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After the foundations have been completed the walls are set out and construction commences.

wall structures

Walls Walls can be classified in a number of ways:Solid Cavity Internal External Load bearing or Non load bearing Load bearing supporting roofs, floors etc. Non load bearing Dividing spaces

Main functions of walls 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Strength Stability Weather exclusion Thermal Insulation Sound Insulation Durability Fire resistance Appearance
Part of a cavity wall with the internal skin removed to expose the Insulation

Bonding of Brickwork / Blockwork

Bonding of brickwork is the arrangement of brickwork in a wall, column or pier which will give maximum overlap and no continuous vertical joints. The purpose of bonding is to:LOAD


2. 3.

Obtain maximum strength whilst distributing the loads carried by the walls. Ensure lateral stability and resistance to side thrusts. Create an acceptable appearance.
Possible settlement

Unbonded walls Comparatively weak and liable to fail under load or lateral thrust.

Bonding of Brickwork / Blockwork

Bonded wall load is distributed over the whole wall and has greater resistance to side thrust. Standard brick sizes
Length + one mortar joint =225mm
Width + one mortar joint =112.5mm Height + one mortar joint =75mm Mortar joint thickness = 10mm



Stretcher Bond
This is the simplest and most widely used bond. It is used for half brick walls and cavity walls. The bricks must lap over each other in successive courses in a fashion similar to the one shown below.

Half lapped

Formation of a corner in stretcher bond

bat to form stopped end


Return corner of a cavity wall in stretcher bond including wall ties and DPC Cavity Wall tie



Perpendicular mortar joint Horizontal mortar joint

Wall Ties
There are a large variety of different types of wall ties, but they all have two basic requirements of:(a) Tieing the outer and inner leaf of the cavity wall together.

(b) Prevent moisture passing from the outer to the inner skin of brickwork.

Most wall ties are currently made from stainless-steel or nylon.

Stainless-steel wire wall tie with plastic disc to hold sheet insulation in place.

Spacing of wall ties

Mortar droppings must not be allowed to accumulate on wall ties because this would form a bridge for water to pass from the outer to inner leaf.

The cavity should start 150mm below the lowest damp proof course. In facing brickwork every 4th vertical joint is left out at the base of the cavity to allow any build-up of moisture at the base of the cavity to escape.

Types of pointing

Curved Recessed

Struck or weathered

There are several types of pointing which can be used with facing brick, Curved recessed or ( pole jointed as it is commonly called in N. Ireland) is the most popular.

Cavity walls in block construction

A cavity wall consists of two brick thick leaves with a cavity between them. The outer leaf in conjunction with the cavity acts as a barrier to moisture. The Inner leaf supports most of the load from floors and the roof. If heavier loads than usual have to be supported the inner leaf can be built one brick thick or more. There is no need to increase the thickness of the outer leaf.
Section through a Cavity Wall


Wall tie

Outer leaf facing brick or block and render. D.P.C.

The two leaves of the wall must be tied together with Stainless-steel cavity wall ties.

Cavity walls in brick construction with insulation

This wall is similar in construction to the first cavity wall, the only exception being the inclusion of insulation. Wall ties are manufactured from stainless steel.
60mm thick insulation


Vertical DPC at window and door jambs


Timber stud walls

Stud partitions are still extensively used for internal walls of domestic buildings. These are non load bearing internal dividing walls which are easy to construct, lightweight, adaptable and can be clad and filled with various materials to give different finishes and properties.
Door opening

100 x 50 timber studs

Timber stud walls

General construction consists of 100 x 50mm or 100 x 75mm sole plate and head plate. Vertical members or studs made from 100 x 38mm or 100 x 50mm members are nailed in between at 400mm centres.
The spacing is to suit the plasterboard or other cladding material. Nogging or bridging pieces are inserted between the studs to stiffen the partition. The timber frame is then covered with Plaster Board plasterboard on both sides and finished with a 3 to 5mm coat of plaster. Door Section A A 100 x 50mm stud Architrave

Planted door stop 100 x 50mm stud

Timber stud walls

100 x 50mm head plate

Ceiling joist

Plaster board

Door opening

Floor joist 100 x 50mm sole plate 100 x 50mm studs at 400c/s