (EZ pass, toll watch).
Application Sceanarios in US

• In the US the FCC requires that all carriers meet certain criteria
for supporting location-based services (FCC 94-102).

• The mandate requires 95% of handsets to resolve within 300


meters for network-based tracking (e.g. triangulation) and 150
meters for handset-based tracking (e.g. GPS).

• This can be especially useful when dialling an Emergency


TElephone Number - such as Enhanced 9-1-1 in North America,
or 112 in Europe - so that the operator can dispatch emergency
services such as Emergency Medical services, police or
firefighters to the correct location.

• Companies such as Rave Wireless in New York are using GPS


and triangulation to enable college students to notify campus
police, when they are in trouble.
Application Sceanarios - Mobile Messaging

• Mobile messaging plays an essential role in LBS.

• Messaging, especially SMS, has been used in combination with


various LBS applications, such as location-based mobile
advertising.

• SMS is still the main technology carrying mobile advertising /


marketing campaigns to mobile phones.

• A classic examples of LBS applications using SMS is the


delivery of mobile coupons or discounts to mobile subscribers
who are near to advertising restaurants, cafes, movie theatres.

• The Singaporean mobile operator MobileOne has carried out


such an initiative in 2007 that involved many local marketers,
what was reported to be a huge success in terms of subscriber
acceptance.
Task Oriented Services

• As per a Research Conducted by iCrossings, most


US mobile Internet users are interested in task-
oriented content.

• Users picked maps, weather, local information and


news above entertainment and sports as the content
categories they searched (i.e. more task oriented
usages compared to generic info based ones)
Application – Example 1
Search & Rescue
Application – Example 2
Emergency Services

• One of the most evident applications of LBS is the ability to locate,

• An individual who is either unaware of his/her exact location or is


not able to reveal it because of an emergency situation

• (Like injury, criminal attack, and so on).

• E.g. motorists are often unaware of their exact location when their
vehicle breaks down.

• With the exact location automatically transferred to the emergency


services the assistance can be provided quickly and efficiently.
Application – Example 2
Emergency Services

• This category includes

• public and private emergency services for both pedestrians and drivers.

• While public emergency services for calling out

• fire-fighters, medical teams, etc., are currently being mostly regulated by


public organisations

• the emergency roadside assistance for drivers appears to be

• one of the most promising of the assistance services in terms of operator


revenue.
Application – Example 3
Car Navigation

• Car Navigation needs for directions within their current geographical


location.

• The ability of a mobile network to locate the exact position of a mobile


user can be manifested in a series of navigation-based services.

• By positioning a mobile phone,

• An operator can let the user know exactly where they are

• As well as give him/her detailed directions about how to get to a desired


destination.

• In most of the current car navigation systems, other information than


routing functionalities and the road databases are not in the mobile
device.

• The user gets the pre-calculated route via the mobile network connection
Application – Example 3
Car Navigation
Application – Example 4
Information Services
• Finding the nearest service,

• Accessing traffic news,

• Getting help with navigating in an unfamiliar city,

• obtaining a local street map

• – these are just a few of the many location based services.

• Location-sensitive information services mostly refer to the digital


distribution of information

• based on device location, time specificity and user behaviour.


Application – Example 4
Information Services

• Example : WebPark LBS with presentation of habitats of


different plants and animals
Application – Example 5
Tracking & Management Services
• Tracking services can be equally applicable both to the consumer and
the corporate markets.

• One popular example refers to tracking postal packages so that


companies know where their goods are at any time.

• Vehicle tracking can also be applied to locating and dispatching an


ambulance that is nearest to a given call.

• A similar application allows companies to locate their field personnel


(for example, salespeople and repair engineers) so that they are able,
for example, to dispatch the nearest engineer and provide their
customers with accurate personnel arrival times.

• Finally, the newfound opportunity to provide accurate product tracking


within the supply chain offers new possibilities to mobile supply chain
management (m-SCM) applications
Application – Example 6
Augmented Reality

• In the next decade, researchers plan to pull graphics out of the phone
or computer display and integrate them into real-world environments.

• This new technology, called augmented reality, will further blur the line
between what's real and what's computer-generated by enhancing what
we see, hear, feel and smell.

• Other than in virtual environments, in augmented reality, the user can


see the real world around him, with computer graphics superimposed or
composed with the real world.

• Instead of replacing the real world it is supplemented.

• So called "see-through“ devices, usually worn on the head, overlay


graphics and text on the user's view of his or her surroundings.
Application – Example 6
Augmented Reality
Challenges in LBS

• One of the most significant challenge in LBS is


privacy.

• Users need to opt-in to use the service.

• Apart from piracy, most of the users will not be


comfortable with “somebody” tracking their behavior
(whereabouts, consumer behaviors, and financial
transactions, mobile usage etc).
Mobile Devices

• LBS devices can be distinguished into two Categories :

1. A single purpose device is for instance a car navigation box, a toll


box or a emergency remote for old or handicapped people.

• As well part of that category are devices which call service engineers
or rescue teams.

• But also more advanced systems like augmented reality systems -


which might be used by a state inspector for bridges and other
buildings - belong to it.

2. Multi purpose devices will be used by a broad number of people


and will be part of our everyday life.

• Such devices can be mobile phones, smart phones, Personal digital


Assistants (PDA’s) but also Laptops and Tablet PC’s.
LBS in India

• According to industry estimates, 40-50% of handsets sold today


are GPRS-enabled. Even then, few people who own GPRS sets
use them to access the Internet.

• Apart from the low internet usage in mobile devices, LBS in India
has not yet taken off in a big way because of the following reasons:

1. Lack of reliable GIS data : volatile infrastructure, lack of fine


grained deterministic data

2. Limited and ever changing Infrastructure

3. Too many languages, location names do not follow any convention


(there is a formal name for a place and then, there is the commonly
used name.)

4. Cost/Maintenance of devices.
LBS Players in India

• BSNL has launched it’s Location Based service in East Zone and is
currently offering enterprise services as well as consumer services:

1. Enterprises can locate, monitor and manage their mobile assets and
employees in a secure way using a simple Web browser named ‘Real
time fleet and asset management’.

2. ‘Friend finder’ which alerts subscribers when one of their friends in their
buddy list is in close proximity to their location or vice versa.

3. ‘Location-based advertisement’, broadcasts advertisement/promotion


information to subscribers.

4. ‘Location-based chatting service’ that enables users to communicate


and/or meet someone with same interests within the same vicinity.
Categories of service

• Typical Location Based Services applications fall under following


categories:

1. B2B (Business to Business) : e.g. resource tracking (fleet


management, courier tracking etc)

2. C2B (Consumer to Business) , i.e. Proximity-based actuation


services like searching for a business/restaurant etc.

3. B2C (Business to Consumer), i.e. Proximity based notifications


(push/pull) : Receive targeted ads, location based billing/discounted
ads etc

4. C2C (Consumer to Consumer): Share your location/status with


friends, Track your friends etc.